Questionnaire Text

2019 ACS 2010 ACS 2001 ACS 1930 5%
2018 ACS 2009 ACS 2000 5% 1920 1%
2017 ACS 2008 ACS 1990 5% 1910 1%
2016 ACS 2007 ACS 1980 5% 1900 5%
2015 ACS 2006 ACS 1970 Form 2 Metro 1880 10%
2014 ACS 2005 ACS 1970 Form 1 Metro 1870 1%
2013 ACS 2004 ACS 1960 5% 1860 1%
2012 ACS 2003 ACS 1950 1% 1850 1%
2011 ACS 2002 ACS 1940 1%
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2019 ACS
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c) What kind of business or industry was this? Include the main activity, product, or service provided at the location where employed. (For example: elementary school, residential construction)
___________________________________

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2018 ACS
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43. What kind of business or industry was this? Describe the activity at the location where employed. (For example: hospital, newspaper publishing, mail order house, auto engine manufacturing, bank)

____________________________________


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2017 ACS
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43. What kind of business or industry was this? Describe the activity at the location where employed. (For example: hospital, newspaper publishing, mail order house, auto engine manufacturing, bank)

____________________________________


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2016 ACS
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43. What kind of business or industry was this? Describe the activity at the location where employed. (For example: hospital, newspaper publishing, mail order house, auto engine manufacturing, bank)

____________________________________

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43. Describe the business, industry, or individual employer named in question 42. If there is more than one activity, describe only the major activity at the place where the person worked. Describe what is made, what is sold, or what service is given.
Enter descriptions like the following: newspaper publishing, mail order house, auto engine manufacturing.

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2015 ACS
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43. What kind of business or industry was this? Describe the activity at the location where employed. (For example: hospital, newspaper publishing, mail order house, auto engine manufacturing, bank)

____________________________________

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43. Describe the business, industry, or individual employer named in question 42. If there is more than one activity, describe only the major activity at the place where the person worked. Enter what is made, what is sold, or what service is given.
Enter descriptions like the following: hospital, newspaper publishing, mail order house, auto engine manufacturing, bank.
Do not enter: newspaper, order house, engine.

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2014 ACS
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43. What kind of business or industry was this? Describe the activity at the location where employed. (For example: hospital, newspaper publishing, mail order house, auto engine manufacturing, bank)

____________________________________

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43.Print one or more words to describe the business, industry, or individual employer named in question42. If there is more than one activity, describe only the major activity at the place where the person worked. Enter what is made, what is sold, or what service is given.

Enter descriptions like the following: hospital, newspaper publishing, mail order house, auto engine manufacturing, bank.

Do not enter: newspaper, order house, engine.


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2013 ACS
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43. What kind of business or industry was this? Describe the activity at the location where employed. (For example: hospital, newspaper publishing, mail order house, auto engine manufacturing, bank)

____________________________________

Questionnaire instructions view entire document:  text  image
43.Print one or more words to describe the business, industry, or individual employer named in question42. If there is more than one activity, describe only the major activity at the place where the person worked. Enter what is made, what is sold, or what service is given.

Enter descriptions like the following: hospital, newspaper publishing, mail order house, auto engine manufacturing, bank.

Do not enter: newspaper, order house, engine.


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2012 ACS
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43. What kind of business or industry was this? Describe the activity at the location where employed. (For example: hospital, newspaper publishing, mail order house, auto engine manufacturing, bank)

____________________________________

Questionnaire instructions view entire document:  text  image
43.Print one or more words to describe the business, industry, or individual employer named in question42. If there is more than one activity, describe only the major activity at the place where the person worked. Enter what is made, what is sold, or what service is given.

Enter descriptions like the following: hospital, newspaper publishing, mail order house, auto engine manufacturing, bank.

Do not enter: newspaper, order house, engine.


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2011 ACS
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43. What kind of business or industry was this? Describe the activity at the location where employed. (For example: hospital, newspaper publishing, mail order house, auto engine manufacturing, bank)

____________________________________

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43.Print one or more words to describe the business, industry, or individual employer named in question42. If there is more than one activity, describe only the major activity at the place where the person worked. Enter what is made, what is sold, or what service is given.

Enter descriptions like the following: hospital, newspaper publishing, mail order house, auto engine manufacturing, bank.

Do not enter: newspaper, order house, engine.


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2010 ACS
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43. What kind of business or industry was this? Describe the activity at the location where employed. (For example: hospital, newspaper publishing, mail order house, auto engine manufacturing, bank)

____________________________________

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43.Print one or more words to describe the business, industry, or individual employer named in question42. If there is more than one activity, describe only the major activity at the place where the person worked. Enter what is made, what is sold, or what service is given.

Enter descriptions like the following: hospital, newspaper publishing, mail order house, auto engine manufacturing, bank.

Do not enter: newspaper, order house, engine.


