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Metropolitan status 5 years ago


MIGTYPE5 indicates whether the respondent lived in a metropolitan area five years ago. For 1940 and 1980-2000, MIGTYPE5 also indicates whether persons who lived in a metropolitan area five years ago resided in the largest city/cities ("the central cities") in the metropolitan area.

A metropolitan area is a region consisting of a large urban core together with surrounding communities that have a high degree of economic and social integration with the urban core. See METAREA for more information.

In cases where the metropolitan and central/principal-city status of the prior residence are not directly identified in the source microdata, IPUMS derives MIGTYPE5 codes based on other available geographic information, e.g., migration county groups (MIGCOGRP) or Public Use Microdata Areas (MIGPUMA). If a respondent resided in a county group or PUMA that was only partially within a metropolitan area or central/principal city, MIGTYPE5 indicates a status of "indeterminable (mixed)."

In 1980, responses to questions about migration were coded for only half the persons included in IPUMS USA. These cases provide accurate proportional distributions but not correct absolute numbers for the total population. For correct absolute numbers, users should select cases coded as 2 in MIGSAMP and multiply by 2 as well as by PERWT.

Codes and Frequencies

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For the post-1940 samples, MIGTYPE5 is based on the metropolitan classification of the underlying geographic unit of at least 100,000+ residents (and of 400,000+ residents for the 1 percent sample of census 2000) designated by the Census Bureau for confidentiality reasons (i.e., county group, PUMA, or Super-PUMA). See METRO for detailed discussion of confidentiality rules limiting the classification of metropolitan status in each year.

In 1980, the N/A category includes persons for whom the metropolitan status of their past residence could not be classified. In other years, unclassified cases (e.g., for persons who lived in a mixed metro-non-metro area) are coded as 9, "Metropolitan status indeterminable (mixed)." For comparability with 1980, users must group together the N/A and "indeterminable (mixed)" cases (codes 0 and 9).

In 2000, MIGTYPE5 is reported only for respondents who lived in another residence 5 years ago. All other cases are coded as "N/A".

MIGTYPE1 provides analogous information for 1950 and for 2005-onward ACS and PRCS samples, using a 1-year rather than a 5-year reference period.

Users should note that in all years we have interpreted "abroad" as non-metro (code 1).


  • 1940: Persons age 5+.
  • 1960-1970: Persons age 5+.
  • 1980: Persons age 5+; 50 percent of cases (see MIGSAMP).
  • 1990: Persons age 5+; not available for Puerto Rico.
  • 2000: Persons age 5+ who lived in a different house 5 years ago.


United States
Puerto Rico
  • 2018: --
  • 2017: --
  • 2016: --
  • 2015: --
  • 2014: --
  • 2013: --
  • 2012: --
  • 2011: --
  • 2010: --
  • 2009: --
  • 2008: --
  • 2007: --
  • 2006: --
  • 2005: --
  • 2000: All samples
  • 1990: --
  • 1980: All samples
  • 1970: All samples
  • 1930: --
  • 1920: --
  • 1910: --



Editing Procedure

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