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EDUC
Educational attainment

Description

EDUC indicates respondents' educational attainment, as measured by the highest year of school or degree completed. Note that completion differs from the highest year of school attendance; for example, respondents who attended 10th grade but did not finish were classified in EDUC as having completed 9th grade. For additional detail on grade attendance, see GRADEATT as well as the detailed version of HIGRADE.

Codes and Frequencies




Can't find the category you are looking for? Try the Detailed codes

Comparability

In the 1940-1980 samples, all respondents were classified according to the highest year of school completed. Since 1990, this has been true only for respondents who have not completed high school; all high school graduates have been classified according to their highest degree earned. EDUC merges these two schemes by assigning each degree the number of years it typically takes: "2 years of college" for associate's degrees; "4 years of college" for bachelor's degrees; and "5+ years of college" for graduate and professional degrees.

This variable has both general and detailed versions. The general version collapses much of the detail available in each year, but is largely comparable across years. The exception is that the 1990 census form provided detailed directions on what types of degrees counted. Persons educated in un-graded or foreign schools were to estimate the American equivalent of their educational attainment. Vocational, trade, and business certificates were to be reported only if they were college-level degrees. The instructions specifically excluded barber and cosmetology schools and other training schools. Honorary degrees were not to be reported. The form for the 2000 census, the ACS and the PRCS provided examples of degrees that counted but did not specify what types of training should not be reported.

The detailed version includes all information in each year, but the dramatic changes over time in the measurement of educational attainment means that not all categories are available in each year. For example, the general code "5+ years of college" includes the following detailed codes: "6 years of college" (available only in 1960-1980); "7 years of college" and "8+ years of college" (available only in 1980); and "Master's degree", "Professional degree", and "Doctoral degree" (available only 1990 and onward). Users who perform case selection based on EDUC should carefully examine which codes are available in each year.

The detailed codes include "N/A or No Schooling", "N/A", and "No Schooling." Users should be aware that these codes are slightly different depending on the year. These differences result from varying age restrictions for each sample. To preserve detail in the original years, these codes are kept distinct. For 1950, people too young to attend school and those who never attended school are lumped together as code 000 'N/A or No Schooling'. For the other years, the N/A and "No Schooling" are coded as follows:

1960: Persons Younger than 5 coded 001 N/A
1970: Persons Younger than 3 coded 001 N/A
1980: Persons Younger than 4 coded 000 'N/A or No Schooling'
1990-onward: Persons Younger than 3coded N/A.

Universe

  • 1940: All persons.
  • 1950: Sample-line persons.
  • 1960-2000: All persons.
  • ACS, PRCS: All persons.

Availability

United States
  • 2016: All samples
  • 2015: All samples
  • 2014: All samples
  • 2013: All samples
  • 2012: All samples
  • 2011: All samples
  • 2010: ACS; ACS 3yr; ACS 5yr
  • 2009: All samples
  • 2008: All samples
  • 2007: All samples
  • 2006: All samples
  • 2005: All samples
  • 2004: All samples
  • 2003: All samples
  • 2002: All samples
  • 2001: All samples
  • 2000: All samples
  • 1990: All samples
  • 1980: All samples
  • 1970: All samples
  • 1960: All samples
  • 1950: All samples
  • 1940: All samples
  • 1930: --
  • 1920: --
  • 1910: --
  • 1900: --
  • 1880: --
  • 1870: --
  • 1860: --
  • 1850: --
Puerto Rico
  • 2016: All samples
  • 2015: All samples
  • 2014: All samples
  • 2013: All samples
  • 2012: All samples
  • 2011: All samples
  • 2010: PRCS; PRCS 3yr; PRCS 5yr
  • 2009: All samples
  • 2008: All samples
  • 2007: All samples
  • 2006: All samples
  • 2005: All samples
  • 2000: All samples
  • 1990: All samples
  • 1980: All samples
  • 1970: All samples
  • 1930: --
  • 1920: --
  • 1910: --

Flags

QEDUC 

Editing Procedure


SCHOOL (School attendance) GRADEATT (Grade level attending) EDUC (Educational attainment)

ACS Years: 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015

ACS editing procedure:

Note: In 2008, there was change to the editing procedures where groups of ages and grade levels that had previously been grouped together were addressed separately. For brevity, we detail the editing rules for the groups.

If all cases, the flag variables will indicate when the value was allocated (QSCHOOL, QGRADEAT, QEDUC).