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2009 ACS
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43. What kind of business or industry was this? Describe the activity at the location where employed. (For example: hospital, newspaper publishing, mail order house, auto engine manufacturing, bank)

____________________________________

Questionnaire instructions view entire document:  text  image
43.Print one or more words to describe the business, industry, or individual employer named in question42. If there is more than one activity, describe only the major activity at the place where the person worked. Enter what is made, what is sold, or what service is given.

Enter descriptions like the following: hospital, newspaper publishing, mail order house, auto engine manufacturing, bank.

Do not enter: newspaper, order house, engine.


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2008 ACS
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43. What kind of business or industry was this? Describe the activity at the location where employed. (For example: hospital, newspaper publishing, mail order house, auto engine manufacturing, bank)

____________________________________

Questionnaire instructions view entire document:  text  image
43.Print one or more words to describe the business, industry, or individual employer named in question42. If there is more than one activity, describe only the major activity at the place where the person worked. Enter what is made, what is sold, or what service is given.

Enter descriptions like the following: hospital, newspaper publishing, mail order house, auto engine manufacturing, bank.

Do not enter: newspaper, order house, engine.


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2007 ACS
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43. What kind of business or industry was this? Describe the activity at the location where employed. (For example: hospital, newspaper publishing, mail order house, auto engine manufacturing, bank)

____________________________________

Questionnaire instructions view entire document:  text  image
43.Print one or more words to describe the business, industry, or individual employer named in question42. If there is more than one activity, describe only the major activity at the place where the person worked. Enter what is made, what is sold, or what service is given.

Enter descriptions like the following: hospital, newspaper publishing, mail order house, auto engine manufacturing, bank.

Do not enter: newspaper, order house, engine.


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2006 ACS
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43. What kind of business or industry was this? Describe the activity at the location where employed. (For example: hospital, newspaper publishing, mail order house, auto engine manufacturing, bank)

____________________________________

Questionnaire instructions view entire document:  text  image
43.Print one or more words to describe the business, industry, or individual employer named in question42. If there is more than one activity, describe only the major activity at the place where the person worked. Enter what is made, what is sold, or what service is given.

Enter descriptions like the following: hospital, newspaper publishing, mail order house, auto engine manufacturing, bank.

Do not enter: newspaper, order house, engine.


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2005 ACS
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43. What kind of business or industry was this? Describe the activity at the location where employed. (For example: hospital, newspaper publishing, mail order house, auto engine manufacturing, bank)

____________________________________

Questionnaire instructions view entire document:  text  image
43.Print one or more words to describe the business, industry, or individual employer named in question42. If there is more than one activity, describe only the major activity at the place where the person worked. Enter what is made, what is sold, or what service is given.

Enter descriptions like the following: hospital, newspaper publishing, mail order house, auto engine manufacturing, bank.

Do not enter: newspaper, order house, engine.


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2004 ACS
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43. What kind of business or industry was this? Describe the activity at the location where employed. (For example: hospital, newspaper publishing, mail order house, auto engine manufacturing, bank)

____________________________________

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37.Print one or more words to describe the business, industry, or individual employer named in question 36. If there is more than one activity, describe only the major activity at the place where the person worked. Enter what is made, what is sold, or what service is given.

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2003 ACS
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43. What kind of business or industry was this? Describe the activity at the location where employed. (For example: hospital, newspaper publishing, mail order house, auto engine manufacturing, bank)

____________________________________

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37.Print one or more words to describe the business, industry, or individual employer named in question 36. If there is more than one activity, describe only the major activity at the place where the person worked. Enter what is made, what is sold, or what service is given.

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2002 ACS
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43. What kind of business or industry was this? Describe the activity at the location where employed. (For example: hospital, newspaper publishing, mail order house, auto engine manufacturing, bank)

____________________________________

Questionnaire instructions view entire document:  text  image
43.Print one or more words to describe the business, industry, or individual employer named in question42. If there is more than one activity, describe only the major activity at the place where the person worked. Enter what is made, what is sold, or what service is given.

Enter descriptions like the following: hospital, newspaper publishing, mail order house, auto engine manufacturing, bank.

Do not enter: newspaper, order house, engine.


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2001 ACS
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43. What kind of business or industry was this? Describe the activity at the location where employed. (For example: hospital, newspaper publishing, mail order house, auto engine manufacturing, bank)

____________________________________

Questionnaire instructions view entire document:  text  image
43.Print one or more words to describe the business, industry, or individual employer named in question42. If there is more than one activity, describe only the major activity at the place where the person worked. Enter what is made, what is sold, or what service is given.

Enter descriptions like the following: hospital, newspaper publishing, mail order house, auto engine manufacturing, bank.

Do not enter: newspaper, order house, engine.


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2000 5%
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27. Industry or Employer - Describe clearly this person's chief job activity or business last week. If this person had more than one job, describe the one at which this person worked the most hours. If this person had no job or business last week, give the information for his/her last job or business since 1995.

a. For whom did this person work? If now on active duty in the Armed Forces, mark [X] this box --> [] and print the branch of the Armed Forces.

