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SCHOOL
School attendance

Description

SCHOOL indicates whether the respondent attended school during a specified period.

Codes and Frequencies



Can't find the category you are looking for? Try the Detailed codes

Comparability

In 1900, enumerators were instructed to ask the question only of persons "of school age." Because this is vague, the IPUMS does not include an N/A category in this year. In 1910 and 1920 U.S. censuses, the question applied to persons age 5 to 21, but enumerators were to record "yes" for persons outside this range if they actually did attend school. In essence, the universe was all persons in these years. Since every person who did attend school should have given a positive response in the U.S. censuses of 1910 and 1920, blank responses are interpreted as "no."

The Puerto Rican censuses of 1910 and 1920 are arranged slightly differently. In 1910, the question applies to persons age 5-18 as well as to any other person who attended school since September 1st 1909. In 1920, the question applies to persons age 5-21 as well as to any other person who attended school since September 1st, 1919. Thus, the N/A category in the 1910 and 1920 Puerto Rican censuses for SCHOOL is restricted by age and school attendance, whereas in the U.S. census samples for 1910 and 1920 there is no N/A category.

In addition to universe shifts, definitions of school attendance varied in two ways, as follows:

  • Time of attendance: A person was to have attended or been enrolled in school within a certain time span to be counted as having attended school:
Year Census day School referent Approx. period
1850-1900 June 1 within the past year 12 months
1910   April 15   September 1   7.5 months  
1920   January 1   September 1   4 months  
1930   April 1   September 1   6 months  
1940   April 1   March 1   1 month  
1950-2000   April 1   February 1   2 months  
ACS     past 3 months   3 months  
  • Type of schooling: Over the years, the Census Bureau fine-tuned the definition of what constituted "schooling." Some of the terminological changes, such as adding the term "university" in 1940 and 1950 (it was subsequently dropped), probably made little or no practical difference, but others may be more significant. The following is a list of how "school" was defined in each year:
  • 1850: any educational institution except Sunday schools.
  • 1860-1880: any school except Sunday or evening schools.
  • 1900: any school (not further defined).
  • 1910 and 1920: any school, college, or educational institution.
  • 1930: any school, college, or educational institution; include attendance at night school.
  • 1940 and 1950: any school, college, university, or educational institution. Night school, extension classes, and vocational training counted only if part of the "regular school system." A "regular school system" advances a person toward an elementary or high school diploma or a college, university, or professional degree. Correspondence courses did not count.
  • 1960: any kindergarten or elementary school, and any schooling leading toward a high school diploma or college degree. Nursery school, business or trade school, and adult education classes did not to count.
  • 1970: any educational nursery school (not simply custodial child care), kindergarten, elementary school, and any schooling leading toward a high school diploma or college degree.
  • 1980-2000, 2000-onward ACS, 2005-onward PRCS: any nursery school, kindergarten, elementary school, and any schooling leading toward a high school diploma or college degree. (Other types of schooling counted only if a regular elementary school, high school, or college would have accepted it for credit. Home schooling was explicitly included starting in the 2008 ACS/PRCS.)

Universe

  • 1850-1910: All persons (but see comparability section). Not available in the 1880 100% database.
  • 1910 Puerto Rico: Persons 5-18 years of age; also any other person who attended school since September 1st, 1909.
  • 1920: All persons (but see comparability section).
  • 1920 Puerto Rico: Persons 5-21 years of age; also any other person who attended school since September 1st, 1919.
  • 1930-1940: All persons (but see comparability section).
  • 1930 Puerto Rico: Persons 5-21 years of age; also any other person who attended school since September 1st, 1919.
  • 1950: Sample-line persons under age 30.
  • 1960: Persons 5-34 years of age.
  • 1970: Persons age 3+; not available for Puerto Rico.
  • 1980: All persons.
  • 1990-2000: Persons age 3+.
  • ACS, PRCS: Persons age 3+.

Availability

United States
  • 2016: All samples
  • 2015: All samples
  • 2014: All samples
  • 2013: All samples
  • 2012: All samples
  • 2011: All samples
  • 2010: ACS; ACS 3yr; ACS 5yr
  • 2009: All samples
  • 2008: All samples
  • 2007: All samples
  • 2006: All samples
  • 2005: All samples
  • 2004: All samples
  • 2003: All samples
  • 2002: All samples
  • 2001: All samples
  • 2000: All samples
  • 1990: All samples
  • 1980: All samples
  • 1970: 1% state fm2; 1% metro fm2; 1% neigh fm2
  • 1960: All samples
  • 1950: All samples
  • 1940: All samples
  • 1930: All samples
  • 1920: All samples
  • 1910: All samples
  • 1900: All samples
  • 1880: 1%; 10%
  • 1870: All samples
  • 1860: All samples
  • 1850: All samples
Puerto Rico
  • 2016: All samples
  • 2015: All samples
  • 2014: All samples
  • 2013: All samples
  • 2012: All samples
  • 2011: All samples
  • 2010: PRCS; PRCS 3yr; PRCS 5yr
  • 2009: All samples
  • 2008: All samples
  • 2007: All samples
  • 2006: All samples
  • 2005: All samples
  • 2000: All samples
  • 1990: All samples
  • 1980: All samples
  • 1970: --
  • 1930: All samples
  • 1920: All samples
  • 1910: All samples