If a person's age (AGE) is less than 3, SCHOOL, GRADEATT, and EDUC will all be replaced with "Not in universe."

The ACS asks if the person attended public or private school. This detail is not available in the IPUMS data. When the information on public or private school is missing, it will be allocated. When school enrollment is "Yes" and GRADEATT is not missing, the public/private value will be allocated from another person with a similar value for AGE and GRADATT. When school enrollment is "Yes" and educational attainment (EDUC) is not missing, the public/private value will be allocated from another person with the same value of EDUC. If the public/private value remains missing for someone with a "Yes" for school enrollment, it will be allocated from another person with a similar age.

For those who report not being in school, but do report attending a grade

If a person 18 or older (AGE) reports not being enrolled in school (SCHOOL), GRADEATT will be made "Not in universe." If a person 18 to 20 has a missing value for SCHOOL and reports being in Grade 8 or lower, SCHOOL and GRADEATT will both be replaced with a missing value. If a person 18 to 20 has a missing value for SCHOOL and reports being in Grade 9 or higher, SCHOOL will be allocated from someone with a similar age and value for GRADEATT.

If a person 21 or older has a missing value for SCHOOL and reports being in Grade 12 or lower, SCHOOL and GRADEATT will both be replaced with a missing value. If a person 21 or older has a missing value for SCHOOL and reports being college or higher, SCHOOL will be allocated from someone with a similar age and value for GRADEATT.

If a person 3 to 4 years old reports not attending school (SCHOOL), but reports being in nursery school or kindergarten (GRADEATT), SCHOOL will be allocated from someone with a similar age and value for GRADEATT. If a person 3 to 4 years old reports not attending school (SCHOOL) and reports being in a grade higher than kindergarten, GRADEATT will be replaced with "Not in universe."

If a person who is 5 years old reports not attending school (SCHOOL), but reports being in nursery school through fourth grade (GRADEATT), SCHOOL will be allocated from someone with a similar age and value for GRADEATT. If a person 5 years old reports not attending school (SCHOOL) and reports being in a grade higher than grade 5, GRADEATT will be replaced with "Not in universe."

If a person who is 6 to 7 years old reports not attending school (SCHOOL), but reports being in kindergarten through fourth grade (GRADEATT), SCHOOL will be allocated from someone with a similar age and value for GRADEATT. If a person 6 to 7 years old years old reports not attending school (SCHOOL) and reports being in a grade higher than grade 5 or in nursery school/preschool, GRADEATT will be replaced with "Not in universe." While not detailed here for brevity, beginning in 2008, ages 6 and 7 were no longer grouped for this step.

If a person who is 8 to 11 years old reports not attending school (SCHOOL), but reports being in grade 1 through grade 8 (GRADATT), SCHOOL will be allocated from someone with a similar age and value for GRADEATT. If a person 8 to 11 years old years old reports not attending school (SCHOOL) and reports being in a grade higher than grade 8 or in nursery school through kindergarten, GRADEATT will be replaced with "Not in universe." While not detailed here for brevity, beginning in 2008, ages 8 to 11 were no longer grouped for this step.

If a person who is 12 years old reports not attending school (SCHOOL), but reports being in grade 1 through grade 12 (GRADEATT), SCHOOL will be allocated from someone with a similar age and value for GRADEATT. If a person 12 years old years old reports not attending school (SCHOOL) and reports being in a grade higher than grade 12 or in nursery school through kindergarten, GRADEATT will be replaced with "Not in universe."

If a person who is 13-14 years old reports not attending school (SCHOOL), but reports being in grade 5 through grade 12 (GRADEATT), SCHOOL will be allocated from someone with a similar age and value for GRADEATT. If a person 13-14 years old years old reports not attending school (SCHOOL) and reports being in a grade higher than grade 12 or in nursery school through grade 4, GRADEATT will be replaced with "Not in universe." While not detailed here for brevity, beginning in 2008, ages 13 and 14 were no longer grouped for this step.

If a person who is 15 years old reports not attending school (SCHOOL), but reports being in grade 5 through undergraduate college (GRADEATT), SCHOOL will be allocated from someone with a similar age and value for GRADEATT. If a person 15 years old years old reports not attending school (SCHOOL) and reports being in graduate or professional school or in nursery school through grade 4, GRADEATT will be replaced with "Not in universe."

