Questionnaire Text

2016 ACS 2008 ACS 2000 5% 1930 5%
2015 ACS 2007 ACS 1990 5% 1920 1%
2014 ACS 2006 ACS 1980 5% 1910 1%
2013 ACS 2005 ACS 1970 Form 2 Metro 1900 5%
2012 ACS 2004 ACS 1970 Form 1 Metro 1880 10%
2011 ACS 2003 ACS 1960 5% 1870 1%
2010 ACS 2002 ACS 1950 1% 1860 1%
2009 ACS 2001 ACS 1940 1% 1850 1%
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2016 ACS
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45. What kind of work was this person doing? (For example: registered nurse, personal manager, supervisor of order department, secretary, accountant)

____________________________________

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45. Describe the kind of work the person did. If the person was a trainee, apprentice, or helper, include that in the description.
Enter descriptions like the following: registered nurse, personnel manager, supervisor of order department, secretary, accountant, high school teacher, etc.
If possible, avoid single words such as: nurse, manager, and teacher.


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2015 ACS
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45. What kind of work was this person doing? (For example: registered nurse, personal manager, supervisor of order department, secretary, accountant)

____________________________________

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45.Print one or more words to describe the kind of work the person did. If the person was a trainee, apprentice, or helper, include that in the description.

Enter descriptions like the following: registered nurse, personnel manager, supervisor of order department, secretary, accountant, high school teacher, etc.

Do not enter single words such as: nurse, manager, teacher, etc.


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2014 ACS
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45. What kind of work was this person doing? (For example: registered nurse, personal manager, supervisor of order department, secretary, accountant)

____________________________________

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45.Print one or more words to describe the kind of work the person did. If the person was a trainee, apprentice, or helper, include that in the description.

Enter descriptions like the following: registered nurse, personnel manager, supervisor of order department, secretary, accountant, high school teacher, etc.

Do not enter single words such as: nurse, manager, teacher, etc.


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2013 ACS
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45. What kind of work was this person doing? (For example: registered nurse, personal manager, supervisor of order department, secretary, accountant)

____________________________________

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45.Print one or more words to describe the kind of work the person did. If the person was a trainee, apprentice, or helper, include that in the description.

Enter descriptions like the following: registered nurse, personnel manager, supervisor of order department, secretary, accountant, high school teacher, etc.

Do not enter single words such as: nurse, manager, teacher, etc.


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2012 ACS
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45. What kind of work was this person doing? (For example: registered nurse, personal manager, supervisor of order department, secretary, accountant)

____________________________________

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45.Print one or more words to describe the kind of work the person did. If the person was a trainee, apprentice, or helper, include that in the description.

Enter descriptions like the following: registered nurse, personnel manager, supervisor of order department, secretary, accountant, high school teacher, etc.

Do not enter single words such as: nurse, manager, teacher, etc.


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2011 ACS
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45. What kind of work was this person doing? (For example: registered nurse, personal manager, supervisor of order department, secretary, accountant)

____________________________________

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45.Print one or more words to describe the kind of work the person did. If the person was a trainee, apprentice, or helper, include that in the description.

Enter descriptions like the following: registered nurse, personnel manager, supervisor of order department, secretary, accountant, high school teacher, etc.

Do not enter single words such as: nurse, manager, teacher, etc.


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2010 ACS
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45. What kind of work was this person doing? (For example: registered nurse, personal manager, supervisor of order department, secretary, accountant)

____________________________________

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45.Print one or more words to describe the kind of work the person did. If the person was a trainee, apprentice, or helper, include that in the description.

Enter descriptions like the following: registered nurse, personnel manager, supervisor of order department, secretary, accountant, high school teacher, etc.

Do not enter single words such as: nurse, manager, teacher, etc.


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2009 ACS
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45. What kind of work was this person doing? (For example: registered nurse, personal manager, supervisor of order department, secretary, accountant)

____________________________________

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45.Print one or more words to describe the kind of work the person did. If the person was a trainee, apprentice, or helper, include that in the description.

Enter descriptions like the following: registered nurse, personnel manager, supervisor of order department, secretary, accountant, high school teacher, etc.

Do not enter single words such as: nurse, manager, teacher, etc.


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2008 ACS
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45. What kind of work was this person doing? (For example: registered nurse, personal manager, supervisor of order department, secretary, accountant)

____________________________________

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45.Print one or more words to describe the kind of work the person did. If the person was a trainee, apprentice, or helper, include that in the description.

Enter descriptions like the following: registered nurse, personnel manager, supervisor of order department, secretary, accountant, high school teacher, etc.

Do not enter single words such as: nurse, manager, teacher, etc.


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2007 ACS
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45. What kind of work was this person doing? (For example: registered nurse, personal manager, supervisor of order department, secretary, accountant)

____________________________________

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45.Print one or more words to describe the kind of work the person did. If the person was a trainee, apprentice, or helper, include that in the description.

Enter descriptions like the following: registered nurse, personnel manager, supervisor of order department, secretary, accountant, high school teacher, etc.

Do not enter single words such as: nurse, manager, teacher, etc.


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2006 ACS
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45. What kind of work was this person doing? (For example: registered nurse, personal manager, supervisor of order department, secretary, accountant)

____________________________________

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45.Print one or more words to describe the kind of work the person did. If the person was a trainee, apprentice, or helper, include that in the description.

Enter descriptions like the following: registered nurse, personnel manager, supervisor of order department, secretary, accountant, high school teacher, etc.

Do not enter single words such as: nurse, manager, teacher, etc.


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2005 ACS
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45. What kind of work was this person doing? (For example: registered nurse, personal manager, supervisor of order department, secretary, accountant)

____________________________________

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45.Print one or more words to describe the kind of work the person did. If the person was a trainee, apprentice, or helper, include that in the description.

Enter descriptions like the following: registered nurse, personnel manager, supervisor of order department, secretary, accountant, high school teacher, etc.

Do not enter single words such as: nurse, manager, teacher, etc.


