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20a. Occupation:

What kind of work was he doing?
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159. Item 20 consists of three parts: 20a. Occupation; 20b. Industry; and 20c. Class of worker.-There must be an entry in all three parts of this item for every person with an entry of "Wk" in item 15, or "Yes" in items 16, l7, or 18.

All three parts of the item (20a, 20b, and 20c) must refer to the same particular job or business.

Item 20a. Occupation

164. Item 20a. What kind of work was he doing?-Specific answer.-The answer should tell clearly and specifically the kind of work or nature of duties performed by the person. General or vague entries are not satisfactory.

165. How to obtain a satisfactory occupation entry.-The best short description of a person's occupation is usually the title of his job; so, wherever possible, enter the title of the person's occupation. For example, "Auto mechanic" is satisfactory; you do not have to enter a description of his duties.

In some cases, the respondent will not give you enough information in answering the question, "What kind of work was he doing?" You should ask additional questions until you are satisfied that you have obtained the specific occupation of the person. For example, the respondent may say, "Teaching." You should then ask, "What subject did he teach?" For another example, the respondent says, "My daughter is a nurse " You should then ask, "What kind of a nurse is she, a registered nurse, practical nurse, nursemaid, or some other kind?"

Sometimes, the respondent will give you a lengthy explanation of the person's job duties. You should condense such statements into a few words which give the most important points about the kind of work the person is doing. For example, the respondent may say, "My husband runs a machine that takes dough and cuts it up before the dough is put into the oven." Your entry in the schedule should be "Dough cutting machine operator."

Another type of problem you may find is an answer for which you cannot think up a simple title. For example, the respondent may say, "He nails heels on shoes." It is satisfactory for you to enter on the schedule the words "Nails heels on shoes."

166. Unusual occupations.-You may run across occupations which sound strange or funny to you. Accept such reports if the respondent is sure that the title is correct. For example, "sand hog" is the title for certain workers engaged in the construction of under-water tunnels, and "printer's devil" is sometimes used for an apprentice printer.

167. Caution on occupations of young persons.-Professional, technical, and skilled occupations usually require lengthy periods of training or education which a young person normally cannot have. It may be found, upon further inquiry, that the young person is really only a trainee, apprentice, or helper (for example, accountant trainee, electrician trainee, apprentice electrician, electrician's helper).

168. Occupations for which special care is necessary.-The following are occupations for which you must take special care to get satisfactory entries:

169. Additional examples of occupation entries.-The following list shows, for a number of other occupations, what is meant by clear and exact entries:

a. Adjuster.-Specify claim adjuster, brake adjuster, machine adjuster, complaint adjuster, insurance adjuster, etc.

b. Apprentice.-An apprentice is under a contract during his training period while a trainee is not. Note that the return should include both the occupation and the word "apprentice" or "trainee" (for example, apprentice plumber, plumber trainee).

c. Caretaker.-Wherever possible, specify servant, janitor, guard, building superintendent, gardener, groundskeeper, sexton, property clerk, locker attendant, vault attendant, etc.

d. Contractor.-A "contractor" is engaged principally in obtaining building or other contracts and supervising the work. A skilled worker who works with his own tools should be returned as carpenter, plasterer, plumber, electrician, etc.

e. Custodian.-See "Caretaker," above.

f. Doctor.-Specify physician, dentist,. veterinarian, osteopath, chiropractor, etc.

g. Entertainer.-Specify singer, dancer, acrobat, musician, etc.

h. Factory worker.-Specify assembler, heater, turret-lathe operator, weaver, loom fixer, knitter, stitcher, punch press operator, spray painter, riveter, etc.

i. Foremen.-Wherever possible, specify the trade, as foreman-carpenter, foreman-electrician, etc.

j. Housekeeper (paid).-A "housekeeper" employed in a private home for wages has the full responsibility for the management of the household. Do not confuse this occupation with housemaid (general housework), hired girl, or kitchen maid.

k. Interior decorator.-An "interior decorator" designs the decoration plans for the interiors of homes, hotels, offices, etc., and supervises the placement of the furniture and other decorations. Do not confuse this occupation with painter or paperhanger.

l. Laborer.-Wherever possible, specify sweeper, charwoman, porter, janitor, stevedore, window washer, car cleaner, section hand, gardener, hand trucker, etc.

m. Lay-out man.-Specify patternmaker, sheet-metal worker) compositor, commercial artist, structural steel worker, boilermaker, draftsman, coppersmith, etc.

n. Machinist.-A "machinist" is a skilled craftsman who constructs and repairs all kinds of metal parts, tools, and machines through the use of blueprints, machine and hand tools, and precision measuring instruments. A person who merely operates a factory machine (for example, drill press operator, winder, etc.) or who does simple repair work (for example) welder, machine adjuster, etc.) is not a machinist.

o. Nun.-Wherever possible, specify the type of work done, as housekeeper, art teacher, organist, cook, laundress, registered nurse, etc.

p. Office worker.-Specify typist, receptionist, comptometer operator, file clerk, bookkeeper, physician's attendant, etc.

q. Salesman.-Wherever possible, specify advertising salesman, insurance salesman, bond salesman, canvasser) traveling salesman, driver-salesman (routeman), peddler, newsboy, etc.

r. Secretary.-The title "secretary" should be used for persons doing secretarial work in an office. The secretary who is an elected or appointed officer of a business, lodge, or other organization should be reported in occupation as "official.

s. Sister.-See "Nun," above.

t. Supervisor.-Whenever possible, specify typing supervisor, chief bookkeeper, steward, kitchen supervisor, section foreman) buyer, forelady, sales instructor, route foreman, etc.

u. Tester.-Specify, the particular item tested, as cement tester, instrument tester, engine tester, battery tester, etc.

v. Trainee.-See "Apprentice, above.

w. Trucker.-Specify truck driver, trucking contractor, electric trucker, hand trucker, etc.