Name of company, business, or other employer
[ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ]
[ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ]
[ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ]
b. What kind of business or industry was this? Describe the activity at location where employed. (For example: hospital, newspaper publishing, mail order house, auto repair shop, bank)

c. Is this mainly - Mark [X] ONE box.

[] Manufacturing?
[] Wholesale trade?
[] Retail trade?
[] Other (agriculture, construction, service, government, etc.)?

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1990 5%
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28 - 30. CURRENT OR MOST RECENT JOB ACTIVITY. Describe clearly this person?s chief job activity or business last week. If this person had more than one job, describe the one at which this person worked the most hours. If this person had no job or business last week, give information for his/her last job or business since 1985.

28. Industry or Employer

a. For whom did this person work?

If now on active duty in the Armed Forces, fill this circle[] and print the branch of the Armed Forces.

____________________________________
(Name of company, business, or other employer)

If the person worked for a company, business, or government agency, print the name of the company, not the name of the person?s supervisor. If the person worked for an individual or a business that had no company name, print the name of the individual worked for. If the person worked in his/her own business, print ?self-employed.?
b. What kind of business or industry was this?
Describe the activity at location where employed.

_________________________
(For example: hospital, newspaper publishing, mail order house, auto engine manufacturing, retail bakery)

Print two or more words to tell what the business, industry, or individual employer named in 28a did. If there is more than one activity, describe only the major activity at the place where the person worked. Enter what is made, what is sold, or what service is given. Some examples of what to enter:
Enter a description like the following
Metal furniture manufacturing
Retail grocery store
Petroleum refining
Cattle ranch

- Do not enter ?
Furniture company
Grocery store
Oil company
Ranch

c. Is this mainly - Fill ONE circle

[] Manufacturing
[] Wholesale trade
[] Retail trade
[] Other (agriculture, construction, service, government, etc.)

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1980 5%
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28-30. Current or most recent job activity

Describe clearly this person's chief job activity or business last week. If this person had more than one job, describe the one at which this person worked the most hours. If this person had no job or business last week, give information for last job or business since 1975.


28. Industry

a. For whom did this person work?
If now on active duty in the Armed Forces, print "AF" and skip to question 31.

______________________________________________________________________
(Name of company, business, organization, or other employer)

"If the person worked for a company, business, or government agency, print the name of the company, not the name of the person's supervisor. If the person worked for an individual or a business that has no company name, print the name of the individual worked for. If the person worked in his or her own business, print ?self-employed?."
b. What kind of business or industry was this?

Describe the activity at location where employed.

______________________________________________________________________
(For example: Hospital, newspaper publishing, mail order house, auto engine manufacturing, breakfast cereal manufacturing)

"Print two or more words to tell what the business, industry, or individual employer named in 28a does. If there is more than one activity, describe only the major activity at the place where the person works. Enter what is made, what is sold, or that service is given. Some examples of what is needed to make an answer acceptable are shown on the census form and here.

Unacceptable Acceptable
Furniture company Metal furniture manufacturing
Grocery store Wholesale grocery store
Oil company Retail gas station
Ranch Cattle ranch
c. Is this mainly - (Fill one circle)

[] Manufacturing [] Retail trade
[] Wholesale trade [] Other - (agriculture, construction, service, government, etc.)

"Mark Manufacturing if the factory, plant, mill, etc., mostly makes things, even if it also sells them. Mark Wholesale trade if the business mostly sells things to stores or other companies. Mark Retail trade if the business mostly sells things (not services) to individuals. Mark Other if the main activity of the employer is not making or selling things. Some examples of Other are farming, construction, and services such as those provided by hotels, dry cleaners, repair shops, schools, and banks."

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1970 Form 2 Metro
Questionnaire form view entire document:  text  image
[All]
33. Industry
a. For whom did he work? If now on active duty in the Armed Forces, print "AF" and skip to question 36.

_______________________
(Name of company, business, organization, or other employer)

"If he worked for company, business, or government agency, print the name of the company, not the name of his supervisor. If he worked for a person or a small business that has no company name, print the name of the person he worked for."
b. What kind of business or industry was this?
Describe activity at location where employed.