If a person who is 16 to 17 years old reports not attending school (SCHOOL), but reports being in grade 9 through grade 12 (GRADEATT) and educational attainment (EDUC) is grade 7 to grade 12 no degree or missing, SCHOOL will be allocated from someone with a similar age and value for GRADEATT. If a person who is 16 to 17 years old reports not attending school (SCHOOL), but reports being in college (GRADEATT) and educational attainment (EDUC) is high school graduate to associate degree, SCHOOL will be allocated from someone with a similar age and value for GRADEATT. If a person who is 16 to 17 years old reports not attending school (SCHOOL), but reports being in grade 9 through grade 12 (GRADEATT) and educational attainment (EDUC) is less than grade 6 or more than grade 12, GRADEATT will be replaced with "Not in universe." If a person who is 16 to 17 years old reports not attending school (SCHOOL), but reports being in college (GRADEATT) and educational attainment (EDUC) is less than a high school degree or more than an associate's degree, GRADEATT will be replaced with "Not in universe." If a person 16 to 17 years old years old reports not attending school (SCHOOL) and reports being in graduate or professional school, GRADEATT will be replaced with "Not in universe." While not detailed here for brevity, beginning in 2008, ages 16 and 17 were no longer grouped for this step.

For those whose age is inconsistent with grade attending

If a person has a "Yes" or a missing value for attending school and the grade they attend (GRADEATT) is inconsistent with their age, GRADEATT will be replaced with a missing value. While not detailed here for brevity, beginning in 2008, each age was addressed separately instead of being grouped together.

GRADEATT will be replaced with a missing value if:

  • A person is 3 to 4 years old and reports being in grade 1 or higher
  • A person is 5 years old reports being in grade 5 or higher
  • A person is 6-7 years old and reports being in nursery school, or grade 5 or higher
  • A person is 8-11 years old and reports being in nursey school, kindergarten, or grade 9 or higher
  • A person is 12 years old and reports being in nursey school, kindergarten, or grade 12 or higher
  • A person is 13-14 years old and reports being in lower than grade 4 or higher than grade 12
  • A person is 15-18 years old and reports being in lower than grade 4 and educational attainment (EDUC) is less than grade 4: both EDUC and GRADEATT will be replaced with missing values
  • A person is 15-18 years old and reports being in lower than grade 4 and educational attainment (EDUC) is grade 5 or higher or missing
  • A person is 15-18 years old and reports being in graduate school
  • A person is over 19 and reports being in less than grade 4 and EDUC is less than grade 4: SCHOOL will be replaced with "No" and GRADEATT will be replaced with a missing value
  • A person is over 19 and reports being in less than grade 4 and EDUC is grade 5 or higher or missing
For those whose age is inconsistent educational attainment

If a person's educational attainment (EDUC) is inconsistent with their age, EDUC will be replaced with a missing value. While not detailed here for brevity, beginning in 2008, each age was addressed separately instead of being grouped together.

EDUC will be replaced with a missing value if:

  • A person is 3-7 years old and EDUC is greater than grade 4
  • A person is 8-9 years old, and EDUC is greater than grade 6
  • A person is 10-11 years old, and EDUC is greater than grade 8
  • A person is 12 years old and EDUC is greater than grade 9
  • A person is 13 years old and EDUC is greater than grade 10
  • A person is 14 years old and EDUC is greater than grade 11
  • A person is 15 years old and EDUC is greater than "Some college, no degree"
  • A person is 16-18 years old and EDUC is greater than "Associates degree in college"
  • A person is 19 years old and EDUC is greater than "Bachelor's degree"
  • A person is 20 years old and EDUC is greater than "Master's degree"
For those whose grade attending is inconsistent with educational attainment

While not detailed here for brevity, beginning in 2008, each grade level was addressed separately instead of being grouped together.

If grade attending (GRADEATT) is between grade 1 and grade 4, and educational attainment (EDUC) is greater than grade 4, EDUC will be replaced with a missing value for those 8 to 10 years old and GRADEATT will be replaced with missing for those 11 to 12 years old.

If grade attending (GRADEATT) is between grade 5 and grade 8:

  • If educational attainment (EDUC) is "No schooling completed" and AGE is between 8 and 12, EDUC will be replaced with a missing value
  • If educational attainment (EDUC) less than grade 5, and AGE is between 13 and 15, EDUC will be replaced with a missing value
  • If educational attainment (EDUC) greater than grade 8, and AGE is between 8 and 14, EDUC will be replaced with a missing value
  • If educational attainment (EDUC) is equal to grade 9 and AGE is 15, GRADATT will be replaced with a missing value
  • If educational attainment (EDUC) is greater than grade 9 and AGE is 15, EDUC will be replaced with a missing value
  • If educational attainment (EDUC) is greater than grade 8 and AGE is 16-17, GRADEATT will be replaced with a missing value.
  • If educational attainment (EDUC) is less than grade 5 and AGE is 16-17, EDUC will be replaced with a missing value.