Flags

QSCHOOL 

Editing Procedure


SCHOOL (School attendance) GRADEATT (Grade level attending) EDUC (Educational attainment)

ACS Years: 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015

ACS editing procedure:

Note: In 2008, there was change to the editing procedures where groups of ages and grade levels that had previously been grouped together were addressed separately. For brevity, we detail the editing rules for the groups.

If all cases, the flag variables will indicate when the value was allocated (QSCHOOL, QGRADEAT, QEDUC).

If a person's age (AGE) is less than 3, SCHOOL, GRADEATT, and EDUC will all be replaced with "Not in universe."

The ACS asks if the person attended public or private school. This detail is not available in the IPUMS data. When the information on public or private school is missing, it will be allocated. When school enrollment is "Yes" and GRADEATT is not missing, the public/private value will be allocated from another person with a similar value for AGE and GRADATT. When school enrollment is "Yes" and educational attainment (EDUC) is not missing, the public/private value will be allocated from another person with the same value of EDUC. If the public/private value remains missing for someone with a "Yes" for school enrollment, it will be allocated from another person with a similar age.

For those who report not being in school, but do report attending a grade

If a person 18 or older (AGE) reports not being enrolled in school (SCHOOL), GRADEATT will be made "Not in universe." If a person 18 to 20 has a missing value for SCHOOL and reports being in Grade 8 or lower, SCHOOL and GRADEATT will both be replaced with a missing value. If a person 18 to 20 has a missing value for SCHOOL and reports being in Grade 9 or higher, SCHOOL will be allocated from someone with a similar age and value for GRADEATT.

If a person 21 or older has a missing value for SCHOOL and reports being in Grade 12 or lower, SCHOOL and GRADEATT will both be replaced with a missing value. If a person 21 or older has a missing value for SCHOOL and reports being college or higher, SCHOOL will be allocated from someone with a similar age and value for GRADEATT.

If a person 3 to 4 years old reports not attending school (SCHOOL), but reports being in nursery school or kindergarten (GRADEATT), SCHOOL will be allocated from someone with a similar age and value for GRADEATT. If a person 3 to 4 years old reports not attending school (SCHOOL) and reports being in a grade higher than kindergarten, GRADEATT will be replaced with "Not in universe."

If a person who is 5 years old reports not attending school (SCHOOL), but reports being in nursery school through fourth grade (GRADEATT), SCHOOL will be allocated from someone with a similar age and value for GRADEATT. If a person 5 years old reports not attending school (SCHOOL) and reports being in a grade higher than grade 5, GRADEATT will be replaced with "Not in universe."

If a person who is 6 to 7 years old reports not attending school (SCHOOL), but reports being in kindergarten through fourth grade (GRADEATT), SCHOOL will be allocated from someone with a similar age and value for GRADEATT. If a person 6 to 7 years old years old reports not attending school (SCHOOL) and reports being in a grade higher than grade 5 or in nursery school/preschool, GRADEATT will be replaced with "Not in universe." While not detailed here for brevity, beginning in 2008, ages 6 and 7 were no longer grouped for this step.

If a person who is 8 to 11 years old reports not attending school (SCHOOL), but reports being in grade 1 through grade 8 (GRADATT), SCHOOL will be allocated from someone with a similar age and value for GRADEATT. If a person 8 to 11 years old years old reports not attending school (SCHOOL) and reports being in a grade higher than grade 8 or in nursery school through kindergarten, GRADEATT will be replaced with "Not in universe." While not detailed here for brevity, beginning in 2008, ages 8 to 11 were no longer grouped for this step.

If a person who is 12 years old reports not attending school (SCHOOL), but reports being in grade 1 through grade 12 (GRADEATT), SCHOOL will be allocated from someone with a similar age and value for GRADEATT. If a person 12 years old years old reports not attending school (SCHOOL) and reports being in a grade higher than grade 12 or in nursery school through kindergarten, GRADEATT will be replaced with "Not in universe."

If a person who is 13-14 years old reports not attending school (SCHOOL), but reports being in grade 5 through grade 12 (GRADEATT), SCHOOL will be allocated from someone with a similar age and value for GRADEATT. If a person 13-14 years old years old reports not attending school (SCHOOL) and reports being in a grade higher than grade 12 or in nursery school through grade 4, GRADEATT will be replaced with "Not in universe." While not detailed here for brevity, beginning in 2008, ages 13 and 14 were no longer grouped for this step.

