Questionnaire Text

2018 ACS 2010 ACS 2002 ACS 1950 1%
2017 ACS 2009 ACS 2001 ACS 1940 1%
2016 ACS 2008 ACS 2000 5% 1930 5%
2015 ACS 2007 ACS 1990 5% 1920 1%
2014 ACS 2006 ACS 1980 5% 1910 1%
2013 ACS 2005 ACS 1970 Form 2 Metro
2012 ACS 2004 ACS 1970 Form 1 Metro
2011 ACS 2003 ACS 1960 5%
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2018 ACS
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41. Was this person... Mark (X) ONE box
[ ] an employee of a PRIVATE FOR PROFIT company or business, or of an individual, for wages, salary, or commissions?
[ ] an employee of a PRIVATE NOT FOR PROFIT, tax-exempt, or charitable organization?
[ ] a local GOVERNMENT employee (city, county, etc.)?
[ ] a state GOVERNMENT employee?
[ ] a Federal GOVERNMENT employee?
[ ] SELF-EMPLOYED in own NOT INCORPORATED business, professional practice, or farm?
[ ] SELF-EMPLOYED in own INCORPORATED business, professional practice, or farm?
[ ] working WITHOUT PAY in family business or farm?

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2017 ACS
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41. Was this person... Mark (X) ONE box
[ ] an employee of a PRIVATE FOR PROFIT company or business, or of an individual, for wages, salary, or commissions?
[ ] an employee of a PRIVATE NOT FOR PROFIT, tax-exempt, or charitable organization?
[ ] a local GOVERNMENT employee (city, county, etc.)?
[ ] a state GOVERNMENT employee?
[ ] a Federal GOVERNMENT employee?
[ ] SELF-EMPLOYED in own NOT INCORPORATED business, professional practice, or farm?
[ ] SELF-EMPLOYED in own INCORPORATED business, professional practice, or farm?
[ ] working WITHOUT PAY in family business or farm?

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2016 ACS
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41. Was this person... Mark (X) ONE box
[ ] an employee of a PRIVATE FOR PROFIT company or business, or of an individual, for wages, salary, or commissions?
[ ] an employee of a PRIVATE NOT FOR PROFIT, tax-exempt, or charitable organization?
[ ] a local GOVERNMENT employee (city, county, etc.)?
[ ] a state GOVERNMENT employee?
[ ] a Federal GOVERNMENT employee?
[ ] SELF-EMPLOYED in own NOT INCORPORATED business, professional practice, or farm?
[ ] SELF-EMPLOYED in own INCORPORATED business, professional practice, or farm?
[ ] working WITHOUT PAY in family business or farm?
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43. Describe the business, industry, or individual employer named in question 42. If there is more than one activity, describe only the major activity at the place where the person worked. Describe what is made, what is sold, or what service is given.
Enter descriptions like the following: newspaper publishing, mail order house, auto engine manufacturing.

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2015 ACS
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41. Was this person... Mark (X) ONE box
[ ] an employee of a PRIVATE FOR PROFIT company or business, or of an individual, for wages, salary, or commissions?
[ ] an employee of a PRIVATE NOT FOR PROFIT, tax-exempt, or charitable organization?
[ ] a local GOVERNMENT employee (city, county, etc.)?
[ ] a state GOVERNMENT employee?
[ ] a Federal GOVERNMENT employee?
[ ] SELF-EMPLOYED in own NOT INCORPORATED business, professional practice, or farm?
[ ] SELF-EMPLOYED in own INCORPORATED business, professional practice, or farm?
[ ] working WITHOUT PAY in family business or farm?
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41.Mark the "An employee of a PRIVATE NOT FOR PROFIT, tax-exempt, or charitable organization?" box if the person worked for a cooperative, credit union, mutual insurance company, or similar organization.

Employees of foreign governments, the United Nations, and other international organizations should mark the "a Federal GOVERNMENT employee?" box.

If the person worked at a public school, college or university, mark the appropriate government category; for example, mark the "a state GOVERNMENT employee?" box for a state university, or mark the "a local GOVERNMENT employee (city, county, etc.)?" box for a county-run community college or a city-run public school.