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2004 ACS
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45. What kind of work was this person doing? (For example: registered nurse, personal manager, supervisor of order department, secretary, accountant)

____________________________________

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39.Print one or more words to describe the kind of work the person did. If the person was a trainee, apprentice, or helper, include that in the description.

Enter descriptions like the following: Registered nurse, Personnel manager, High school teacher.

Do not enter single words such as: Nurse, Manager, Teacher


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2003 ACS
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45. What kind of work was this person doing? (For example: registered nurse, personal manager, supervisor of order department, secretary, accountant)

____________________________________

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39.Print one or more words to describe the kind of work the person did. If the person was a trainee, apprentice, or helper, include that in the description.

Enter descriptions like the following: Registered nurse, Personnel manager, High school teacher.

Do not enter single words such as: Nurse, Manager, Teacher


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2002 ACS
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45. What kind of work was this person doing? (For example: registered nurse, personal manager, supervisor of order department, secretary, accountant)

____________________________________

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45.Print one or more words to describe the kind of work the person did. If the person was a trainee, apprentice, or helper, include that in the description.

Enter descriptions like the following: registered nurse, personnel manager, supervisor of order department, secretary, accountant, high school teacher, etc.

Do not enter single words such as: nurse, manager, teacher, etc.


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2001 ACS
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45. What kind of work was this person doing? (For example: registered nurse, personal manager, supervisor of order department, secretary, accountant)

____________________________________

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45.Print one or more words to describe the kind of work the person did. If the person was a trainee, apprentice, or helper, include that in the description.

Enter descriptions like the following: registered nurse, personnel manager, supervisor of order department, secretary, accountant, high school teacher, etc.

Do not enter single words such as: nurse, manager, teacher, etc.


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2000 5%
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28. Occupation
a. What kind of work was this person doing? (For example: registered nurse, personnel manager, supervisor of order department, auto mechanic, accountant)

[ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ]
[ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ]
[ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ]
b. What were this person's most important activities or duties? (For example. patient care, directing hiring policies, supervising order clerks, repairing automobiles, reconciling financial records)
[ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ]
[ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ]
[ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ]


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1990 5%
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29. Occupation

a. What kind of work was this person doing?

____________________________________
(For example: registered nurse, personnel manager, supervisor of order department,
gasoline engine assembler, cake icer)

"Print two or more words to describe the kind of work the person did. If the person was a trainee, apprentice, or helper, include that in the description. Some examples of what to enter:

Enter a description like the following
Production clerk
Carpenter's helper
Auto engine mechanic
Registered nurse

- Do not enter –
Clerk
Helper
Mechanic
Nurse
b. What were this person's most important activities or duties?

__________________________________
(For example: patient care, directing hiring policies, supervising order clerks, assembling engines, icing cakes)


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1980 5%
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28-30. Current or most recent job activity

Describe clearly this person's chief job activity or business last week. If this person had more than one job, describe the one at which this person worked the most hours. If this person had no job or business last week, give information for last job or business since 1975.


29. Occupation

a. What kind of work was this person doing?

___________________________________________________________________________

(For example: Registered nurse, personnel manager, supervisor of order department, gasoline engine assembler, grinder operator)

"Print two or more words to describe the kind of work the person does. If the person is a trainee, apprentice, or helper, include that in the description. Some examples of what is needed to make an answer acceptable are shown on the census form and here.

Unacceptable Acceptable
Clerk Production clerk
Helper Carpenter's helper
Mechanic Auto engine mechanic
Nurse Registered nurse
b. What were this person's most important activities or duties?

_____________________________________________________________________

(For example: Patient care, directing hiring policies, supervising order clerks. assembling engines, operating grinding mill)

"Print the most important things that the person does on the job. Some examples are shown on the census form."


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1970 Form 2 Metro
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[All]
34. Occupation
a. What kind of work was he doing?

_______________________
(For example: TV repairman, sewing machine operator, spray painter, civil engineer, farm operator, farm hand, junior high English teacher)

"Write two or more words to tell the kind of work he does. If he is a trainee, apprentice, or helper, write that down too. See examples of acceptable answers on the Census form and here.
Acceptable Unacceptable
Sales clerk Clerk
Carpenter's helper Helper
Practical nurse Nurse
b. What were his most important activities or duties?

_______________________
(For example: Types, keeps account books, files, sells cars, operates printing press, cleans buildings, finishes concrete)

"Write the most important things that he does on the job. Some examples are shown on the Census form."
c. What was his job title?

_______________
"Print his job title (what his employer calls his job). If he has no job title, print None."


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1970 Form 1 Metro
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[All]
34. Occupation
a. What kind of work was he doing?

_______________________
(For example: TV repairman, sewing machine operator, spray painter, civil engineer, farm operator, farm hand, junior high English teacher)

"Write two or more words to tell the kind of work he does. If he is a trainee, apprentice, or helper, write that down too. See examples of acceptable answers on the Census form and here.
Acceptable Unacceptable
Sales clerk Clerk
Carpenter's helper Helper
Practical nurse Nurse
b. What were his most important activities or duties?

_______________________
(For example: Types, keeps account books, files, sells cars, operates printing press, cleans buildings, finishes concrete)

"Write the most important things that he does on the job. Some examples are shown on the Census form."
c. What was his job title?

_______________
"Print his job title (what his employer calls his job). If he has no job title, print None."


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1960 5%

No questionnaire text is available for this sample.


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1950 1%
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20a. Occupation:

What kind of work was he doing?

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159. Item 20 consists of three parts: 20a. Occupation; 20b. Industry; and 20c. Class of worker.-There must be an entry in all three parts of this item for every person with an entry of "Wk" in item 15, or "Yes" in items 16, l7, or 18.

All three parts of the item (20a, 20b, and 20c) must refer to the same particular job or business.

Item 20a. Occupation

164. Item 20a. What kind of work was he doing?-Specific answer.-The answer should tell clearly and specifically the kind of work or nature of duties performed by the person. General or vague entries are not satisfactory.

165. How to obtain a satisfactory occupation entry.-The best short description of a person's occupation is usually the title of his job; so, wherever possible, enter the title of the person's occupation. For example, "Auto mechanic" is satisfactory; you do not have to enter a description of his duties.