_______________________
(For example: Junior high school, retail supermarket, dairy farm, TV and radio service, auto assembly plant, road construction)

"Write two or more words to tell what the business, industry, or person named in 33a does. Write what it makes or what it sells or what service it gives. Some examples of acceptable answers are shown on the Census form and here."
Acceptable Unacceptable
Cattle ranch Ranch
Wholesale grocery store Grocery store
Retail gas station Oil company
Metal furniture manufacturing Furniture company
If a company does more than one thing (like make household electrical appliances and electric generators) describe only the major activity at the place where he works. If, however, he works at a warehouse, repair shop, etc., that is part of and used only by a larger organization, give the major activity of the larger organization; for example, department store warehouse - report department store."
c. Is this mainly - (Fill one circle)
[] Manufacturing
[] Retail trade
[] Wholesale trade
[] Other (agriculture, construction, service, government, etc.)
"Mark Manufacturing if the factory, plant, mill, etc. makes things, even if it also sells them. Mark Wholesale trade if a business does not make things but buys them to sell to stores or other companies. Mark Retail trade if the business mostly sells things (not services) to individuals. Mark Other if the main purpose of the employer is not making or selling things. Some examples of "Other" are services, such as those given by hotels, dry cleaners, repair shops, schools, and banks. Farming and building houses, bridges, roads, are also examples of "Other" kinds of businesses."

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1970 Form 1 Metro
Questionnaire form view entire document:  text  image
[All]
33. Industry
a. For whom did he work? If now on active duty in the Armed Forces, print "AF" and skip to question 36.

_______________________
(Name of company, business, organization, or other employer)

"If he worked for company, business, or government agency, print the name of the company, not the name of his supervisor. If he worked for a person or a small business that has no company name, print the name of the person he worked for."
b. What kind of business or industry was this?
Describe activity at location where employed.

_______________________
(For example: Junior high school, retail supermarket, dairy farm, TV and radio service, auto assembly plant, road construction)

"Write two or more words to tell what the business, industry, or person named in 33a does. Write what it makes or what it sells or what service it gives. Some examples of acceptable answers are shown on the Census form and here."
Acceptable Unacceptable
Cattle ranch Ranch
Wholesale grocery store Grocery store
Retail gas station Oil company
Metal furniture manufacturing Furniture company
If a company does more than one thing (like make household electrical appliances and electric generators) describe only the major activity at the place where he works. If, however, he works at a warehouse, repair shop, etc., that is part of and used only by a larger organization, give the major activity of the larger organization; for example, department store warehouse - report department store."
c. Is this mainly - (Fill one circle)
[] Manufacturing
[] Retail trade
[] Wholesale trade
[] Other (agriculture, construction, service, government, etc.)
"Mark Manufacturing if the factory, plant, mill, etc. makes things, even if it also sells them. Mark Wholesale trade if a business does not make things but buys them to sell to stores or other companies. Mark Retail trade if the business mostly sells things (not services) to individuals. Mark Other if the main purpose of the employer is not making or selling things. Some examples of "Other" are services, such as those given by hotels, dry cleaners, repair shops, schools, and banks. Farming and building houses, bridges, roads, are also examples of "Other" kinds of businesses."

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1960 5%
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b. What kind of business or industry was this? Describe activity at location where employed.

_________________________________________________________
(For example: County junior high school, auto assembly plant, TV and radio service, retail supermarket, road construction, farm)
c. Is this primarily:
[] Manufacturing
[] Wholesale trade
[] Retail trade
[] Other (services, agriculture, government, construction, etc.)

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1950 1%
Questionnaire form view entire document:  text  image
20b. Industry:

What kind of business or industry was he working in?
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159. Item 20 consists of three parts: 20a. Occupation; 20b. Industry; and 20c. Class of worker.-There must be an entry in all three parts of this item for every person with an entry of "Wk" in item 15, or "Yes" in items 16, l7, or 18.

All three parts of the item (20a, 20b, and 20c) must refer to the same particular job or business.

Item 20b. Industry

170. Item 20b. What kind of business or industry was he working in?- Specific answer.--The answer should tell clearly and specifically the kind of business or industry in which this person worked. Your entry should give the exact activity being carried on in this business or industry; for example, wholesale shoe company, retail shoe store, shoe factory, shoe repair shop, etc.

171. Company names must not be used.-Company names, such as General Motors, DuPont) American Can Company, and Jones Company, must not be entered on the schedule.

172. How to report government agencies.-In the case of a government agency, the exact function must be given, such as State hospital, county road repair, and city grammar school. Where the agency's function is purely governmental, however, the name is acceptable, as United States Bureau of Internal Revenue or City License Board. In all cases, you must tell whether the agency is Federal (U. S.), State, city, county, etc.

173. How to report multiactivity businesses.-Some firms carry on more than one kind of business or industrial activity. If the activities are carried on in the same place, describe the major activity of the establishment. For example, a shoe factory has a store in the factory where damaged shoes are sold at retail at reduced prices; a salesman in this store should be reported in "Shoe factory" because the store is only a minor activity. If the activities are carried on in separate places, describe the business in which the person actually worked. For example, a miner working in a coal mine owned by a large steel company should be reported in "Coal mine."

174. How to distinguish between manufacturing and wholesaling.-Every manufacturing establishment sells its products, of course, but that does not make it a wholesale company. An establishment which produces products should be reported as a factory. For example, an establishment where hardware is made is a "Hardware factory." On the other hand, an establishment which buys hardware in large quantities for resale to retailers is a "Wholesale hardware company."