If a person who is 15 years old reports not attending school (SCHOOL), but reports being in grade 5 through undergraduate college (GRADEATT), SCHOOL will be allocated from someone with a similar age and value for GRADEATT. If a person 15 years old years old reports not attending school (SCHOOL) and reports being in graduate or professional school or in nursery school through grade 4, GRADEATT will be replaced with "Not in universe."

If a person who is 16 to 17 years old reports not attending school (SCHOOL), but reports being in grade 9 through grade 12 (GRADEATT) and educational attainment (EDUC) is grade 7 to grade 12 no degree or missing, SCHOOL will be allocated from someone with a similar age and value for GRADEATT. If a person who is 16 to 17 years old reports not attending school (SCHOOL), but reports being in college (GRADEATT) and educational attainment (EDUC) is high school graduate to associate degree, SCHOOL will be allocated from someone with a similar age and value for GRADEATT. If a person who is 16 to 17 years old reports not attending school (SCHOOL), but reports being in grade 9 through grade 12 (GRADEATT) and educational attainment (EDUC) is less than grade 6 or more than grade 12, GRADEATT will be replaced with "Not in universe." If a person who is 16 to 17 years old reports not attending school (SCHOOL), but reports being in college (GRADEATT) and educational attainment (EDUC) is less than a high school degree or more than an associate's degree, GRADEATT will be replaced with "Not in universe." If a person 16 to 17 years old years old reports not attending school (SCHOOL) and reports being in graduate or professional school, GRADEATT will be replaced with "Not in universe." While not detailed here for brevity, beginning in 2008, ages 16 and 17 were no longer grouped for this step.

For those whose age is inconsistent with grade attending

If a person has a "Yes" or a missing value for attending school and the grade they attend (GRADEATT) is inconsistent with their age, GRADEATT will be replaced with a missing value. While not detailed here for brevity, beginning in 2008, each age was addressed separately instead of being grouped together.

GRADEATT will be replaced with a missing value if:

  • A person is 3 to 4 years old and reports being in grade 1 or higher
  • A person is 5 years old reports being in grade 5 or higher
  • A person is 6-7 years old and reports being in nursery school, or grade 5 or higher
  • A person is 8-11 years old and reports being in nursey school, kindergarten, or grade 9 or higher
  • A person is 12 years old and reports being in nursey school, kindergarten, or grade 12 or higher
  • A person is 13-14 years old and reports being in lower than grade 4 or higher than grade 12
  • A person is 15-18 years old and reports being in lower than grade 4 and educational attainment (EDUC) is less than grade 4: both EDUC and GRADEATT will be replaced with missing values
  • A person is 15-18 years old and reports being in lower than grade 4 and educational attainment (EDUC) is grade 5 or higher or missing
  • A person is 15-18 years old and reports being in graduate school
  • A person is over 19 and reports being in less than grade 4 and EDUC is less than grade 4: SCHOOL will be replaced with "No" and GRADEATT will be replaced with a missing value
  • A person is over 19 and reports being in less than grade 4 and EDUC is grade 5 or higher or missing
For those whose age is inconsistent educational attainment

If a person's educational attainment (EDUC) is inconsistent with their age, EDUC will be replaced with a missing value. While not detailed here for brevity, beginning in 2008, each age was addressed separately instead of being grouped together.

EDUC will be replaced with a missing value if:

  • A person is 3-7 years old and EDUC is greater than grade 4
  • A person is 8-9 years old, and EDUC is greater than grade 6
  • A person is 10-11 years old, and EDUC is greater than grade 8
  • A person is 12 years old and EDUC is greater than grade 9
  • A person is 13 years old and EDUC is greater than grade 10
  • A person is 14 years old and EDUC is greater than grade 11
  • A person is 15 years old and EDUC is greater than "Some college, no degree"
  • A person is 16-18 years old and EDUC is greater than "Associates degree in college"
  • A person is 19 years old and EDUC is greater than "Bachelor's degree"
  • A person is 20 years old and EDUC is greater than "Master's degree"
For those whose grade attending is inconsistent with educational attainment

While not detailed here for brevity, beginning in 2008, each grade level was addressed separately instead of being grouped together.

If grade attending (GRADEATT) is between grade 1 and grade 4, and educational attainment (EDUC) is greater than grade 4, EDUC will be replaced with a missing value for those 8 to 10 years old and GRADEATT will be replaced with missing for those 11 to 12 years old.