In some cases, the respondent will not give you enough information in answering the question, "What kind of work was he doing?" You should ask additional questions until you are satisfied that you have obtained the specific occupation of the person. For example, the respondent may say, "Teaching." You should then ask, "What subject did he teach?" For another example, the respondent says, "My daughter is a nurse " You should then ask, "What kind of a nurse is she, a registered nurse, practical nurse, nursemaid, or some other kind?"

Sometimes, the respondent will give you a lengthy explanation of the person's job duties. You should condense such statements into a few words which give the most important points about the kind of work the person is doing. For example, the respondent may say, "My husband runs a machine that takes dough and cuts it up before the dough is put into the oven." Your entry in the schedule should be "Dough cutting machine operator."

Another type of problem you may find is an answer for which you cannot think up a simple title. For example, the respondent may say, "He nails heels on shoes." It is satisfactory for you to enter on the schedule the words "Nails heels on shoes."

166. Unusual occupations.-You may run across occupations which sound strange or funny to you. Accept such reports if the respondent is sure that the title is correct. For example, "sand hog" is the title for certain workers engaged in the construction of under-water tunnels, and "printer's devil" is sometimes used for an apprentice printer.

167. Caution on occupations of young persons.-Professional, technical, and skilled occupations usually require lengthy periods of training or education which a young person normally cannot have. It may be found, upon further inquiry, that the young person is really only a trainee, apprentice, or helper (for example, accountant trainee, electrician trainee, apprentice electrician, electrician's helper).

168. Occupations for which special care is necessary.-The following are occupations for which you must take special care to get satisfactory entries:

169. Additional examples of occupation entries.-The following list shows, for a number of other occupations, what is meant by clear and exact entries:

a. Adjuster.-Specify claim adjuster, brake adjuster, machine adjuster, complaint adjuster, insurance adjuster, etc.

b. Apprentice.-An apprentice is under a contract during his training period while a trainee is not. Note that the return should include both the occupation and the word "apprentice" or "trainee" (for example, apprentice plumber, plumber trainee).

c. Caretaker.-Wherever possible, specify servant, janitor, guard, building superintendent, gardener, groundskeeper, sexton, property clerk, locker attendant, vault attendant, etc.

d. Contractor.-A "contractor" is engaged principally in obtaining building or other contracts and supervising the work. A skilled worker who works with his own tools should be returned as carpenter, plasterer, plumber, electrician, etc.

e. Custodian.-See "Caretaker," above.

f. Doctor.-Specify physician, dentist,. veterinarian, osteopath, chiropractor, etc.

g. Entertainer.-Specify singer, dancer, acrobat, musician, etc.

h. Factory worker.-Specify assembler, heater, turret-lathe operator, weaver, loom fixer, knitter, stitcher, punch press operator, spray painter, riveter, etc.

i. Foremen.-Wherever possible, specify the trade, as foreman-carpenter, foreman-electrician, etc.

j. Housekeeper (paid).-A "housekeeper" employed in a private home for wages has the full responsibility for the management of the household. Do not confuse this occupation with housemaid (general housework), hired girl, or kitchen maid.

k. Interior decorator.-An "interior decorator" designs the decoration plans for the interiors of homes, hotels, offices, etc., and supervises the placement of the furniture and other decorations. Do not confuse this occupation with painter or paperhanger.

l. Laborer.-Wherever possible, specify sweeper, charwoman, porter, janitor, stevedore, window washer, car cleaner, section hand, gardener, hand trucker, etc.

m. Lay-out man.-Specify patternmaker, sheet-metal worker) compositor, commercial artist, structural steel worker, boilermaker, draftsman, coppersmith, etc.

n. Machinist.-A "machinist" is a skilled craftsman who constructs and repairs all kinds of metal parts, tools, and machines through the use of blueprints, machine and hand tools, and precision measuring instruments. A person who merely operates a factory machine (for example, drill press operator, winder, etc.) or who does simple repair work (for example) welder, machine adjuster, etc.) is not a machinist.

o. Nun.-Wherever possible, specify the type of work done, as housekeeper, art teacher, organist, cook, laundress, registered nurse, etc.

p. Office worker.-Specify typist, receptionist, comptometer operator, file clerk, bookkeeper, physician's attendant, etc.

q. Salesman.-Wherever possible, specify advertising salesman, insurance salesman, bond salesman, canvasser) traveling salesman, driver-salesman (routeman), peddler, newsboy, etc.

r. Secretary.-The title "secretary" should be used for persons doing secretarial work in an office. The secretary who is an elected or appointed officer of a business, lodge, or other organization should be reported in occupation as "official.

s. Sister.-See "Nun," above.

t. Supervisor.-Whenever possible, specify typing supervisor, chief bookkeeper, steward, kitchen supervisor, section foreman) buyer, forelady, sales instructor, route foreman, etc.

u. Tester.-Specify, the particular item tested, as cement tester, instrument tester, engine tester, battery tester, etc.

v. Trainee.-See "Apprentice, above.

w. Trucker.-Specify truck driver, trucking contractor, electric trucker, hand trucker, etc.


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1940 1%
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Occupation, Industry and Class of Worker:
For a person at work, assigned to public emergency work, or with a job ("Yes" in Col. 21, 22, or 24), enter present occupation, industry, and class of worker. For a person seeking work ("Yes" in Col. 23):

a)If he has previous work experience, enter last occupation, industry, and class of worker;
or
b) If he does not have previous work experience, enter "New worker" in Col. 28, and leave Cols. 29 and 30 blank.
28. Occupation: Trade, profession, or particular kind of work, as frame spinner, salesman, rivet heater, music teacher.

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536. Column 28. Occupation.-Enter in col. 28 an occupation or the term "New worker" for each person who has an entry of any one of cols. 21 to 24. Leave col. 28 blank for all other persons. The occupation entry in col. 28 should be the word or words which most accurately indicate the particular kind of work done, as lawyer, ship carpenter, music teacher, traveling salesman, steamfitter, file clerk, etc.

