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PRENT
Occupational prestige score, Nakao and Treas

Description

PRENT is a constructed variable that assigns a Nakao-Treas prestige score to each occupation using the modified version of the 1990 occupational classification scheme available in the OCC1990 variable. The PRENT variable is based on prestige assessments assigned by Nakato and Treas, using data from the 1989 General Social Survey. Respondents were asked to evaluate "social standing" of occupations in this survey.  More specifically, on a cardboard sheet showing a nine-rung ladder of social standing that ranged from "1" being the lowest social standing to "9" being the highest social standing, respondents were asked to sort cards with occupational titles. Nakao and Treas then converted these data into prestige score using the following formula:


where Pj is the prestige score of the jth occupation, i is the rank of social standing, and Xji is the proportion of ratings received by the jth occupation that fell on the ith rung of the ladder.

Therefore, the prestige score is a weighted average of the ratings received by each occupation, with weights of 0, 12.5, 25.0 ... 100, assigned to the respective rating categories.  Prestige scores can range from 0 to 100.

For example, if 70 percent of respondents ranked occupation title A as "9," 10 percent as "8," and 20 percent as "7," the prestige score for the occupation title A is 86.25 or [12.5 × (9-1) × 0.7] + [12.5 × (8-1) × 0.1] + [12.5 × (7-1) × 0.2] = 86.25.

For more information, see K. Nakao and J. Treas. 1994. "Updating Occupational Prestige and Socioeconomic Scores: How the New Measures Measure Up." Sociological Methodology 24: 1-72.

Nakao and Treas's work was based on the 1980 occupational classification scheme, which was in most respects identical to the 1990 scheme. The IPUMS version of PRENT uses the modified version of the 1990 occupational classification scheme available in the OCC1990 variable. Several 1990 occupational categories were aggregated for the modified version of the 1990 occupational classification scheme. In these cases, the prestige score was calculated as the weighted average of 1990 occupational categories.

Alternative measures of occupational standing that are based on OCC1990 are available in EDSCOR90, ERSCOR90, HWSEI, and NPBOSS90. For information on occupational standing measures, see "Integrated Occupation and Industry Codes and Occupational Standing Variables in the IPUMS."

User caution: There is significant debate about the usefulness of composite measures of occupational standing (in the IPUMS, these variables include SEI, HWSEI, NPBOSS50, and NPBOSS90). We strongly urge researchers to read our user note on this issue and to familiarize themselves with the debates surrounding the use of these variables.

Codes

PRENT is a constructed 3-digit numeric variable that assigns a Nakao-Treas prestige score to each occupation using the modified version of the 1990 occupational classification scheme available in the OCC1990 variable. The PRENT variable is based on prestige assessments assigned by Nakato and Treas, using data from the 1989 General Social Survey. Respondents were asked to evaluate "social standing" of occupations in this survey. PRENT has one implied decimal. For example, a PRENT value of 227 should be interpreted as 22.7. This division is performed automatically in the extract setup files. PRENT specific variable codes for missing, edited, or unidentified observations, observations not applicable (N/A), observations not in universe (NIU), top and bottom value coding, etc. are provided below if applicable by Census year (and data sample if specified).

User Note: There is significant debate about the usefulness of composite measures of occupational standing (in the IPUMS, these variables include SEI, HWSEI, NPBOSS50, and NPBOSS90). We strongly urge researchers to read our user note on this issue and to familiarize themselves with the debates surrounding the use of these variables.

PRENT Specific Variable Codes
000 = N/A

Comparability

This variable is comparable across years.

PRESGL offers a similar variable that is based on the occupational classification scheme available in OCC1950.

There are three occupational categories of OCC1990 that do not have corresponding occupational categories of OCC in 1990. They are 150 (Humanities instructors, n.e.c.), 200 (professionals n.e.c.), and 361 (Inspectors, n.e.c.). These occupational categories have corresponding occupational categories of OCC in 1950 and 1960. Since there is no available prestige score for these categories, the category of 150 is assigned the same PRENT score as category 154 (Subject instructors, college); the category of 200 is assigned the same PRENT score as category 22 (Managers and administrators, n.e.c.); and the category 361 is assigned the same PRENT score as the category 796 (Production checkers and inspectors).

In samples from 1960 onward, occupation information is available for many people who were not working at the time of the census. In 1960 and 1970, occupations were reported for persons who had worked within the previous ten years; and from 1980 onward, occupations were reported for persons who had worked within the previous five years. We assigned PRENT values to these cases. Researchers who wish to exclude these cases from their analyses can use the LABFORCE variable to do so.

Universe

  • Persons with an occupational response (codes 003-889) recorded in OCC1990; not available for Puerto Rico.

Availability

United States
  • 2016: All samples
  • 2015: All samples
  • 2014: All samples
  • 2013: All samples
  • 2012: All samples
  • 2011: All samples
  • 2010: ACS; ACS 3yr; ACS 5yr
  • 2009: All samples
  • 2008: All samples
  • 2007: All samples
  • 2006: All samples
  • 2005: All samples
  • 2004: All samples
  • 2003: All samples
  • 2002: All samples
  • 2001: All samples
  • 2000: All samples
  • 1990: All samples
  • 1980: All samples
  • 1970: All samples
  • 1960: All samples
  • 1950: All samples
  • 1940: --
  • 1930: --
  • 1920: --
  • 1910: --
  • 1900: --
  • 1880: --
  • 1870: --
  • 1860: --
  • 1850: --
Puerto Rico
  • 2016: --
  • 2015: --
  • 2014: --
  • 2013: --
  • 2012: --
  • 2011: --
  • 2010: --
  • 2009: --
  • 2008: --
  • 2007: --
  • 2006: --
  • 2005: --
  • 2000: --
  • 1990: --
  • 1980: --
  • 1970: --
  • 1930: --
  • 1920: --
  • 1910: --

Flags

This variable has no flags.

Editing Procedure

There is no editing procedure available for this variable.