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2014 ACS
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41. Was this person... Mark (X) ONE box
[ ] an employee of a PRIVATE FOR PROFIT company or business, or of an individual, for wages, salary, or commissions?
[ ] an employee of a PRIVATE NOT FOR PROFIT, tax-exempt, or charitable organization?
[ ] a local GOVERNMENT employee (city, county, etc.)?
[ ] a state GOVERNMENT employee?
[ ] a Federal GOVERNMENT employee?
[ ] SELF-EMPLOYED in own NOT INCORPORATED business, professional practice, or farm?
[ ] SELF-EMPLOYED in own INCORPORATED business, professional practice, or farm?
[ ] working WITHOUT PAY in family business or farm?
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41.Mark the "An employee of a PRIVATE NOT FOR PROFIT, tax-exempt, or charitable organization?" box if the person worked for a cooperative, credit union, mutual insurance company, or similar organization.

Employees of foreign governments, the United Nations, and other international organizations should mark the "a Federal GOVERNMENT employee?" box.

If the person worked at a public school, college or university, mark the appropriate government category; for example, mark the "a state GOVERNMENT employee?" box for a state university, or mark the "a local GOVERNMENT employee (city, county, etc.)?" box for a county-run community college or a city-run public school.


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2013 ACS
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41. Was this person... Mark (X) ONE box
[ ] an employee of a PRIVATE FOR PROFIT company or business, or of an individual, for wages, salary, or commissions?
[ ] an employee of a PRIVATE NOT FOR PROFIT, tax-exempt, or charitable organization?
[ ] a local GOVERNMENT employee (city, county, etc.)?
[ ] a state GOVERNMENT employee?
[ ] a Federal GOVERNMENT employee?
[ ] SELF-EMPLOYED in own NOT INCORPORATED business, professional practice, or farm?
[ ] SELF-EMPLOYED in own INCORPORATED business, professional practice, or farm?
[ ] working WITHOUT PAY in family business or farm?
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41.Mark the "An employee of a PRIVATE NOT FOR PROFIT, tax-exempt, or charitable organization?" box if the person worked for a cooperative, credit union, mutual insurance company, or similar organization.

Employees of foreign governments, the United Nations, and other international organizations should mark the "a Federal GOVERNMENT employee?" box.

If the person worked at a public school, college or university, mark the appropriate government category; for example, mark the "a state GOVERNMENT employee?" box for a state university, or mark the "a local GOVERNMENT employee (city, county, etc.)?" box for a county-run community college or a city-run public school.


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2012 ACS
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41. Was this person... Mark (X) ONE box
[ ] an employee of a PRIVATE FOR PROFIT company or business, or of an individual, for wages, salary, or commissions?
[ ] an employee of a PRIVATE NOT FOR PROFIT, tax-exempt, or charitable organization?
[ ] a local GOVERNMENT employee (city, county, etc.)?
[ ] a state GOVERNMENT employee?
[ ] a Federal GOVERNMENT employee?
[ ] SELF-EMPLOYED in own NOT INCORPORATED business, professional practice, or farm?
[ ] SELF-EMPLOYED in own INCORPORATED business, professional practice, or farm?
[ ] working WITHOUT PAY in family business or farm?
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41.Mark the "An employee of a PRIVATE NOT FOR PROFIT, tax-exempt, or charitable organization?" box if the person worked for a cooperative, credit union, mutual insurance company, or similar organization.

Employees of foreign governments, the United Nations, and other international organizations should mark the "a Federal GOVERNMENT employee?" box.

If the person worked at a public school, college or university, mark the appropriate government category; for example, mark the "a state GOVERNMENT employee?" box for a state university, or mark the "a local GOVERNMENT employee (city, county, etc.)?" box for a county-run community college or a city-run public school.


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2011 ACS
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41. Was this person... Mark (X) ONE box
[ ] an employee of a PRIVATE FOR PROFIT company or business, or of an individual, for wages, salary, or commissions?
[ ] an employee of a PRIVATE NOT FOR PROFIT, tax-exempt, or charitable organization?
[ ] a local GOVERNMENT employee (city, county, etc.)?
[ ] a state GOVERNMENT employee?
[ ] a Federal GOVERNMENT employee?
[ ] SELF-EMPLOYED in own NOT INCORPORATED business, professional practice, or farm?
[ ] SELF-EMPLOYED in own INCORPORATED business, professional practice, or farm?
[ ] working WITHOUT PAY in family business or farm?
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41.Mark the "An employee of a PRIVATE NOT FOR PROFIT, tax-exempt, or charitable organization?" box if the person worked for a cooperative, credit union, mutual insurance company, or similar organization.