537. Farm Workers-Return a person who was in charge of a farm as a farmer, whether he owned the farm or operated it as a tenant or renter; but a person who managed a farm for someone else for wages or salary should be reported as a farm manager. A man who directed farm labor under the supervision of the owner, tenant, or manager should be reported as a farm foreman or a farm overseer; and a person who worked on a farm for someone else but not as a manager or foreman should be reported as a farm laborer.

538. A woman who operated a farm or plantation should be reported as a farmer; a woman who worked regularly for wages at outdoor farm or garden work, in the dairy, or in caring for livestock or poultry, should be returned as a farm laborer.

539. Unpaid Family Workers.-Enter in col. 28 the occupation, such as farm laborer, delivery boy, salesman, etc., of a member of a family who worked regularly without wages or salary in the family's farm, in a shop or store from which the family obtained its support, or on other work that contributed to the family income (not including home housework or incidental chores).

540. A person who worked regularly as an unpaid family worker on a farm should ordinarily be returned as a farm laborer.

541. Builders and Contractors.-Only persons who were engaged principally in obtaining building or other construction contracts and supervising their execution should be returned as builders or contractors. Craftsmen who work with their own tools should be returned as carpenters, plasterers, etc., and not as contractors.

542. Engineers.-Distinguish carefully the different kinds of engineers by stating the full descriptive titles, as civil engineer, electrical engineer, locomotive engineer, mechanical engineer, mining engineer, stationary engineer, etc.

543. Foremen and Proprietors.-In the case of a foreman or proprietor, always include in col. 28, with the entry foreman or proprietor, the specific craft or trade, if any, that the person pursues, as foreman-carpenter, foreman-electrician, proprietor-pharmacist, proprietor-tailor, etc.

544. The term "laborer" should be avoided if any more precise statement of the occupation can be secured. Employees in factories and mills, for example, usually have some definite designation, as weaver, roller, etc. Where the term "Laborer" is used, be especially careful to state accurately the industry or business in col. 29.

545. Avoid the use of the word "mechanic" whenever a more specific occupation can be given, such as carpenter, painter, electrician, etc. Automobile mechanic, however, is a satisfactory return.

546. Avoid the use of the word "clerk" wherever a more definite occupation can be named. Thus, an employee in a store who is wholly or principally engaged in selling goods should be called a salesman and not a "clerk." A typist, accountant, bookkeeper, cashier, etc., should be reported as such, and not as a "clerk." Do not return a stenographer as a "secretary." distinguish a traveling salesman from a salesman in a store.

547. Nurses.-In the case of a nurse, always specify whether she is a trained nurse, a practical nurse, or a child's nurse.


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1930 5%
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25. Occupation: Trade, profession, or particular kind of work, as spinner, salesman, riveter, teacher, etc..

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OCCUPATION AND INDUSTRY

186. Column 25. Occupation.-An entry should be made in this column for every person enumerated. The entry should be either (1) the gainful occupation pursued-that is, the word or words which most accurately indicate the particular kind of gainful work done, as physician, carpenter, dressmaker, salesman, newsboy; or (2) none (that is, no gainful occupation). The entry none should be made in the case of persons who follow no gainful occupation. A "gainful occupation" in census usage is an occupation by which the person who pursues it earns money or a money equivalent, or in which he assists in the production of marketable goods. The term "gainful worker," as interpreted for census purposes, does not include women doing housework in their own homes, without wages, and having no other employment (see par. 194), nor children working at home, merely on general household work, on chores, or at odd times on other work.

187. Occasionally there will be doubt as to whether an occupation should be returned for a person who works only a small part of the time at the occupation. In such cases the rule may generally be followed that, unless the person spends at least the equivalent of one day per week at the occupation, he or she should not be returned as a gainful worker-that is, the entry in column 25 should be none.

188. Persons retired or incapacitated.-Care should be taken in making the return for persons who on account of old age, permanent invalidism, or other reasons are no longer following any occupation. Such persons may desire to return the occupations formerly followed, which would be incorrect. If living on their own income, or if they are supported by other persons or institutions, or if they work only occasionally or only a short time each day, the return should be none.

189. Occupation of persons unemployed.-On the other hand, persons out of employment when visited by the enumerator may state that they have no occupation, when the fact is that they usually have an occupation but happen to be idle or unemployed at the time of the visit. In such cases the return should be the occupation followed when the person is employed or the occupation in which last regularly employed, and the fact that the person was not at work should be recorded in column 28. (See par. 225).

190. Persons having two occupations.-If a person has two occupations, return only the more important one; that is, the one from which he gets the more money. If you can not learn that, return the one at which he spends the more time. For example: Return a man as a farmer if he gets more of his income from farming, although he may also fallow the occupation of a clergyman or preacher; but return him as a clergyman if he gets more of his income from that occupation.


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1920 1%
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26. Trade, profession, or particular kind of work done, as spinner, salesman, laborer, etc…

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1910 1%
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Occupation:

18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, salesman, laborer, etc..

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144. Column 18. Trade or profession.—An entry should be made in this column for every person enumerated. The occupation, if any, followed by a child, of any age, or by a woman is just as important, for census purposes, as the occupation followed by a man. Therefore if must never be taken for granted, without inquiry, that a woman, or child, has no occupation.

145. The entry in column 18 should be either (1) the occupation pursued—that is, the word or words which most accurately indicate the particular kind of work done by which the person enumerated earns money or a money equivalent, as physician, carpenter, dressmaker, night watchman, laborer, newsboy; or (2) own income; or (3) none (that is, no occupation).

146. The entry own income should be made in the case of all persons who follow no specific occupation but have an independent income upon which they are living.

147. The entry none should be made in the case of all persons who follow no occupation and who do not fall within the class to be reported as own income.

148. Persons retired or temporarily unemployed.—Care should be taken in making the return for persons who on account of old age, permanent invalidism, or otherwise are no longer following an occupation. Such persons may desire to return the occupations formerly followed, which would be incorrect. If living on their own income the return should be own income. If they are supported by other persons or institutions, the return should be none. On the other hand, persons out of employment when visited by the enumerator may state that they have no occupation, when the fact is that they usually have an occupation but merely happen to be idle or unemployed at the time of the visit. In such cases the return should be the occupation followed when the person is employed.