One type of establishment which you have to be careful to report correctly is a sales office set up by a manufacturing firm at a location away from the factory or headquarters of the firm. Frequently, these sales offices are in different cities from the firm's factory or headquarters. For example, a St. Louis shoe factory has a sales office in Chicago 7 the people working in the Chicago office should be reported as "Shoe manufacturer's sales office."

175. How to distinguish between wholesaling and retailing.-You must distinguish between the two kinds of businesses which specialize in selling. A wholesale establishment sells primarily to retailers, industrial users, or other wholesalers. A retail establishment sells primarily to individual customers.

176. How to report "home" business.-Some people carry on businesses in their own homes. Report these businesses just as if they were carried on in regular stores or shops. For example, dressmaking shop, lending library, retail antique furniture store, etc. (Note exception for laundry in par. 177 l below.)

177. Examples of industry entries.- The following list shows for a number of industries what is meant by clear and exact entries:

a. Agency.-Specify collection agency, advertising agency, real estate agency, employment agency, travel agency, etc.

b. Bakery.-Distinguish between a "wholesale bakery" which sells to grocers, restaurants, hotels, etc., and a "retail bakery" which sells only to private individuals

c. Box factory.-Specify paper box factory, wooden box factory, metal box factory, etc.

d. Club.-Specify golf club, fraternal club, night club, residence club, boarding house, etc.

e. Coal company.-Specify coal mine, retail coal yard, wholesale coal company, etc.

f. Credit company.-Specify credit rating company, loan company, retail credit clothing store, etc.

g. Engineering company.-Specify engineering consulting firm, general contracting company, wholesale heating equipment company, construction machinery factory, etc.

h. Express company.-Specify trucking company, rail way express agency, railroad car rental (for Fruit Growers Express Company, etc.), armored car service, etc.

i. Factory.-Specify steel rolling mill, hardware factory, aircraft factory, flour mill, hosiery mill, printing plant, etc.

j. Foundry.-Specify iron foundry, brass foundry, aluminum foundry, etc.

k. Fur company.-Specify fur dressing plant, fur garment factory, retail fur store, wholesale fur company, fur repair shop, etc.

l. Laundry.-Specify "own home" for a laundress working in her own home, and "private family" for a laundress working in the home of a private family. Specify "commercial laundry" for a person working in a steam laundry, hand laundry, Chinese laundry, French laundry, or similar establishment. Specify "self-service laundry" for a person working in an establishment where the customer brings her own laundry and pays a fee to use the washing machines (or other equipment).

m. Lumber company.-Specify sawmill, retail lumber yard) planing mill, logging camp, wholesale lumber company, etc.

n. Mill.-See "Factory," above.

o. Mine.-Specify coal mine, gold mine, bauxite mine, iron mine, copper mine, lead mine, marble quarry, etc.

p. Office.-Specify dentist's office, physician's office, public stenographer's office, steam railroad, life insurance company, etc.

q. Company.-Specify oil field, petroleum refinery, retail gasoline station, petroleum pipe line, wholesale oil company, etc.

r. Packing house.-Specify meat packing plant, fruit cannery, fruit packing house (wholesale packers and shippers), etc.

s. Pipe line.-Specify natural gas pipe line, gasoline pipe line, petroleum pipe line, pipe line construction, etc.

t. Plant.-See "Factory," above.

u. Plastic factory.-Distinguish between a "plastic materials factory" where plastic materials are made, and a "plastic products plant" where articles are actually manufactured from plastic materials.

v. Private club.-See "Club," above.

w. Public utility.-Specify electric light and power company, gas utility company, telephone company, water supply company, etc.

x.Railroad car shop.-Specify railroad car factory, steam railroad repair shop, street railroad repair shop, etc.

y. Rayon factory.-Distinguish between a "rayon chemical factory," where chemicals are made into rayon yarn, and a "rayon cloth mill," where the yarn is woven into cloth.

z.Repair shop.-Specify shoe repair shop, radio repair shop, blacksmith shop welding shop, auto repair shop, machine repair shop, etc.

aa. School.-Specify city elementary school, private kindergarten, private college, State university, etc.

ab. Tailor shop.-Distinguish between a "tailoring and cleaning shop" which provides a valet service and a "custom tailor shop" which makes clothes to customer's order.

ac. Terminal.-Specify bus terminal, railroad terminal, boat terminal, truck terminal, airport) etc.

ad. Textile mill.-Specify the major type of fiber used, as cotton cloth mill, woolen cloth mill, cotton yarn mill, rayon thread mill, etc.

ae. Transportation company.- Specify trucking company, moving and storage company, steamship company, air line, street railway, taxicab company, subway, elevated railway, steam railroad, petroleum pipe line, car loading company, etc.

af. Water company.-Specify water supply company, irrigation company, city water department, etc.

ag. Well.-Specify oil well, salt well, water well, etc.