Employees of foreign governments, the United Nations, and other international organizations should mark the "a Federal GOVERNMENT employee?" box.

If the person worked at a public school, college or university, mark the appropriate government category; for example, mark the "a state GOVERNMENT employee?" box for a state university, or mark the "a local GOVERNMENT employee (city, county, etc.)?" box for a county-run community college or a city-run public school.


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2010 ACS
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41. Was this person... Mark (X) ONE box
[ ] an employee of a PRIVATE FOR PROFIT company or business, or of an individual, for wages, salary, or commissions?
[ ] an employee of a PRIVATE NOT FOR PROFIT, tax-exempt, or charitable organization?
[ ] a local GOVERNMENT employee (city, county, etc.)?
[ ] a state GOVERNMENT employee?
[ ] a Federal GOVERNMENT employee?
[ ] SELF-EMPLOYED in own NOT INCORPORATED business, professional practice, or farm?
[ ] SELF-EMPLOYED in own INCORPORATED business, professional practice, or farm?
[ ] working WITHOUT PAY in family business or farm?
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41.Mark the "An employee of a PRIVATE NOT FOR PROFIT, tax-exempt, or charitable organization?" box if the person worked for a cooperative, credit union, mutual insurance company, or similar organization.

Employees of foreign governments, the United Nations, and other international organizations should mark the "a Federal GOVERNMENT employee?" box.

If the person worked at a public school, college or university, mark the appropriate government category; for example, mark the "a state GOVERNMENT employee?" box for a state university, or mark the "a local GOVERNMENT employee (city, county, etc.)?" box for a county-run community college or a city-run public school.


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2009 ACS
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41. Was this person... Mark (X) ONE box
[ ] an employee of a PRIVATE FOR PROFIT company or business, or of an individual, for wages, salary, or commissions?
[ ] an employee of a PRIVATE NOT FOR PROFIT, tax-exempt, or charitable organization?
[ ] a local GOVERNMENT employee (city, county, etc.)?
[ ] a state GOVERNMENT employee?
[ ] a Federal GOVERNMENT employee?
[ ] SELF-EMPLOYED in own NOT INCORPORATED business, professional practice, or farm?
[ ] SELF-EMPLOYED in own INCORPORATED business, professional practice, or farm?
[ ] working WITHOUT PAY in family business or farm?
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41.Mark the "An employee of a PRIVATE NOT FOR PROFIT, tax-exempt, or charitable organization?" box if the person worked for a cooperative, credit union, mutual insurance company, or similar organization.

Employees of foreign governments, the United Nations, and other international organizations should mark the "a Federal GOVERNMENT employee?" box.

If the person worked at a public school, college or university, mark the appropriate government category; for example, mark the "a state GOVERNMENT employee?" box for a state university, or mark the "a local GOVERNMENT employee (city, county, etc.)?" box for a county-run community college or a city-run public school.


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2008 ACS
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41. Was this person... Mark (X) ONE box
[ ] an employee of a PRIVATE FOR PROFIT company or business, or of an individual, for wages, salary, or commissions?
[ ] an employee of a PRIVATE NOT FOR PROFIT, tax-exempt, or charitable organization?
[ ] a local GOVERNMENT employee (city, county, etc.)?
[ ] a state GOVERNMENT employee?
[ ] a Federal GOVERNMENT employee?
[ ] SELF-EMPLOYED in own NOT INCORPORATED business, professional practice, or farm?
[ ] SELF-EMPLOYED in own INCORPORATED business, professional practice, or farm?
[ ] working WITHOUT PAY in family business or farm?
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41.Mark the "An employee of a PRIVATE NOT FOR PROFIT, tax-exempt, or charitable organization?" box if the person worked for a cooperative, credit union, mutual insurance company, or similar organization.

Employees of foreign governments, the United Nations, and other international organizations should mark the "a Federal GOVERNMENT employee?" box.