149. Persons having two occupations.—If a person has two occupations, return only the more important one—that is, the one from which he gets the more money. If you can not learn that, return the one at which he spends the more time. For example: Return a man as farmer if he gets most of his income from farming, although he may also follow the occupation of a clergyman or preacher; but return him as clergyman if he gets more of his income from that occupation.


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1900 5%
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Occupation, Trade or Profession: Of each person ten years of age and over:

19. Occupation.

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OCCUPATION, TRADE, OR PROFESSION

153. NOTE.—The following instructions concerning the return of the occupation, trade, or profession in column 19 do not, in the main, form a part of the instructions contained in the portfolio or the instructions printed at the bottom of the illustrative example. These instructions are very important, however, and must be not only read but studied carefully.

154. Column 19. Occupation.—This question applies to every persons 10 years of age and over who is at work, that is, occupied in gainful labor, and calls for the profession, trade, or branch of work upon which each persons depends chiefly for support, or in which he is engaged ordinarily during the larger part of the time. (See paragraph 223.)

155. This is a most important question. In reporting occupations avoid the use of general or indefinite terms which do not indicate the kind of work done. You need not give a person’s occupation just as he expresses it. If he can not tell intelligibly what he is, find out what he does, and describe his occupation accordingly. Endeavor to ascertain always the kind of work done, and so state it.

156. Indicate in every case the kind of work done or character of service rendered. do not state merely the article made or worked upon, or the place where the work is done. For example, the reply "carriage builder," or "works in carriage factory," is unsatisfactory, because men of different trades, such as blacksmiths, joiners, wheelwrights, painters, upholsterers, work together in building carriages. Such an answer, therefore, does not show what kind of work the person performs.

157. Return every person according to his own occupation, not that of his employer. For example, describe a blacksmith employed by a manufacturer of carriages as a carriage blacksmith and not as a carriage builder, or a cooper employed by a brewery as a cooper and not a brewer, etc.

158. If a person has two occupations, enter the more important one, that is, the one from which he gets the more money. If you can not learn that, enter the one in which he spends the more time. For example, describe a person who gets most of his income by managing a farm, but also preaches, as a "farmer," but if he gets more income form his preaching, describe his as a "preacher" and not as a farmer.

159. Sometimes you will find a person engaged in one occupation, but claiming a different one. This will be common in certain resorts for invalids. Such persons often take up for the time occupations different from those followed at home. for example, you may find a clergyman canvassing for books or a physician herding cattle. In such a case ask from which occupation the person gets the more money or to which he gives more time during the year.

160. If a married woman has a gainful occupation, return the occupation accordingly, whether she does the work at her home or goes regularly to a place of employment, and whether she is regularly or only occasionally so employed. For example, "milliner," "dressmaker," "nurse," etc.

161. In farming sections, where a farm is found that is under the management or supervision of a woman as owner or tenant, return the occupation of such woman as "farmer" in all cases.

162. Report a student who supports himself by some occupation according to the occupation, if more time is given to that, but as a student, of more time is given to study. Thus report a student who does stenographic work as a student unless more of his time is spent in stenography. Report a salesman in a grocery store, who attends a night school as "salesman, groceries," because most of his day is spent in the store. (See paragraph 219.)

163. Many a person who does not follow any occupation still has an income. In that case indicate the source of the income. Report a person whose income comes from the rent of lands or buildings as "landlord." Report a person who receives his income, or most of it, from money loaned at interest, or from stocks, bonds, or other securities, as a "capitalist."

164. Abbreviations.—The space in column 19 is somewhat narrow, and it may be necessary to use the following abbreviations (but no others): Agric., for agriculture.

Agt., for agent
Asst., for assistant
Co., for company
Comsn., for commission
Dept., for department.
Fcty., for factory.
Insur., for insurance.
Merch., for merchant.
Mfg., for manufacturing.
Mfr., for manufacturer.
Prest., for president.
R.R., for railroad or railway.
Sch., for school.
Secy., for secretary.
Supt., for superintendent.
Teleg., for telegraph.
Telph., for telephone.
Trav., for traveling, or traveler.
Treas., for treasurer.

165. The illustrations given under this head show the nature of the answers which should be made to this inquiry. They are not intended to cover all occupations, but are merely examples of the answers desired in order to secure a proper descriptions of the character of the service rendered or kind of work done by each and every person engaged in gainful labor.

166. Do not confuse a farmer with a farm laborer. If a person works on a farm for a stated wage (in money or its equivalent), even though he may be a son or other relative of the person who conducts the farm, he should be entered as a farm laborer, and not as a farmer. On the other hand, if a person owns or rents a farm, or operates it with or for another persons, for a fixed share of the products, he should be entered as a farmer, and not as a farm laborer. Enter the older children of a farmer (who works on the farm) as farm laborers, except when a father and son (or sons) jointly operate the farm for fixed shares of the product. (See paragraph 300.)

167. Do not confuse a day laborer at work for the city, town, or at odd jobs with a farm laborer at work on the farm or plantation or in the employ of gardeners, nurserymen, etc., Do not say simply "laborer," but state in every case the kind of work done, as day laborer, farm laborer, garden laborer, etc. If a person is a laborer in a mill, workshop, or factory, specify the fact, in addition to the word laborer, as laborer (cement works), etc.

168. Distinguish between a woodchopper at work regularly in the woods or forests and an ordinary laborer who takes a job occasionally at chopping wood.

169.Distinguish between a farmer or a planter who owns, hires, or carries on a farm or plantation, and a gardener, fruit grower, nurseryman, florist, or vine grower, etc., who is engaged in raising vegetables for marked or in the cultivation of fruit, flowers, seeds, nursery products, etc.

170. Avoid the confusion of the garden laborer, nursery laborer, etc., who hires out his services, with the proprietor gardener, florist, nurseryman, etc., who carries on the business himself or employs others to assist him.

