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HIGRADE
Highest grade of schooling

Description

HIGRADE reports the highest grade of school attended or completed by the respondent. The general code reports the highest grade completed. The detailed codes for 1950-1980 identify persons who began but did not finish the next grade, or who were still attending that grade at census time. (The IPUMS variable SCHOOL, available for all years, identifies persons who attended school during each year. GRADEATT provides information on the grade people are currently attending (if applicable) for the 1990-onward period as well.)

EDUC provides a version of this information that is fully compatible across the 1940-onward period.

Codes and Frequencies




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Comparability

While this variable is generally comparable across years, some types of schooling counted in certain years and not others (see SCHOOL).

In 1940, 1950, and 1980, persons who attended ungraded schools or schools in foreign countries were instructed to estimate the American grade equivalent of their education (the 1980 Puerto Rican census form does not indicate for persons who attended ungraded schools or schools in foreign countries to estimate the American grade equivalent of their education). This is probably what respondents did in 1960 and 1970 as well, but they were not specifically instructed to do so. The 1980 form was the first to mention completing high school via an equivalency test (GED); persons who passed such an exam were to indicate that they had attended and completed the 12th grade.

Beginning in 1990, respondents were to report their "educational attainment," a concept not precisely comparable with that used for HIGRADE, especially for post-high school education. The IPUMS variable EDUC integrates HIGRADE with these later reports of educational attainment.

Universe

  • 1940: All persons.
  • 1950: Sample-line persons.
  • 1960: Persons age 5+.
  • 1970-1980: Persons age 3+.

Availability

United States
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  • 1990: --
  • 1980: All samples
  • 1970: All samples
  • 1960: All samples
  • 1950: All samples
  • 1940: All samples
  • 1930: --
  • 1920: --
  • 1910: --
  • 1900: --
  • 1880: --
  • 1870: --
  • 1860: --
  • 1850: --
Puerto Rico
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  • 1990: --
  • 1980: All samples
  • 1970: All samples
  • 1930: --
  • 1920: --
  • 1910: --

Flags

QEDUC 

Editing Procedure

There is no editing procedure available for this variable.