  • If educational attainment (EDUC) is less than grade 4 and AGE is 18+, EDUC will be replaced with a missing value.

  • If educational attainment (EDUC) is greater than grade 8 and AGE is 18+, GRADEATT will be replaced with a missing value.

If grade attending (GRADEATT) is grade 9 to grade 12:

  • If EDUC is less than grade 4 and AGE is 12-13, EDUC will be replaced with a missing value
  • If EDUC is grade 5- grade 6, and AGE is 12-13, GRADEATT will be replaced with a missing value
  • If EDUC is less than grade 7 and AGE is 14 to 17, EDUC will be replaced with a missing value
  • If EDUC is greater than "Associates degree" and AGE is 14-17, EDUC will be replaced with a missing value
  • If EDUC is less than grade 7 and AGE is 18+, EDUC will be replaced with a missing value
  • If EDUC is greater than "Associate degree" and AGE is 18-20, EDUC will be replaced with a missing value.

  • If EDUC is greater than "Associate degree" and AGE is 21+, GRADEATT will be replaced with a missing value

If grade attending (GRADEATT) is "College undergraduate years":

  • If EDUC is less than grade 7 and AGE is 14-15, EDUC will be replaced with a missing value
  • If EDUC is grade 7 through grade 12 (no diploma) and AGE is 14-15, GRADEATT will be replaced with a missing value.
  • If EDUC is less than grade 9 and AGE is 16 to 17, EDUC will be replaced with a missing value
  • If EDUC is grade 9 through grade 12 (no diploma), and AGE is 16-17, GRADEATT will be replaced with a missing value
  • IF EDUC is less than grade 9 and AGE is 18+, EDUC will be replaced with a missing value

If grade attending is graduate school or professional school

  • If EDUC is less than high school graduate and AGE is 18+, make SCHOOL "No" and GRADATT "Not in universe"
  • If EDUC is high school graduate through "1+ years of college, no degree" and AGE is 18+, GRADEATT will be replaced with a missing value
  • If EDUC is "Associates degree" and AGE is 18+, GRADEATT will be replaced with "College undergraduate years"

If school enrollment (SCHOOL) is "Yes" but GRADEATT is missing:

While not detailed here for brevity, beginning in 2008, each age was addressed separately instead of being grouped together.

  • If AGE is 8 to 12 and EDUC is "No school completed," EDUC will be replaced with a missing value
  • If AGE is 13 to 18 and EDUC is less than grade 4, EDUC will be replaced with a missing value
  • If AGE is 19+ and EDUC is less than grade 4, SCHOOL will be replaced with "No"

Starting in 2010, if a person was interview during non-summer months, reports attending grade 12, and EDUC is high school diploma or GED, both GRADEATT and EDUC will be replaced with a missing value.

Allocating the missing values

If AGE is 3+ and SCHOOL is missing and GRADEATT is not missing, SCHOOL will be allocated from another person with a similar AGE and GRADEATT. If EDUC is missing, EDUC will be allocated from another person with a similar AGE and GRADEATT.

If AGE is 3+ and SCHOOL and GRADEATT are both missing, they will be allocated from another person with similar values for AGE, EDUC, and HISPAN. If SCHOOL, GRADEATT, and EDUC are all missing, they will be allocated from another person with similar values for EMPSTAT, OCC, AGE, RACE, and HISPAN.

If AGE is 3+ and SCHOOL is "Yes," GRADEATT is non-missing, but EDUC is missing, EDUC will be allocated from another person with similar values for AGE and GRADEATT. If AGE is 3+ and SCHOOL is "Yes," EDUC is non-missing, and GRADEATT is missing, GRADEATT will be allocated from another person with similar values for AGE and EDUC. If AGE is 3+ and SCHOOL is "Yes," EDUC and GRADEATT are both is missing, they will be allocated from another person with similar values for AGE, RACE, HISPAN, EMPSTAT, and OCC.

If AGE is 3+ and SCHOOL is "No," GRADEATT is "Not in Universe," and EDUC is missing, EDUC will be allocated from another person with similar values for AGE, RACE, HISPAN, EMPSTAT, and OCC.

Internal ACS variable : SCH SCHG SCHL