If the person worked at a public school, college or university, mark the appropriate government category; for example, mark the "a state GOVERNMENT employee?" box for a state university, or mark the "a local GOVERNMENT employee (city, county, etc.)?" box for a county-run community college or a city-run public school.


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2007 ACS
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41. Was this person... Mark (X) ONE box
[ ] an employee of a PRIVATE FOR PROFIT company or business, or of an individual, for wages, salary, or commissions?
[ ] an employee of a PRIVATE NOT FOR PROFIT, tax-exempt, or charitable organization?
[ ] a local GOVERNMENT employee (city, county, etc.)?
[ ] a state GOVERNMENT employee?
[ ] a Federal GOVERNMENT employee?
[ ] SELF-EMPLOYED in own NOT INCORPORATED business, professional practice, or farm?
[ ] SELF-EMPLOYED in own INCORPORATED business, professional practice, or farm?
[ ] working WITHOUT PAY in family business or farm?
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41.Mark the "An employee of a PRIVATE NOT FOR PROFIT, tax-exempt, or charitable organization?" box if the person worked for a cooperative, credit union, mutual insurance company, or similar organization.

Employees of foreign governments, the United Nations, and other international organizations should mark the "a Federal GOVERNMENT employee?" box.

If the person worked at a public school, college or university, mark the appropriate government category; for example, mark the "a state GOVERNMENT employee?" box for a state university, or mark the "a local GOVERNMENT employee (city, county, etc.)?" box for a county-run community college or a city-run public school.


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2006 ACS
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41. Was this person... Mark (X) ONE box
[ ] an employee of a PRIVATE FOR PROFIT company or business, or of an individual, for wages, salary, or commissions?
[ ] an employee of a PRIVATE NOT FOR PROFIT, tax-exempt, or charitable organization?
[ ] a local GOVERNMENT employee (city, county, etc.)?
[ ] a state GOVERNMENT employee?
[ ] a Federal GOVERNMENT employee?
[ ] SELF-EMPLOYED in own NOT INCORPORATED business, professional practice, or farm?
[ ] SELF-EMPLOYED in own INCORPORATED business, professional practice, or farm?
[ ] working WITHOUT PAY in family business or farm?
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41.Mark the "An employee of a PRIVATE NOT FOR PROFIT, tax-exempt, or charitable organization?" box if the person worked for a cooperative, credit union, mutual insurance company, or similar organization.

Employees of foreign governments, the United Nations, and other international organizations should mark the "a Federal GOVERNMENT employee?" box.

If the person worked at a public school, college or university, mark the appropriate government category; for example, mark the "a state GOVERNMENT employee?" box for a state university, or mark the "a local GOVERNMENT employee (city, county, etc.)?" box for a county-run community college or a city-run public school.


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2005 ACS
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41. Was this person... Mark (X) ONE box
[ ] an employee of a PRIVATE FOR PROFIT company or business, or of an individual, for wages, salary, or commissions?
[ ] an employee of a PRIVATE NOT FOR PROFIT, tax-exempt, or charitable organization?
[ ] a local GOVERNMENT employee (city, county, etc.)?
[ ] a state GOVERNMENT employee?
[ ] a Federal GOVERNMENT employee?
[ ] SELF-EMPLOYED in own NOT INCORPORATED business, professional practice, or farm?
[ ] SELF-EMPLOYED in own INCORPORATED business, professional practice, or farm?
[ ] working WITHOUT PAY in family business or farm?
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41.Mark the "An employee of a PRIVATE NOT FOR PROFIT, tax-exempt, or charitable organization?" box if the person worked for a cooperative, credit union, mutual insurance company, or similar organization.

Employees of foreign governments, the United Nations, and other international organizations should mark the "a Federal GOVERNMENT employee?" box.

If the person worked at a public school, college or university, mark the appropriate government category; for example, mark the "a state GOVERNMENT employee?" box for a state university, or mark the "a local GOVERNMENT employee (city, county, etc.)?" box for a county-run community college or a city-run public school.