171. Return as a dairyman or dairywoman any person whose occupation in connection with the farm has to do chiefly with the dairy. Do not confuse such a person with an employee of a butter and cheese or condensed milk factory, who should be separately returned by some distinctive term.

172. Return a stock herder or stock drover separately from a stock raiser.

173. Do not include a lumberman, raftsman, log driver, etc., engaged in hauling or transporting lumber (generally by water) from the forest to the mill with an employee of a lumber yard or a lumber mill.

174. For a fisherman or oysterman describe the occupation as accurately as possible. Be careful to avoid the return of a fisherman on a vessel as a sailor. If he gains his living by fishing, he should be returned as a "fisherman," and not as a sailor.

175. Made a careful distinction between a coal miner and a miner of ores; also between a miner and a quarryman. State the kind of ore mined or stone quarried.

176. Do not return a proprietor or official of a mining or quarrying company as a miner or quarryman, but state his business or official position accurately.

177. Specify each profession in detail, according to the fact, as follows: Actor, artist or teacher of art, clergyman, dentist, designer, draftsman, engraver, civil engineer or surveyor, mechanical or mining engineer, government clerk or official, journalist, lawyer, librarian, musician or teacher of music, physician, surgeon, professor (in college or university), teacher (in school), or other pursuits of a professional nature.

178. Distinguish between as actor, a theatrical manager, and a showman.

179. Return a government official, in the service of the national, state, county, city, or town government, by the title of his office, if that is the occupation upon which he depends chiefly for a livelihood; otherwise by his usual trade or profession.

180. Distinguish between a government clerk occupying a position under the national, state, county, city, or town government and a clerk in an office, store, manufacturing establishments, etc.

181. Return a veterinary surgeon separately from another surgeon.

182. Distinguish a journalist editor, or reporter from an author or other literary person who does not follow journalism as a distinct profession.

183. Return a chemist, assayer, metallurgist, or other scientific person by his distinctive title.

184. Specify each occupation or kind of service rendered in detail, according to the fact, as hotel keeper, boarding-house keeper, restaurant keeper, or saloon keeper or bartender; housekeeper, cook, or servant (in hotel, boarding-house, hospital, institution, private family, etc.); barber or hairdresser; janitor, sexton or undertaker; nurse or midwife; watchman, policeman, or detective. The above are given only as examples of the occupations which would naturally be included under this general class of work.

185. Return as a housekeeper a woman who receives a stated wage or salary for her services, and do not confuse her with a woman who keeps house for her own family or for herself, without any gainful occupation, or with a grown daughter who assists in the household duties without pay. A wife or daughter who simply keeps house for her own family should not be returned as a housekeeper in any case. (See paragraph 218.)

186. A clerk in a hotel, restaurant, or saloon should be so described and carefully distinguished from a bartender. In many instances a bartender will state his occupation as "clerk" in wine store, etc., but the character of the service rendered by such a person will readily determine whether he should be classed as a "bartender," or as a "clerk."

187. A stationary engineer or fireman should be carefully distinguished from a locomotive engineer or fireman.

188. A soldier, sailor, or marine enlisted in the service of the United States should be so returned. Distinguish between an officer and an enlisted man, and for a civilian employee state the kind of service performed by him.

189. Distinguish carefully between a real estate agent, insurance agent, claim agent, or commission agent, etc.

190. If a person combines two or more of these occupations, as is often the case, return the occupation from which he derives the larger share of his income.

191. Return an accountant, bookkeeper, clerk, cashier, etc., according to his distinctive occupation, and state the kind of service rendered, as accountant—insurance; bookkeeper—wholesale dry goods; clerk—gas company; cashier—music store.

192. Do not confound a clerk with a salesman, as is often done, especially in dry goods stores, grocery stores, and provision stores. Generally speaking, a person so employed is to be considered as a salesman, unless most of his service is in the office on the books and accounts; otherwise he should be returned as salesman—dry goods; salesman—groceries, etc.

193. A stenographer or typewriter should be reported as such, and should not be described simply as a "clerk."

194. Distinguish carefully between a bank clerk, cashier in bank, or bank official, describing the particular position filled in each case. In no case should a bank cashier be confounded with a cashier in a store, etc.

195. Distinguish between a foreman and overseer, a packer and shipper, a porter and helper, and an errand, office, and messenger boy in a store, etc., and state in each case the character of the duties performed by him, as foreman—wholesale wool; packer—crockery; porter—rubber goods; errand boy—dry goods; messenger boy—telegraph.

196. State the kind of merchant or dealer, as dry goods merchant, wood and coal dealer, etc. Whenever a single word will express the business carried on, as grocer, it should be used.

197. In the case of a huckster or peddler also state the kind of goods sold, as peddler—tinware.

198. Distinguish a traveling salesman from a sales-man in a store, return the former as a "commercial traveler," and state the kind of goods sold by him.

199. Return a boarding or livery stable keeper separately from a hostler or other stable employee.

200. Distinguish also between an expressman, teamster, drayman, and carriage and hack driver.

201. A steam railroad employee should be reported according to the nature of his work, as baggageman, brakeman, conductor, railroad laborer, locomotive engineer, locomotive fireman, switchman, yardman, etc.

202. An official of a railroad, telegraph, express, or other company should be returned by his title and carefully distinguished from an employee of such company.

203. Return a boatman, canalman, pilot, long-shoreman, stevedore, or sailor (on a steam or sailing vessel) according to his distinctive occupation.

204. A telegraph operator, telephone operator, telegraph lineman, telephone lineman, electric-light man, etc., should be reported according to the nature of the work performed.

Manufacturing and Mechanical Pursuits

205. In reporting this class of occupations there are many difficulties in the way of showing the kind of work done rather than the article made or the place worked in.; The nature of certain occupations is such that it is well-nigh impossible to find properly descriptive terms without the use of some expression relating to the article made or place in which the work is carried on.

206. Do not accept "maker" of an article or "works in" mill, shop, or factory, but strive always to find out the particular work done.

207. Do not use the words "factory operative," but specify the kind of work done, as cotton mill—spinner; silk mill—weaver, etc.

208. Avoid in all cases the use of the word "mechanic," and state whether a carpenter, mason, house painter, machinist, plumber, etc.