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1940 1%
Questionnaire form view entire document:  text  image
Occupation, Industry and Class of Worker:
For a person at work, assigned to public emergency work, or with a job ("Yes" in Col. 21, 22, or 24), enter present occupation, industry, and class of worker. For a person seeking work ("Yes" in Col. 23):

29. Industry: Industry or business, as cotton mill, retail grocery, farm, shipyard, public school.
Questionnaire instructions view entire document:  text  image
548. Column 29. Industry.-There must be an entry in col. 29 indicating the industry, or kind of business or establishment, for each person for whom an occupation is entered in col. 28. Leave col. 29 blank for all other persons.

549. Enter in col. 29 the term or terms describing the kind of industry or establishment, that is, the kind of factory, store, or other place of business in which the person followed the occupation described in col. 28. In most cases there will be little difficulty in determining the industry, since most persons are clearly engaged in one distinct industry. difficulties will sometimes arise, however, in connection with persons whose occupation is connected with more than one industry. In such cases the person should be definitely reported in the principal industry in which he or his concern is engaged. The manager of a plantation, for example, should be returned as the manager of a farm, in spite of the fact that he also runs a store that supplies groceries, etc., to the laborers on the plantation.

550. For an employee who works for a concern that carries on different activities, the return should be the industry in which he directly works, provided that represents a major subdivision of the enterprise and is carried on in a separate building or in place physically distinct from other activities of the concern. Thus a miner working in a coal mine, owned and operated by a steel mill, should be returned as engaged in the coal mining industry (that is, in his immediate place of work) and not as working for a steel mill. On the other hand, persons working in a department or other unit incidental to the main work of an establishment should be returned in the Industry column (col. 29) as engaged in the major activity of the establishment. For example, the industry return for workers in the power plant of a steel rolling mill should be steel rolling mill; that for workers in the box making department of an electrical machinery factory should be electrical machinery factory; that for workers in the garage or the warehouse of a department store should be department store; and that for workers in the foundry of an agricultural implement factory should be agricultural implement factory.

551. Whenever possible, avoid the use of the work "company" in col. 29. An "oil company" for example, may operate oil wells, or a pipe line, or an oil refinery, or a cottonseed oil mill, or it may be engaged in selling oil. Likewise, never enter a firm name in col. 29, as "Jones & Co.," but state the industry or business in which the person follows his occupation, as building construction, retail hardware, etc.

552. Avoid General or Indefinite Terms.-Give the occupation and industry precisely. For example, return a worker in a textile mill as a spinner, cotton mill; weigher, woolen mill; spooler, silk mill; etc. Do not report industry in such indefinite terms as refinery, transportation, electrical, etc., but specify petroleum refinery, sugar refinery, or copper refinery; steam railroad, or but line; electrical power company or electrical appliance factory, etc. Never enter in col. 29 such indefinite terms as "factory," "mill," "shop," "store," or "office," without stating the kind of factory, etc., as soap factory, cotton mill, auto repair shop, grocery store, real estate office.


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1930 5%
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26. Industry: Industry or business, as cotton mill, dry goods store, shipyard, public school, etc..
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191. Column 26. Industry.-Make an entry in this column in all cases where an occupation is reported in column 25. But when the entry in column 25 is "none," leave column 26 blank. The entry in column 26, when made, should be the name of the industry, or the business, or the place in which this person works, as cotton mill, coal mine, dry-goods store, insurance office, bank, etc.

192. Never use the word "Company" in column 26. An "oil company," for example, may operate oil wells, or a pipe line, or an oil refinery, or a cottonseed oil mill, or it may be engaged in selling oil. Never enter in column 26 such indefinite terms as "factory," "mill," "shop," or "store," without stating the kind of factory, etc., as soap factory, cotton mill, blacksmith shop, grocery store. Likewise, never enter a firm name in column 26, as "Jones & Co.," but state the industry or business in which the person works, as coal mine, real estate, etc. Avoid entering the word "Contractor" in column 26. enter, instead, the name of the industry in which the person works, as building construction, street construction, etc.


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1920 1%
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27. Industry, business, or establishment in which at work, as cotton mill, dry goods store, farm, etc..
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1910 1%
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19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, farm, etc..
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150. Column 19. Industry.?An entry should be made in this column in all cases where the entry in column 18 has been that of an occupation. But where the entry in column 18 is own income or none, leave this column blank. The entry, when made, should consist of the word or words which most accurately describe the branch of industry, kind of business or establishment, line or work, or place in which this person works, as cotton mill, general farm, dry-goods store, insurance office, bank. (See also illustrative examples on page 36.)

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1900 5%

No questionnaire text is available for this sample.


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1880 10%
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Occupation:
13. Profession, occupation, or trade of each person, male or female.
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OCCUPATION

In the column numbered 13 is to be reported the occupation of each person 10 years of age and upward.