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2004 ACS
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41. Was this person... Mark (X) ONE box
[ ] an employee of a PRIVATE FOR PROFIT company or business, or of an individual, for wages, salary, or commissions?
[ ] an employee of a PRIVATE NOT FOR PROFIT, tax-exempt, or charitable organization?
[ ] a local GOVERNMENT employee (city, county, etc.)?
[ ] a state GOVERNMENT employee?
[ ] a Federal GOVERNMENT employee?
[ ] SELF-EMPLOYED in own NOT INCORPORATED business, professional practice, or farm?
[ ] SELF-EMPLOYED in own INCORPORATED business, professional practice, or farm?
[ ] working WITHOUT PAY in family business or farm?
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41.Mark the "An employee of a PRIVATE NOT FOR PROFIT, tax-exempt, or charitable organization?" box if the person worked for a cooperative, credit union, mutual insurance company, or similar organization.

Employees of foreign governments, the United Nations, and other international organizations should mark the "a Federal GOVERNMENT employee?" box.

If the person worked at a public school, college or university, mark the appropriate government category; for example, mark the "a state GOVERNMENT employee?" box for a state university, or mark the "a local GOVERNMENT employee (city, county, etc.)?" box for a county-run community college or a city-run public school.


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2003 ACS
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41. Was this person... Mark (X) ONE box
[ ] an employee of a PRIVATE FOR PROFIT company or business, or of an individual, for wages, salary, or commissions?
[ ] an employee of a PRIVATE NOT FOR PROFIT, tax-exempt, or charitable organization?
[ ] a local GOVERNMENT employee (city, county, etc.)?
[ ] a state GOVERNMENT employee?
[ ] a Federal GOVERNMENT employee?
[ ] SELF-EMPLOYED in own NOT INCORPORATED business, professional practice, or farm?
[ ] SELF-EMPLOYED in own INCORPORATED business, professional practice, or farm?
[ ] working WITHOUT PAY in family business or farm?
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41.Mark the "An employee of a PRIVATE NOT FOR PROFIT, tax-exempt, or charitable organization?" box if the person worked for a cooperative, credit union, mutual insurance company, or similar organization.

Employees of foreign governments, the United Nations, and other international organizations should mark the "a Federal GOVERNMENT employee?" box.

If the person worked at a public school, college or university, mark the appropriate government category; for example, mark the "a state GOVERNMENT employee?" box for a state university, or mark the "a local GOVERNMENT employee (city, county, etc.)?" box for a county-run community college or a city-run public school.


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2002 ACS
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41. Was this person... Mark (X) ONE box
[ ] an employee of a PRIVATE FOR PROFIT company or business, or of an individual, for wages, salary, or commissions?
[ ] an employee of a PRIVATE NOT FOR PROFIT, tax-exempt, or charitable organization?
[ ] a local GOVERNMENT employee (city, county, etc.)?
[ ] a state GOVERNMENT employee?
[ ] a Federal GOVERNMENT employee?
[ ] SELF-EMPLOYED in own NOT INCORPORATED business, professional practice, or farm?
[ ] SELF-EMPLOYED in own INCORPORATED business, professional practice, or farm?
[ ] working WITHOUT PAY in family business or farm?
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41.Mark the "An employee of a PRIVATE NOT FOR PROFIT, tax-exempt, or charitable organization?" box if the person worked for a cooperative, credit union, mutual insurance company, or similar organization.

Employees of foreign governments, the United Nations, and other international organizations should mark the "a Federal GOVERNMENT employee?" box.

If the person worked at a public school, college or university, mark the appropriate government category; for example, mark the "a state GOVERNMENT employee?" box for a state university, or mark the "a local GOVERNMENT employee (city, county, etc.)?" box for a county-run community college or a city-run public school.


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2001 ACS
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41. Was this person... Mark (X) ONE box
[ ] an employee of a PRIVATE FOR PROFIT company or business, or of an individual, for wages, salary, or commissions?
[ ] an employee of a PRIVATE NOT FOR PROFIT, tax-exempt, or charitable organization?
[ ] a local GOVERNMENT employee (city, county, etc.)?
[ ] a state GOVERNMENT employee?
[ ] a Federal GOVERNMENT employee?
[ ] SELF-EMPLOYED in own NOT INCORPORATED business, professional practice, or farm?
[ ] SELF-EMPLOYED in own INCORPORATED business, professional practice, or farm?
[ ] working WITHOUT PAY in family business or farm?
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41.Mark the "An employee of a PRIVATE NOT FOR PROFIT, tax-exempt, or charitable organization?" box if the person worked for a cooperative, credit union, mutual insurance company, or similar organization.