209. Do not say "finisher," "molder," "polisher," etc., but describe the word done, as brass finisher, iron molder, steel polisher, etc.

210. Distinguish between a persons who tends machines and the unskilled workman or laborer in mills, factories, and workshops.

211. Describe the proprietor of the establishment as a "manufacturer," and specify the branch of manufacture, as cotton manufacturer, etc. In no case should a manufacturer be returned as a "maker" of an article.

212. In the case of an apprentice, state the trade to which apprenticed, as Apprentice—carpenter, etc.

213. Distinguish between a butcher, whose business is to slaughter cattle, swine, etc., and a provision dealer, who sells meats.

214. Distinguish between a glover, hatter, or furrier who actually makes in his own establishment all or part of the gloves, hats, or furs which he sells, and a person who simply deals in but does not make these articles.

215. Do not describe a person in a printing office as a "printer" where a more expressive term can be used, as compositer, pressman, press feeder, etc.

216. Make the proper distinction between a clock or watch "maker" and a clock or watch "repairer." Do not apply the word "jeweler" to those who make watches, watch chains, or jewelry in large establishments.

217. Distinguish between a clockmaker, dressmaker, seamstress, tailoress, etc. In the case of a sewing-machine operator, specify the kind of work done.

218. If a person is attending school write "at school." No entry in column 19 should be made, however, for a lawyer, merchant, manufacturer, etc., who has retired from practice or business; nor for a wife or daughter living at home and assisting only in the household duties without pay (see paragraph 185); more for a person too old to work, or a child under 10 years of age not at school.

219. The doing of domestic errands or family chores out of school hours, where a child regularly attends school, is not an occupation. But if a boy or girl, above 10 years of age, is earning money regularly by labor, contributing to the family support, or appreciably assisting in mechanical or agricultural industry, the kind of work performed should be stated. (See paragraph 162.)

220. In the case of an inmate of an institution or home, such as a hospital, asylum, home for the aged, soldiers’ home, penitentiary, jail, etc., no entry is required in column 19 unless the inmate is actually engaged in remunerative work for which he receives a stated wage in addition to his board. The occupation of an officer or regular employee of such institution or home, however, is to be entered in this column, the same as for all other persons having a gainful occupation.


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Occupation:

13. Profession, occupation, or trade of each person, male or female.

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OCCUPATION

In the column numbered 13 is to be reported the occupation of each person 10 years of age and upward.

Occupation.—The inquiry "profession, occupation, or trade," is one of the most important questions of the schedule. Make a study of it. Take especial pains to avoid unmeaning terms, or such as are too general to convey a definite idea of the occupation. Call no man a "factory hand," or a "mill operative." State the kind of a mill or factory. The better form of expression would be, "Works in a cotton mill," "Works in paper mill," etc. Do not call a man a "shoemaker," "bootmaker," unless he makes the entire boot or shoe in a small shop. If he works in (or for) a boot or shoe factory, say so.

Do not apply the word "jeweler" to those who make watches, watch chains, or jewelry in large manufacturing establishments.

Call no man a "commissioner," a "collector," an "agent," an "artist," an "overseer," a "professor," a "treasurer," a "contractor," or a "speculator," without further explanation.

When boys are entered as apprentices, state the trade they are apprenticed to, as "apprenticed to carpenter," "apothecary’s apprentice." Students or scholars should be reported under those names.

When a lawyer, a merchant, a manufacturer, has retired from practice or business, say "retired lawyer," "retired merchant," etc. Distinguish between fire and life insurance agents. When clerks are returned, describe them as "clerk in store," "clerk in woolen mill," "R.R. clerk," "bank clerk," etc.

Describe no man as a "mechanic," if it is possible to describe him more accurately.

Distinguish between stone masons and brick masons.

Do not call a bonnet maker a bonnet manufacturer, a lace maker a lace manufacturer, a chocolate maker a chocolate manufacturer. Reserve the term "manufacturer" for proprietors of establishments; always give the branch of manufacture, as cotton manufacturer, woolen manufacturer, etc.

Whenever merchants or traders can be reported under a single word expressive of their special line, as "grocer," it should be done. Otherwise say dry goods merchant, coal dealer, etc.

Use the word "huckster" in all cases where it applies.

Be very particular to distinguish between farmers and farm laborers. In agricultural regions this should be one of the points to which the enumerator should especially direct his attention.

Confine the use of the words "glover," "hatter," and "furrier," to those who actual make, or make up, in their own establishments, all, or a part, of the gloves and hats or furs which they sell. Those who only sell these articles should be characterized as "glove dealer," "hat and cap dealer," "fur dealer."

Judges (state whether Federal or state, whether probate, police, or otherwise) may be assumed to be lawyers, and that addition, therefore, need not be given; but all other officials should have their profession designated, if they have any, as "retired" merchant, governor of Massachusetts," "paper manufacturer, representative in legislature." If anything is to be omitted, leave out the office and put in the occupation.

The organization of domestic service has not proceeded so far in this country as to render it worthwhile to make distinctions in the character of work. Report all as "domestic servants."

Cooks, waiters, etc., in hotels and restaurants will be reported separately from domestic servants, as "cook in hotel," etc.

The term "housekeeper" will be reserved for such persons as receive distinct wages or salary for the service. Women keeping house for their own families or for themselves, without any other gainful occupation, will be entered as "keeping house." Grown daughters assisting them will be reported without occupation.

You are under no obligation to give any man’s occupation just as he expresses it. If he can not tell intelligibly what it is, find out what he does and characterize his profession accordingly.

The inquiry as to occupation will not be asked in respect to infants or children too young to take any part in production. Neither will the doing of domestic errands or family chores out of school be considered an occupation. "At home" or "attending school" will be the best entry in a majority of cases. But if a boy or girl, whatever the age, or earning money regularly by labor, contributing to the family support, or appreciably assisting in mechanical or agricultural industry, the occupation should be stated.


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7. Profession, occupation, or trade of each person, male or female.

