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MIGLMA5
Labor Market area of residence 5 years ago

Description

MIGLMA5 identifies the labor market area where the respondent lived 5 years ago; see LMA for additional information on labor market area geography. The boundaries of the labor market area are based on county geography and may cluster counties from more than one state.

Responses to questions about migration in the 1980 census were coded for only half the persons included in the IPUMS. These codes provide accurate proportional distributions but not correct absolute numbers for the general population. For correct absolute numbers, users should select cases coded as 2 in MIGSAMP and multiply by 2 as well as by PERWT.

Codes

MIGLMA5 is a 3-digit numeric variable which identifies the labor market area where the respondent lived 5 years ago (See LMA for additional information on these geographical units). The boundaries of the labor market area are based on county geography and may cluster counties from more than one state. MIGLMA5 specific variable codes for missing, edited, or unidentified observations, observations not applicable (N/A), observations not in universe (NIU), top and bottom value coding, etc. are provided below by Census year (and data sample if specified).

MIGLMA5 Specific Variable Codes
720 = Puerto Rico
730 = U.S. Outlying Area
970 = Abroad
989 = Same house
999 = N/A

See the 1980 Labor Market Area Codes and Commuting Zones or
1990 Labor Market Area Codes and Commuting Zones for detailed Labor Market Area Codes.

Comparability

LMAs are constructed via the same process in 1980 and 1990, but the coding and composition of LMAs are not comparable across years for individual-level PUMS data. Using county-level summary data, researchers can examine compositional changes in LMAs; however, the individual-level data released for the labor market samples of the 1980 and 1990 PUMS identify LMA and commuting zones only, not the constituent counties. Since many of the 1990 LMAs contain counties that clustered differently in the 1980 LMAs, it is not possible to determine which fraction of individual-level data in the 1980 LMA would cluster in the 1990 LMA. For this reason, the IPUMS program does not attempt to harmonize the 1980 and 1990 LMA codes but leaves the codes at their 1980 and 1990 values.

For other samples from the post-1950 period, the Census Bureau designated different geographic entities to meet confidentiality rules (generally identifying only areas with at least 100,000+ residents). For 1970 and 1980, the lowest level geographic unit comparable to LMA was the County Group; for 1990 and the 5-percent sample of the 2000 census, the geographic entity comparable to LMA was the Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA). Information on place of residence 5 years ago based on these geographic units is available in MIGCOGRP for 1980, and in MIGPUMA for 1990 and the 5 percent sample of the 2000 census.

Universe

  • 1980: Persons age 5+; 50 percent of cases (see MIGSAMP).
  • 1990: Persons age 5+ who did not live in the same house 5 years ago.

Availability

United States
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  • 1990: 0.5% LMA
  • 1980: 1% LMA
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Puerto Rico
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Flags

This variable has no flags.

Editing Procedure

There is no editing procedure available for this variable.