In the column numbered 13 is to be reported the occupation of each person 10 years of age and upward.
Occupation.The inquiry "profession, occupation, or trade," is one of the most important questions of the schedule. Make a study of it. Take especial pains to avoid unmeaning terms, or such as are too general to convey a definite idea of the occupation. Call no man a "factory hand," or a "mill operative." State the kind of a mill or factory. The better form of expression would be, "Works in a cotton mill," "Works in paper mill," etc. Do not call a man a "shoemaker," "bootmaker," unless he makes the entire boot or shoe in a small shop. If he works in (or for) a boot or shoe factory, say so.
Do not apply the word "jeweler" to those who make watches, watch chains, or jewelry in large manufacturing establishments.
Call no man a "commissioner," a "collector," an "agent," an "artist," an "overseer," a "professor," a "treasurer," a "contractor," or a "speculator," without further explanation.
When boys are entered as apprentices, state the trade they are apprenticed to, as "apprenticed to carpenter," "apothecarys apprentice." Students or scholars should be reported under those names.
When a lawyer, a merchant, a manufacturer, has retired from practice or business, say "retired lawyer," "retired merchant," etc. Distinguish between fire and life insurance agents. When clerks are returned, describe them as "clerk in store," "clerk in woolen mill," "R.R. clerk," "bank clerk," etc.
Describe no man as a "mechanic," if it is possible to describe him more accurately.
Distinguish between stone masons and brick masons.
Do not call a bonnet maker a bonnet manufacturer, a lace maker a lace manufacturer, a chocolate maker a chocolate manufacturer. Reserve the term "manufacturer" for proprietors of establishments; always give the branch of manufacture, as cotton manufacturer, woolen manufacturer, etc.
Whenever merchants or traders can be reported under a single word expressive of their special line, as "grocer," it should be done. Otherwise say dry goods merchant, coal dealer, etc.
Use the word "huckster" in all cases where it applies.
Be very particular to distinguish between farmers and farm laborers. In agricultural regions this should be one of the points to which the enumerator should especially direct his attention.
Confine the use of the words "glover," "hatter," and "furrier," to those who actual make, or make up, in their own establishments, all, or a part, of the gloves and hats or furs which they sell. Those who only sell these articles should be characterized as "glove dealer," "hat and cap dealer," "fur dealer."
Judges (state whether Federal or state, whether probate, police, or otherwise) may be assumed to be lawyers, and that addition, therefore, need not be given; but all other officials should have their profession designated, if they have any, as "retired" merchant, governor of Massachusetts," "paper manufacturer, representative in legislature." If anything is to be omitted, leave out the office and put in the occupation.
The organization of domestic service has not proceeded so far in this country as to render it worthwhile to make distinctions in the character of work. Report all as "domestic servants."
Cooks, waiters, etc., in hotels and restaurants will be reported separately from domestic servants, as "cook in hotel," etc.
The term "housekeeper" will be reserved for such persons as receive distinct wages or salary for the service. Women keeping house for their own families or for themselves, without any other gainful occupation, will be entered as "keeping house." Grown daughters assisting them will be reported without occupation.
You are under no obligation to give any mans occupation just as he expresses it. If he can not tell intelligibly what it is, find out what he does and characterize his profession accordingly.
The inquiry as to occupation will not be asked in respect to infants or children too young to take any part in production. Neither will the doing of domestic errands or family chores out of school be considered an occupation. "At home" or "attending school" will be the best entry in a majority of cases. But if a boy or girl, whatever the age, or earning money regularly by labor, contributing to the family support, or appreciably assisting in mechanical or agricultural industry, the occupation should be stated.