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PWTYPE
Place of work: metropolitan status

Description

PWTYPE indicates whether respondents who worked last week worked primarily within a metropolitan area (codes 1-4), and, if so, whether they worked within a metropolitan central/principal city (codes 1-3).

A metropolitan area is a region consisting of a large urban core together with surrounding communities that have a high degree of economic and social integration with the urban core. See METAREA for more information.

In cases where the metropolitan and central/principal-city status of the place of work are not directly identified in the source microdata, IPUMS derives PWTYPE codes based on other available geographic information, e.g., place-of-work county groups (PWCNTYGP) or Public Use Microdata Areas (PWPUMA and PWPUMA00). If a county group or PUMA lies only partially within a metropolitan area or central/principal city, then PWTYPE indicates that the status is "indeterminable (mixed)."

In 1980, responses to questions about place of work were coded for only half the persons included in IPUMS USA. These cases provide accurate proportional distributions but not correct absolute numbers for the general population. For correct absolute numbers, users should select cases coded as 2 in MIGSAMP and multiply by 2 as well as by PERWT.

Codes and Frequencies



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Comparability

While this variable represents an attempt to measure the same thing in all years, its comparability is limited by differences in coding practices, in sample designs, and in the types of areas classified as metropolitan and as central/principal cities.

Only the 1970 and 1980 samples include information on whether an individual's workplace was located inside (code 2) or outside (code 3) the central business district. For 1970, the distinction was made for all persons working in the central city of a metropolitan area. For 1980, this distinction was made only for persons who lived and worked in the same metropolitan area. For persons who did not live and work in the same metropolitan area (those who lived in a different metropolitan area, in a non-metropolitan area, or in a mixed metro-non-metro area), the status of their workplace was reported only as being in the central city (code 1 rather than code 2 or 3).

The coding schemes for persons who did not work in a metropolitan area -- who worked outside a metropolitan area, abroad, or whose workplace location was not classified (because it was in a mixed metro-non-metro area) or unknown -- were very inconsistent across samples. In 1980, persons working abroad or whose workplace was not reported or classified are included in the N/A category. For comparability across all years, therefore, users must combine the N/A category (code 0), the categories for work outside a metropolitan area (codes 6 through 8), and the Not reported/unknown category (code 9). For comparability across years other than 1980, the N/A category can be kept separate, but other categories for work outside a metropolitan area and/or unknown (codes 6 through 9) must be combined.

Data on place of work, organized by whether the individual lived in a metropolitan area, are available for 1980 in PWMET98. For 2000, PWTYPE00 provides more detailed information than in PWTYPE about the PUMA (for the 5 percent sample) or the Super-PUMA (for the 1 percent sample) where the individual's workplace was located.

Codes for 2005-2011 ACS and PRCS samples are based on associations between 2000 Place-of-Work PUMAs and the 1999 OMB definitions of metropolitan areas and central cities (as are used by METAREA).

Codes for 2012 and later ACS and PRCS samples are based on associations between 2010 Place-of-Work PUMAs and the 2013 OMB definitions of metropolitan areas and principal cities (as are used by MET2013).

The term "Central City" was retired by the OMB in 2003 and replaced with the term "Principal City." The term was changed to alleviate confusion as "central city" can connote "inner city", but the OMB definitions do not capture that concept. The definition of "Principal City" was also broadened to include census designated places as well as incorporated places.

Note: New standards put in place for 2010 Place-of-Work PUMA definitions required that Place-of-Work PUMA boundaries follow county boundaries, which results in a great decrease in the portion of respondents that can be identified as having a work place within a principal city for 2012 and later samples.

Universe

  • 1960-1970: Persons age 14+ who worked last week.
  • 1980: Persons age 16+ who worked last week; 50 percent of cases (see MIGSAMP); not available for Puerto Rico.
  • 1990: Persons age 16+ who worked last week; not available for Puerto Rico.
  • 2000: Persons age 16+ who worked last week.
  • ACS, PRCS: Persons age 16+ who worked last week.

Availability

United States
  • 2017: All samples
  • 2016: All samples
  • 2015: All samples
  • 2014: All samples
  • 2013: All samples
  • 2012: All samples
  • 2011: All samples
  • 2010: ACS; ACS 3yr; ACS 5yr
  • 2009: All samples
  • 2008: All samples
  • 2007: All samples
  • 2006: All samples
  • 2005: All samples
  • 2004: --
  • 2003: --
  • 2002: --
  • 2001: --
  • 2000: 5%; 1% old; 1% unwt; 1%
  • 1990: 1% metro
  • 1980: 5% state; 1% metro
  • 1970: 1% state fm2; 1% metro fm2; 1% neigh fm2
  • 1960: 1%
  • 1950: --
  • 1940: --
  • 1930: --
  • 1920: --
  • 1910: --
  • 1900: --
  • 1880: --
  • 1870: --
  • 1860: --
  • 1850: --
Puerto Rico
  • 2017: All samples
  • 2016: All samples
  • 2015: All samples
  • 2014: All samples
  • 2013: All samples
  • 2012: All samples
  • 2011: All samples
  • 2010: PRCS; PRCS 3yr; PRCS 5yr
  • 2009: All samples
  • 2008: All samples
  • 2007: All samples
  • 2006: All samples
  • 2005: All samples
  • 2000: All samples
  • 1990: --
  • 1980: --
  • 1970: All samples
  • 1930: --
  • 1920: --
  • 1910: --

Flags

QPW 

Editing Procedure

There is no editing procedure available for this variable.