Employees of foreign governments, the United Nations, and other international organizations should mark the "a Federal GOVERNMENT employee?" box.

If the person worked at a public school, college or university, mark the appropriate government category; for example, mark the "a state GOVERNMENT employee?" box for a state university, or mark the "a local GOVERNMENT employee (city, county, etc.)?" box for a county-run community college or a city-run public school.


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2000 5%
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29. Was this person - Mark [X] ONE box.
[] Employee of a PRIVATE-FOR-PROFIT company or business or of an individual, for wages, salary, or commissions
[] Employee of a PRIVATE NOT-FOR-PROFIT, tax-exempt, or charitable organization
[] Local GOVERNMENT employee (city, county, etc.)
[] State GOVERNMENT employee
[] Federal GOVERNMENT employee
[] SELF-EMPLOYED in own NOT INCORPORATED business, professional practice, or farm
[] SELF-EMPLOYED in own INCORPORATED business, professional practice, or farm
[] Working WITHOUT PAY in family business or farm

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1990 5%
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30. Was this person - Fill ONE circle

[] Employee of a PRIVATE FOR PROFIT company or business or of an individual, for wages, salary, or commissions
[] Employee of a PRIVATE NOT-FOR-PROFIT, tax-exempt, or charitable organization
[] Local GOVERNMENT employee (city, county, etc.)
[] State GOVERNMENT employee
[] Federal GOVERNMENT employee
[] SELF-EMPLOYED in own NOT INCORPORATED business, professional practice, or farm
[] SELF-EMPLOYED in own INCORPORATED business, professional practice, or farm
[] Working WITHOUT PAY in family business or farm

"Mark Employee of a PRIVATE NOT-FOR-PROFIT ... organization if the person worked for a cooperative, credit union, mutual insurance company, or similar organization. Employees of foreign governments, the United Nations, and other international organizations should mark PRIVATE NOT-FOR-PROFIT ... organization. For persons who worked at a public school, college or university, mark the appropriate government category; for example, mark State GOVERNMENT employee for a state university, or mark Local GOVERNMENT employee for a county-run community college or a city-run public school."


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1980 5%
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30. Was this person - (Fill one circle)
Employee of private company, business, or individual, for wages,
salary, or commissions…………………………………………………………………. []
Federal government employee…………………………………………………[]
State government employee……………………………………………………[]
Local government employee (city, county, etc.)……………...[]
Self-employed in own business, professional practice, or farm -
Own business not incorporated………………………………………………………….[]
Own business incorporated……………………………………………………………...[]
Working without pay in family business or farm………………………………[]

"If the person was an employee of a privatenonprofit organization, such as a church, fill the first circle. Mark Local government employee for a teacher working in an elementary or secondary public school."


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1970 Form 2 Metro
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[All]
35. Was this person - (Fill one circle)
[] Employee of private company, business, or individual, for wages, salary, or commissions
[] Federal government employee
[] State government employee
[] Local government employee (city, county, etc.)
[] Self-employed in own business, professional practice, or farm
[] Own business not incorporated
[] Own business incorporated
[] Working without pay in family business or farm
"If he was an employee of a private non-profit organization, mark the first circle. Mark Local government employee for a teacher in a local public school."

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1970 Form 1 Metro
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[All]
35. Was this person - (Fill one circle)
[] Employee of private company, business, or individual, for wages, salary, or commissions
[] Federal government employee
[] State government employee
[] Local government employee (city, county, etc.)
[] Self-employed in own business, professional practice, or farm
[] Own business not incorporated
[] Own business incorporated
[] Working without pay in family business or farm
"If he was an employee of a private non-profit organization, mark the first circle. Mark Local government employee for a teacher in a local public school."

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1960 5%
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e. Was this person: (Check one box)
[] Employee of private company, business, or individual, for wages, salary, or commissions
[] Government employee (Federal, State, county, or local
[] Self-employed in own business, professional practice, or farm
[] Working without pay in a family business or farm

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1950 1%
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20c. Class of Worker:
P Private employer
G Government
O Own business
NP Without Pay on family farm or business
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159. Item 20 consists of three parts: 20a. Occupation; 20b. Industry; and 20c. Class of worker.-There must be an entry in all three parts of this item for every person with an entry of "Wk" in item 15, or "Yes" in items 16, l7, or 18.

