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PAUPER
Pauper

Description

PAUPER identifies persons classified as "paupers," the contemporary term for persons dependent upon charity or local welfare, such as an almshouse. The 1860 instructions to enumerators defined a pauper as a person who, at the time of enumeration or during the past year, was "so indigent or destitute of the means of support as to require the support of the community, obtained either by alms-begging or public maintenance, by taxation or poor fund." The rarity of affirmative responses indicates that pauperism was underreported.

Codes and Frequencies



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Comparability

Apart from the additional detail included in the 1860 instructions, this variable is comparable across years.

Universe

  • All persons.

Availability

United States
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  • 1860: All samples
  • 1850: All samples
Puerto Rico
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Flags

This variable has no flags.

Editing Procedure

There is no editing procedure available for this variable.