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Occupation.—The inquiry, "Profession, occupation, or trade," is one of the most important questions of this schedule. Make a study of it. Take special pains to avoid unmeaning terms, or such as are too general to convey a definite idea of the occupation. Call no man a "factory hand" or a "mill operative." State the kind of mill or factory. The better form of expression would be, "works in cotton mill," "works in paper mill," etc.. Do not call a man a "shoemaker," "bootmaker," unless he makes the entire boot or shoe in a small shop. If he works in (or for) a boot and shoe factory, say so.

Do not apply the word "jeweler" to those who make watches, watch chains, or jewelry in large manufacturing establishments.

Call no man a "commissioner," a "collector," an "agent," an "artist," an "overseer," a "professor," a "treasurer," a "contractor," or a "seculator," without further explanation.

When boys are entered as apprentices, state the trade they are apprenticed to, as "apprenticed to carpenter," "apothecary’s apprentice."

When a lawyer, a merchant, a manufacturer, has retired from practice or business, say "retired lawyer," "retired merchant," etc. Distinguish between fire and life insurance agents.

When clerks are returned, describe them as "clerk in store," "clerk in woolen mill," "R.R. clerk," "bank clerk," etc.

Describe no man as "mechanic" if it possible to describe him more accurately.

Distinguish between stone masons and brick masons.

Do not call a bonnet maker a bonnet manufacturer, a lace maker a lace manufacturer, a chocolate maker a chocolate manufacturer. Reserve the term manufacturer for proprietors of establishments; always give the branch of manufacture.

Whenever merchants or traders can be reported under a single word expressive of their special line, as "grocer," it should be done. Otherwise, say dry goods merchant, coal dealer, etc.

Add, in all cases, the class of business, as wholesale (wh.), retail (ret.), importer (imp.), jobber, etc.

Use the word huckster in all cases where it applies.

Be very particular to distinguish between farmers and farm laborers. In agricultural regions this should be one of the points to which the assistant marshal should especially direct his attention.

Confine the use of the words "glover," "hatter," and "furrier" to those who actually make, or make up, in their own establishments, all, or a part, of the gloves and hats or furs which they sell. Those who only sell these articles should be characterized as "glove dealer," "hat and cap dealer," "fur dealer."

Judges (state whether Federal or State, whether probate, police, or otherwise) may be assumed to be lawyers, and that addition, therefore, need not be given; but all other officials should have their profession designated, if they have any, as "retired merchant, governor of Massachusetts," "paper manufacturer, representative in legislature." If anything is to be omitted, leave out the office, and put in the occupation.

As far as possible distinguish machinists, as "locomotive builders," "engine builders," etc.

Instead of saying, "packers," indicate whether you mean "pork packers" or "crockery packers," or "mule packers."

The organization of domestic service has not proceeded so far in this country as to render it worthwhile to make distinction in the character of work. Report all as "domestic servants.

Cooks, waiters, etc., in hotels and restaurants will be reported separately from domestic servants.

The term "housekeeper" will be reserved for such persons as receive distinct wages or salary for the service. Women keeping house for their own families or for themselves, without any other gainful occupation, will be entered as "keeping house." Grown daughters assisting them will be reported without occupation.

You are under no obligation to give any man’s occupation just as he expresses it. If he can not tell intelligibly what it is, find out what he does, and characterize his profession accordingly.

The inquiry as to occupation will not be asked in respect to infants or children too young to take any part in production. Neither will the doing of domestic errands or family chores out of school be considered an occupation. "At home’ or "attending school" will be the best entry in the majority of cases. But if a boy or girl, whatever the age, is earning money regularly by labor, contributing to the family support, or appreciably assisting in mechanical or agricultural industry, the occupation should be stated.


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7. Profession, occupation, or trade of each person, male or female, over 15 years of age.

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10. Profession, Trade, and Occupation-- Under head 7, entitled "Profession, occupation, or trade of each person over fifteen years of age," insert the specific profession, occupation, or trade the individual being enumerated is reputed to follow. The proprietor of a farm for the time being, who pursues agriculture professionally or practically, is to be recorded as a farmer; the men who are employed for wages by him are to be termed farm laborers. The members, or inmates, of a family employed in domestic duties at wages you will record as "servants," or "serving," or "domestic," according to the custom of the vicinage.

A mechanic who employs others under him is to be termed differently from the one employed. The first is a master mechanic, and should be termed "master mason," "master carpenter," etc., as the case may be, and you should be very particular in designating the employers or master mechanics from the workmen or employed. Where persons (over 15) are learning trades or serving apprenticeship, they should be recorded as "apprentices," with the name of the trade whereunto they are apprenticed. The employment of every person over 15, having an occupation, should be asked and recorded. In every case insert the kind of labor and nature of apprenticeship.

When the individual is a clergyman, insert the initials of the denomination to which he belongs -- as Meth. for Methodist; R.C. for Roman Catholic; O.S.P., Old School Presbyterian; P.E., Protestant Episcopal; or other appropriate designation, as the case may require. If a person follows several occupations, insert the name of the most prominent. If the person should be a teacher or professor, state the character of the occupation, as teacher of French, of common school; professor of mathematics, of languages, of philosophy, etc. In fine, record the occupation of every human being, male and female, (over 15,) who has an occupation or means of living, and let your record be so clear as to leave no doubt on the subject.


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7. Profession, occupation, or trade of each male person over 15 years of age.

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7. Under heading 7, entitled "Profession, occupation, or trade of each person over 15 years of age," insert opposite the name of each male the specific profession, occupation, or trade which the said person is known and reputed to follow in the place where he resides - as clergyman, physician, lawyer, shoemaker, student, farmer, carpenter, laborer, tailor, boatman, sailor, or otherwise, as the fact may be. When more convenient, the name of the article he produces may be substituted.

When the individual is a clergyman, insert the initials of the denomination to which he belongs before his profession - as Meth. for Methodist, R.C. for Roman Catholic, O.S.P. for Old School Presbyterian, or other appropriate initials, as the fact may be. When a person follows several professions or occupations the name of the principal one only is to be given. If a person follows no particular occupation, the space is to be filled with the word "none."