All three parts of the item (20a, 20b, and 20c) must refer to the same particular job or business.

Item 20c. Class of worker

178. Item 20c. Entry of code.-There must be an entry of one of the four codes shown in the heading of item 20c for each person with occupation and industry entries. You frequently will not have to ask a specific question before making the entry because the correct answer will be obvious from the preceding conversation. If you have any doubts, however, ask for class of worker specifically.

The class-of-worker code should refer to the same job or business as the occupation and industry entries for the person.

179. Definition of class-of-worker codes:

P-Work for a PRIVATE employer for wages, salary, commission tips, piece-rates or pay in kind;

this applies regardless of the occupation at which the employee worked, whether general manager, file clerk, or porter. It includes veterans working for a private employer and receiving Federal GI subsistence payments. It includes also persons working for settlement houses, churches, unions, and other private nonprofit organizations.
G-Work for any branch of GOVERNMENT Federal, State, city, county, etc.;

this includes public schools and government-owned bus lines, government-owned electric power companies, etc. It includes persons who were elected to paid offices and civilian employees of the armed forces. Enter "G" also for employees of international organizations such as United Nations and for employees of foreign governments such as persons employed by the British Embassy or by the French Purchasing Commission; this rule applies only to those persons already listed in accordance with the instructions on whom to enumerate. Persons employed by such private organizations as the American Red Cross and the U S. Chamber of Commerce are not government employees and should be reported as "P."
O-Work for profit or fees in OWN business, farm, shop, office, etc.;

this does not include superintendents, foremen, managers, or other executives hired to manage a business or farm, salesmen working for commission, or officers of corporations.
NP-Work WITHOUT PAY on a farm or business operated by a member of the household to whom the person is related.

Note that room and board and a cash allowance are not counted as pay for these family workers; however, if the worker receives money which is definitely considered to be wages for work performed, he should be reported as "P."

180. Special points on class-of-worker code.-The following are special points which may be useful in certain problem cases:

a. Corporation employees.-All employees of an incorporated business, regardless of the particular occupation at which they work) should be reported as "P" (or, in some few cases, "G"). They are not to be reported as "O" even though they own part or all of the stock of the incorporated business.

b. Domestic work in other persons' homes.-This should be reported as "P" for example, "Maid, Private family, P."

c. Partnerships.- Persons who operate a business in partnership with one or more people should be reported as "in OWN business." The word "OWN" is not limited to single ownership.

d. Work far pay in kind.-Pay in kind includes room, board, supplies, and food, such as eggs or poultry on a farm. This is considered pay except in the case of the unpaid family worker. (See "NP" in par. 179.)

e. Work on an odd-job or casual basis.-This should be reported as "P."

f. Clergymen.-Preachers, ministers, priests, rabbis, and other clergymen are to be reported as "P" in class of worker, except in the following two cases:
1.enter "G" for a clergyman, such as a prison chaplain, working in a civilian government job;

2.enter "O" for a clergyman who is not attached to one particular church or congregation but who conducts religious services in various places on a fee basis.

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1940 1%
Questionnaire form view entire document:  text  image

Occupation, Industry and Class of Worker:
For a person at work, assigned to public emergency work, or with a job ("Yes" in Col. 21, 22, or 24), enter present occupation, industry, and class of worker. For a person seeking work ("Yes" in Col. 23):

30. Class of worker.
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569. Column 30. Class of Worker.-For each persons for whom an occupation is entered in col. 28, enter in col. 30 a symbol for class of worker applying to that occupation as indicated below:

For a wage or salary worker in private work-PW
For a wage or salary worker in Government work (including public emergency work)-GW
For an employer, that is, a persons who employed one or more workers other than unpaid family workers (or domestic servants) in conducting his own business-E
For a person who worked in his own account-OA
For an unpaid family worker, that is, a related member of the family who was employed without wages or salary on work (other than housework or incidental chores) that contributed to the family income-NP

570. For a person who followed more than one class of work in his occupation, enter the symbol for that class of work at which he worked the longest during the week of March 24-30. For example, for a carpenter who worked as an employee two days of the week and on his own account without employees for three days of the week, enter "OA" for "own account."