Occupation.?The inquiry "profession, occupation, or trade," is one of the most important questions of the schedule. Make a study of it. Take especial pains to avoid unmeaning terms, or such as are too general to convey a definite idea of the occupation. Call no man a "factory hand," or a "mill operative." State the kind of a mill or factory. The better form of expression would be, "Works in a cotton mill," "Works in paper mill," etc. Do not call a man a "shoemaker," "bootmaker," unless he makes the entire boot or shoe in a small shop. If he works in (or for) a boot or shoe factory, say so.

Do not apply the word "jeweler" to those who make watches, watch chains, or jewelry in large manufacturing establishments.

Call no man a "commissioner," a "collector," an "agent," an "artist," an "overseer," a "professor," a "treasurer," a "contractor," or a "speculator," without further explanation.

When boys are entered as apprentices, state the trade they are apprenticed to, as "apprenticed to carpenter," "apothecary?s apprentice." Students or scholars should be reported under those names.

When a lawyer, a merchant, a manufacturer, has retired from practice or business, say "retired lawyer," "retired merchant," etc. Distinguish between fire and life insurance agents. When clerks are returned, describe them as "clerk in store," "clerk in woolen mill," "R.R. clerk," "bank clerk," etc.

Describe no man as a "mechanic," if it is possible to describe him more accurately.

Distinguish between stone masons and brick masons.

Do not call a bonnet maker a bonnet manufacturer, a lace maker a lace manufacturer, a chocolate maker a chocolate manufacturer. Reserve the term "manufacturer" for proprietors of establishments; always give the branch of manufacture, as cotton manufacturer, woolen manufacturer, etc.

Whenever merchants or traders can be reported under a single word expressive of their special line, as "grocer," it should be done. Otherwise say dry goods merchant, coal dealer, etc.

Use the word "huckster" in all cases where it applies.

Be very particular to distinguish between farmers and farm laborers. In agricultural regions this should be one of the points to which the enumerator should especially direct his attention.

Confine the use of the words "glover," "hatter," and "furrier," to those who actual make, or make up, in their own establishments, all, or a part, of the gloves and hats or furs which they sell. Those who only sell these articles should be characterized as "glove dealer," "hat and cap dealer," "fur dealer."

Judges (state whether Federal or state, whether probate, police, or otherwise) may be assumed to be lawyers, and that addition, therefore, need not be given; but all other officials should have their profession designated, if they have any, as "retired" merchant, governor of Massachusetts," "paper manufacturer, representative in legislature." If anything is to be omitted, leave out the office and put in the occupation.

The organization of domestic service has not proceeded so far in this country as to render it worthwhile to make distinctions in the character of work. Report all as "domestic servants."

Cooks, waiters, etc., in hotels and restaurants will be reported separately from domestic servants, as "cook in hotel," etc.

The term "housekeeper" will be reserved for such persons as receive distinct wages or salary for the service. Women keeping house for their own families or for themselves, without any other gainful occupation, will be entered as "keeping house." Grown daughters assisting them will be reported without occupation.

You are under no obligation to give any man?s occupation just as he expresses it. If he can not tell intelligibly what it is, find out what he does and characterize his profession accordingly.

The inquiry as to occupation will not be asked in respect to infants or children too young to take any part in production. Neither will the doing of domestic errands or family chores out of school be considered an occupation. "At home" or "attending school" will be the best entry in a majority of cases. But if a boy or girl, whatever the age, or earning money regularly by labor, contributing to the family support, or appreciably assisting in mechanical or agricultural industry, the occupation should be stated.


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1870 1%
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7. Profession, occupation, or trade of each person, male or female.
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Occupation.?The inquiry, "Profession, occupation, or trade," is one of the most important questions of this schedule. Make a study of it. Take special pains to avoid unmeaning terms, or such as are too general to convey a definite idea of the occupation. Call no man a "factory hand" or a "mill operative." State the kind of mill or factory. The better form of expression would be, "works in cotton mill," "works in paper mill," etc.. Do not call a man a "shoemaker," "bootmaker," unless he makes the entire boot or shoe in a small shop. If he works in (or for) a boot and shoe factory, say so.

Do not apply the word "jeweler" to those who make watches, watch chains, or jewelry in large manufacturing establishments.

Call no man a "commissioner," a "collector," an "agent," an "artist," an "overseer," a "professor," a "treasurer," a "contractor," or a "seculator," without further explanation.

When boys are entered as apprentices, state the trade they are apprenticed to, as "apprenticed to carpenter," "apothecary?s apprentice."

When a lawyer, a merchant, a manufacturer, has retired from practice or business, say "retired lawyer," "retired merchant," etc. Distinguish between fire and life insurance agents.

When clerks are returned, describe them as "clerk in store," "clerk in woolen mill," "R.R. clerk," "bank clerk," etc.

Describe no man as "mechanic" if it possible to describe him more accurately.

Distinguish between stone masons and brick masons.