If grade attending (GRADEATT) is between grade 5 and grade 8:

  • If educational attainment (EDUC) is "No schooling completed" and AGE is between 8 and 12, EDUC will be replaced with a missing value
  • If educational attainment (EDUC) less than grade 5, and AGE is between 13 and 15, EDUC will be replaced with a missing value
  • If educational attainment (EDUC) greater than grade 8, and AGE is between 8 and 14, EDUC will be replaced with a missing value
  • If educational attainment (EDUC) is equal to grade 9 and AGE is 15, GRADATT will be replaced with a missing value
  • If educational attainment (EDUC) is greater than grade 9 and AGE is 15, EDUC will be replaced with a missing value
  • If educational attainment (EDUC) is greater than grade 8 and AGE is 16-17, GRADEATT will be replaced with a missing value.
  • If educational attainment (EDUC) is less than grade 5 and AGE is 16-17, EDUC will be replaced with a missing value.

  • If educational attainment (EDUC) is less than grade 4 and AGE is 18+, EDUC will be replaced with a missing value.

  • If educational attainment (EDUC) is greater than grade 8 and AGE is 18+, GRADEATT will be replaced with a missing value.

If grade attending (GRADEATT) is grade 9 to grade 12:

  • If EDUC is less than grade 4 and AGE is 12-13, EDUC will be replaced with a missing value
  • If EDUC is grade 5- grade 6, and AGE is 12-13, GRADEATT will be replaced with a missing value
  • If EDUC is less than grade 7 and AGE is 14 to 17, EDUC will be replaced with a missing value
  • If EDUC is greater than "Associates degree" and AGE is 14-17, EDUC will be replaced with a missing value
  • If EDUC is less than grade 7 and AGE is 18+, EDUC will be replaced with a missing value
  • If EDUC is greater than "Associate degree" and AGE is 18-20, EDUC will be replaced with a missing value.

  • If EDUC is greater than "Associate degree" and AGE is 21+, GRADEATT will be replaced with a missing value

If grade attending (GRADEATT) is "College undergraduate years":

  • If EDUC is less than grade 7 and AGE is 14-15, EDUC will be replaced with a missing value
  • If EDUC is grade 7 through grade 12 (no diploma) and AGE is 14-15, GRADEATT will be replaced with a missing value.
  • If EDUC is less than grade 9 and AGE is 16 to 17, EDUC will be replaced with a missing value
  • If EDUC is grade 9 through grade 12 (no diploma), and AGE is 16-17, GRADEATT will be replaced with a missing value
  • IF EDUC is less than grade 9 and AGE is 18+, EDUC will be replaced with a missing value

If grade attending is graduate school or professional school

  • If EDUC is less than high school graduate and AGE is 18+, make SCHOOL "No" and GRADATT "Not in universe"
  • If EDUC is high school graduate through "1+ years of college, no degree" and AGE is 18+, GRADEATT will be replaced with a missing value
  • If EDUC is "Associates degree" and AGE is 18+, GRADEATT will be replaced with "College undergraduate years"

If school enrollment (SCHOOL) is "Yes" but GRADEATT is missing:

While not detailed here for brevity, beginning in 2008, each age was addressed separately instead of being grouped together.

  • If AGE is 8 to 12 and EDUC is "No school completed," EDUC will be replaced with a missing value
  • If AGE is 13 to 18 and EDUC is less than grade 4, EDUC will be replaced with a missing value
  • If AGE is 19+ and EDUC is less than grade 4, SCHOOL will be replaced with "No"

Starting in 2010, if a person was interview during non-summer months, reports attending grade 12, and EDUC is high school diploma or GED, both GRADEATT and EDUC will be replaced with a missing value.

Allocating the missing values

If AGE is 3+ and SCHOOL is missing and GRADEATT is not missing, SCHOOL will be allocated from another person with a similar AGE and GRADEATT. If EDUC is missing, EDUC will be allocated from another person with a similar AGE and GRADEATT.

If AGE is 3+ and SCHOOL and GRADEATT are both missing, they will be allocated from another person with similar values for AGE, EDUC, and HISPAN. If SCHOOL, GRADEATT, and EDUC are all missing, they will be allocated from another person with similar values for EMPSTAT, OCC, AGE, RACE, and HISPAN.

If AGE is 3+ and SCHOOL is "Yes," GRADEATT is non-missing, but EDUC is missing, EDUC will be allocated from another person with similar values for AGE and GRADEATT. If AGE is 3+ and SCHOOL is "Yes," EDUC is non-missing, and GRADEATT is missing, GRADEATT will be allocated from another person with similar values for AGE and EDUC. If AGE is 3+ and SCHOOL is "Yes," EDUC and GRADEATT are both is missing, they will be allocated from another person with similar values for AGE, RACE, HISPAN, EMPSTAT, and OCC.

If AGE is 3+ and SCHOOL is "No," GRADEATT is "Not in Universe," and EDUC is missing, EDUC will be allocated from another person with similar values for AGE, RACE, HISPAN, EMPSTAT, and OCC.

Internal ACS variable : SCH SCHG SCHL