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1930 5%
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27. Class of worker.
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220. Column 27. Class of worker.-For an employer - that is, one who employs helpers other than domestic servants in transacting his own business - write in column 27 "E"; for a wage or salary worker write "W"; for a person working on his own account write "O"; for an unpaid family worker - that is, a member of the family employed without pay on work which contributes to the family income - write "NP". For all persons returned as having no gainful occupation, leave column 27 blank.

221. Employer ("E").-An employer is one who employs helpers, other than domestic servants, in transacting his own business. The term "employer" does not include the superintendent, agent, manager, or other person employed to manage an establishment or business; and it does not include the foreman of a room, the boss of a gang, or the coal miner who hires his helper. All such should be returned as wage or salary workers, for, while any one of these may employ persons, none of them does so in transacting his own business. In short, no person who himself works for wages or a salary is to be returned as an employer.

222. Wage or salary worker ("W").-Any person who works for wages or salary, at piece rates, or on commission, and is subject to the control and direction of an employer, is to be considered a wage or salary worker. This classification will include the president of the bank or the manager of the factory as well as the clerks and the laborers who may be also employed by the bank or the factory.

223. Working on own account ("O").-A person who has a gainful occupation and is neither an employer, nor a wage or salary worker, nor an unpaid family worker, is considered to be working on his own account; such persons are the independent workers. They neither pay nor receive salaries or regular wages. Examples of this class are: Farmers and the owners of small establishments who do not employ helpers; professional men who work for fees and employ no helpers; and generally speaking, hucksters, peddlers, newsboys, bootblacks, etc.

224. Unpaid family worker ("NP").-A wife, son, daughter, or other relative of the head of the family who works regularly and without wages or salary on the family's farm, in a shop or store from which the family obtains its support, or on other work that contributes to the family's income (not including housework or incidental chores) is to be returned as an unpaid family worker. Examples are: A son working regularly and without wages on his father's farm; a wife working regularly without salary in her husband's store or office; a girl assisting her mother regularly without wages on sewing done in the home for a clothing factory.


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1920 1%
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28. Employer, salary or wage worker, or working on own account.
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1910 1%
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20. Whether an employer, employee, or working on own account.
If an employee:
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168. Column 20. Whether employer, employee, or working on own account.—For one employing persons, other than domestic servants, in transacting his own business, write "Emp" (for employer). For a person who works for wages or a salary, write "W" (for wage earner). For a gainful worker who is neither an employer nor an employee, write "OA" (for own account). For all persons returned as having no occupation, leave the column blank.—

169. Employer.—An employee is one who employs helpers, other than domestic servants, in transacting his own business. The term employer does not include the superintendent, agent, manager, or other person employed to manage an establishment or business, and it does not include the foreman of a room, the boss of a gang, or the coal miner who hires his helper. All such should be returned as employees, for, while any one of these may employ persons, none of them does so in transacting his own business. Thus no individual working for a corporation either as an officer or otherwise should be returned as an employer.

170. A person employing domestic servants in his own home but not employing any helpers in his business should not be returned as an employer. But, on the other hand, a persons who is the proprietor of a hotel or boarding or lodging house and employs servants in running that hotel or boarding or lodging house should be returned as an employer, because he employs these servants in his business.

171. EmployeeAny person who works for wages or a salary and is subject to the control and direction of an employer, is an employee, whether he be president of a large corporation or only a day laborer, whether he be paid in money or in kind, and whether he be employed by his own parent or by another. The term employee does not include lawyers, doctors, and others who render professional service for fees, and who, in their work, are not subject to the control and direction of those whom they serve. It does include actors, professors, and others who are engaged to render professional service for wages or salaries. A domestic servant should always be returned as an employee even though, as previously explained, the person employing a domestic servant is not always returned as an employer.

172. Working on own account.—Persons who have a gainful occupation and are neither employers are considered to be working on their own account. They are the independent workers. They neither pay nor receive salaries or regular wages. Examples of this class are: Farmers and the owners of small establishments who do not employ helpers; professional men who work for fees and employ no helpers; and, generally speaking, hucksters, peddlers, newsboys, bootblacks, etc., although it not infrequently happens that persons in these pursuits are employed by others and are working for wages, and in such case should, of course, be returned as employees.