Do not call a bonnet maker a bonnet manufacturer, a lace maker a lace manufacturer, a chocolate maker a chocolate manufacturer. Reserve the term manufacturer for proprietors of establishments; always give the branch of manufacture.

Whenever merchants or traders can be reported under a single word expressive of their special line, as "grocer," it should be done. Otherwise, say dry goods merchant, coal dealer, etc.

Add, in all cases, the class of business, as wholesale (wh.), retail (ret.), importer (imp.), jobber, etc.

Use the word huckster in all cases where it applies.

Be very particular to distinguish between farmers and farm laborers. In agricultural regions this should be one of the points to which the assistant marshal should especially direct his attention.

Confine the use of the words "glover," "hatter," and "furrier" to those who actually make, or make up, in their own establishments, all, or a part, of the gloves and hats or furs which they sell. Those who only sell these articles should be characterized as "glove dealer," "hat and cap dealer," "fur dealer."

Judges (state whether Federal or State, whether probate, police, or otherwise) may be assumed to be lawyers, and that addition, therefore, need not be given; but all other officials should have their profession designated, if they have any, as "retired merchant, governor of Massachusetts," "paper manufacturer, representative in legislature." If anything is to be omitted, leave out the office, and put in the occupation.

As far as possible distinguish machinists, as "locomotive builders," "engine builders," etc.

Instead of saying, "packers," indicate whether you mean "pork packers" or "crockery packers," or "mule packers."

The organization of domestic service has not proceeded so far in this country as to render it worthwhile to make distinction in the character of work. Report all as "domestic servants.

Cooks, waiters, etc., in hotels and restaurants will be reported separately from domestic servants.

The term "housekeeper" will be reserved for such persons as receive distinct wages or salary for the service. Women keeping house for their own families or for themselves, without any other gainful occupation, will be entered as "keeping house." Grown daughters assisting them will be reported without occupation.

You are under no obligation to give any man?s occupation just as he expresses it. If he can not tell intelligibly what it is, find out what he does, and characterize his profession accordingly.

The inquiry as to occupation will not be asked in respect to infants or children too young to take any part in production. Neither will the doing of domestic errands or family chores out of school be considered an occupation. "At home? or "attending school" will be the best entry in the majority of cases. But if a boy or girl, whatever the age, is earning money regularly by labor, contributing to the family support, or appreciably assisting in mechanical or agricultural industry, the occupation should be stated.


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1860 1%
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7. Profession, occupation, or trade of each person, male or female, over 15 years of age.
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10. Profession, Trade, and Occupation-- Under head 7, entitled "Profession, occupation, or trade of each person over fifteen years of age," insert the specific profession, occupation, or trade the individual being enumerated is reputed to follow. The proprietor of a farm for the time being, who pursues agriculture professionally or practically, is to be recorded as a farmer; the men who are employed for wages by him are to be termed farm laborers. The members, or inmates, of a family employed in domestic duties at wages you will record as "servants," or "serving," or "domestic," according to the custom of the vicinage.

A mechanic who employs others under him is to be termed differently from the one employed. The first is a master mechanic, and should be termed "master mason," "master carpenter," etc., as the case may be, and you should be very particular in designating the employers or master mechanics from the workmen or employed. Where persons (over 15) are learning trades or serving apprenticeship, they should be recorded as "apprentices," with the name of the trade whereunto they are apprenticed. The employment of every person over 15, having an occupation, should be asked and recorded. In every case insert the kind of labor and nature of apprenticeship.

When the individual is a clergyman, insert the initials of the denomination to which he belongs -- as Meth. for Methodist; R.C. for Roman Catholic; O.S.P., Old School Presbyterian; P.E., Protestant Episcopal; or other appropriate designation, as the case may require. If a person follows several occupations, insert the name of the most prominent. If the person should be a teacher or professor, state the character of the occupation, as teacher of French, of common school; professor of mathematics, of languages, of philosophy, etc. In fine, record the occupation of every human being, male and female, (over 15,) who has an occupation or means of living, and let your record be so clear as to leave no doubt on the subject.


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1850 1%
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7. Profession, occupation, or trade of each male person over 15 years of age.
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7. Under heading 7, entitled "Profession, occupation, or trade of each person over 15 years of age," insert opposite the name of each male the specific profession, occupation, or trade which the said person is known and reputed to follow in the place where he resides - as clergyman, physician, lawyer, shoemaker, student, farmer, carpenter, laborer, tailor, boatman, sailor, or otherwise, as the fact may be. When more convenient, the name of the article he produces may be substituted.

When the individual is a clergyman, insert the initials of the denomination to which he belongs before his profession - as Meth. for Methodist, R.C. for Roman Catholic, O.S.P. for Old School Presbyterian, or other appropriate initials, as the fact may be. When a person follows several professions or occupations the name of the principal one only is to be given. If a person follows no particular occupation, the space is to be filled with the word "none."