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Citation and Use of 1850-1860 PUMS Data

All persons are granted a limited license to use and distribute this documentation and the accompanying data, subject to the following conditions: 

  • No fee may be charged for use or distribution.

  • Publications and research reports based on the database must cite it appropriately. The citation should include the following:

Russell Menard, Trent Alexander, Jason Digman, and J. David Hacker
Minneapolis: Minnesota Population Center,
Public Use Microdata Samples of the Slave Population of 1850-1860
University of Minnesota, 2004
  • If possible, citations should also include the URL for the Slave PUMS site:
  • In addition, we request that users send us a copy of any publications, research reports, or educational material making use of the data or documentation. Printed matter should be sent to: 

    Minnesota Population Center
    University of Minnesota 
    614 Social Sciences 
    267 19th Avenue South 
    Minneapolis, MN 55455

    Send all electronic material to


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