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PWLMA
Place of work: labor market area

Description

PWLMA identifies the labor market area where the respondent works. See LMA for additional information on the labor market area geography. The boundaries of the labor market area are based on county geography and may cluster counties from more than one state.

See MIGSAMP for clarification of the 1980 universe statement.

Codes

This variable is only available for the 1980 and 1990 Labor Market Area samples. PWLMA is a 3-digit numeric variable which identifies the labor market area where the respondent works (See LMA for additional information on these geographical units). The boundaries of the labor market area are based on county geography and may cluster counties from more than one state. PWLMA specific variable codes for missing, edited, or unidentified observations, observations not applicable (N/A), observations not in universe (NIU), top and bottom value coding, etc. are provided below if applicable by Census year (and data sample if specified).

PWLMA Specific Variable Codes
720 = Puerto Rico
730 = U.S. Outlying Areas
970 = Abroad
980 = LMA not reported
999 = N/A

See links below for detailed Labor Market Area codes:
1980 Labor Market Area composition
1990 Labor Market Area composition

Comparability

LMAs are constructed via the same process in 1980 and 1990, but the coding and composition of LMAs are not comparable across years for individual-level PUMS data. Using county-level summary data, researchers can examine compositional changes in LMAs; however, the individual-level data released for the labor market samples of the 1980 and 1990 PUMS identify LMA and commuting zones only, not the constituent counties. Since many of the 1990 LMAs contain counties that clustered differently in the 1980 LMAs, it is not possible to determine which fraction of individual-level data in the 1980 LMA would cluster in the 1990 LMA. For this reason, the IPUMS program does not attempt to harmonize the 1980 and 1990 LMA codes but leaves the codes at their 1980 and 1990 values.

In other years, the Census Bureau designated different geographical units comparable to PWLMA. The variable, PWPUMA, available for 1990, identifies the Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA, see also PUMA) place of work. PWPUMAS, available for both the 1 percent and the 5 percent samples of census 2000, identifies the respondent's place of work in terms of the Super-PUMA (contiguous territory of 400,000+ residents within a state) where the workplace was located. For 1980, PWCNTYGP provides information similar to that in PWLMA, using county groups (counties, cities, or other census-designated places with 100,000+ residents) as the basic geographic unit.

Universe

  • 1980: Persons age 16+ who worked last week and reported their place of work in the United States or Puerto Rico; 50 percent of cases (see MIGSAMP).
  • 1990: Persons age 16+ who worked last week and reported their place of work in the United States or Puerto Rico.

Availability

United States
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  • 1990: 0.5% LMA
  • 1980: 1% LMA
  • 1970: --
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Puerto Rico
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Flags

This variable has no flags.

Editing Procedure

There is no editing procedure available for this variable.