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PWPUMA00
Place of work: PUMA, 2000 onward

Description

PWPUMA00 identifies the location of the respondent's primary workplace, in terms of the Place-of-Work Public Use Microdata Area (POWPUMA), a Census Bureau-defined area of contiguous territory containing 100,000+ residents.

POWPUMA codes are state-dependent, so PWPUMA00 must be combined with state codes (see PWSTATE2) to distinguish POWPUMAs in different states.

IPUMS originally included "00" in the name of PWPUMA00 to indicate the variable's use of 2000 POWPUMA definitions, which are the smallest place-of-work units identified in source 2000 census samples and in 2005-2011 ACS/PRCS samples. IPUMS has, however, extended PWPUMA00 to also supply 2010 POWPUMA codes for 2012 and later ACS/PRCS samples. In contrast, the PWPUMA variable provides only 1990 POWPUMA codes and is available only for 1990 samples.

Details on POWPUMA definitions, including maps, boundary files, and relationships to PUMAs:

Codes in Multi-Year Samples: In Multi-Year ACS files, the meaning of PUMA codes depends on the year the respondent was interviewed (see MULTYEAR). Codes for 2011 or earlier responses are based on 2000 PUMA definitions, and codes for 2012 or later responses are based on 2010 definitions. For example, in the 2010-2012 3-year ACS sample, PWPUMA00 codes for 2010 and 2011 respondents identify 2000 POWPUMAs, while codes for 2012 respondents identify 2010 POWPUMAs.

Corrections in 2012-2014 ACS Samples: The source 2012, 2013, and 2014 ACS PUMS files included several errors in POWPUMA codes. IPUMS corrected all of these errors in IPUMS USA samples in a January 2019 data release.

  • In 2012 and 2013, workers in Georgia POWPUMAs 04000 (Richmond County) and 04007 (Gwinnett County) had all been assigned code 04000.
  • In 2012 and 2013, workers in Wisconsin POWPUMAs 00100 (Ashland, Bayfield, Burnett, Douglas, Iron, Price, Rusk, Sawyer, Taylor, and Washburn Counties) and 00104 (Dane County) had all been assigned code 00100.
  • In 2012, 2013, and 2014, workers in South Carolina POWPUMAs 00600 (Calhoun, Fairfield, Kershaw, and Richland Counties) and 00606 (Lexington and Saluda Counties) had all been assigned code 00600.
  • In 2012, 2013, and 2014, workers in Virginia POWPUMAs 51000 (Albemarle, Fluvanna, Greene, Louisa, Nelson Counties, and Charlottesville city) and 51001 (Alleghany, Botetourt, Craig, Franklin, and Roanoke Counties; and Covington, Roanoke, and Salem cities) had all been assigned code 51000.

Codes

PWPUMA00 is a 5-digit numeric variable identifying the location of the respondent's primary workplace, in terms of the Place-of-Work Public Use Microdata Area (POWPUMA), a Census Bureau-defined area of contiguous territory containing 100,000+ residents.

PWPUMA00-Specific Variable Codes
00000 = N/A or not identifiable
00001 = Did not work in the United States or in Puerto Rico

Details on POWPUMA definitions, including maps, boundary files, and relationships to PUMAs:

Comparability

PWPUMA00 is available only for the 2000 5% sample and the 2005-onward ACS and PRCS samples. For samples from 2005 through 2011, the identified POWPUMAs are the same as for the 2000 census. ACS samples from 2012 onward use POWPUMAs based on the 2010 Decennial Census.

Some variables analogous to PWPUMA00 are available in other samples:

  • PWPUMAS, available for both the 1% and 5% 2000 samples as well as the 2005-2011 ACS/PRCS samples, identifies the respondent's place of work in terms of the Super-PUMA (contiguous territory of 400,000+ residents within a state) where the workplace was located.

Universe

  • 2000: Persons age 16+ who worked last week.
  • ACS, PRCS: Persons age 16+ who worked last week.

Availability

United States
  • 2017: All samples
  • 2016: All samples
  • 2015: All samples
  • 2014: All samples
  • 2013: All samples
  • 2012: All samples
  • 2011: All samples
  • 2010: ACS; ACS 3yr; ACS 5yr
  • 2009: All samples
  • 2008: All samples
  • 2007: All samples
  • 2006: All samples
  • 2005: All samples
  • 2004: --
  • 2003: --
  • 2002: --
  • 2001: --
  • 2000: 5%; 1% unwt
  • 1990: --
  • 1980: --
  • 1970: --
  • 1960: --
  • 1950: --
  • 1940: --
  • 1930: --
  • 1920: --
  • 1910: --
  • 1900: --
  • 1880: --
  • 1870: --
  • 1860: --
  • 1850: --
Puerto Rico
  • 2017: All samples
  • 2016: All samples
  • 2015: All samples
  • 2014: All samples
  • 2013: All samples
  • 2012: All samples
  • 2011: All samples
  • 2010: PRCS; PRCS 3yr; PRCS 5yr
  • 2009: All samples
  • 2008: All samples
  • 2007: All samples
  • 2006: All samples
  • 2005: All samples
  • 2000: PR 5%
  • 1990: --
  • 1980: --
  • 1970: --
  • 1930: --
  • 1920: --
  • 1910: --

Flags

This variable has no flags.

Editing Procedure


PWPUMA00 (Place of work: PUMA, 2000 onward)

ACS Years: 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015

ACS editing procedure:

Note: The ACS editing procedures draws on many more detailed place of work and place of residence variables than are released in the public data. They also use internal geography files to bridge over different years. Below, we describe their key steps; however, much of it refers to information that is not in the public use data.

If a person is out of the labor force, unemployed, not at work, or not in universe for EMPSTAT, PWPUMA00 will be replaced with "Not in universe."

If a person reports working from home (EMPSTAT and TRANWORK), PWPUMA00 will be replaced with the place of their residence. If the person reports working outside the United States, PWPUMA00 will be "Did not work in the United States or in Puerto Rico."

When a person is missing the information about the state where their work is located or it is left unspecified, it will be allocated. The Census first uses other respondents in the same residence tract, industry group, if they took public transit to work, and travel time to work. If it is not allocated, they will attempt again to allocate the value from other respondents in the same residence tract, industry group, and if they took public transit to work. If it is not allocated, they will attempt again to allocate the value from other respondents in the same residence county, industry group, and if they took public transit to work. If it is not allocated, they will attempt again to allocate the value from other respondents in the same residence county and industry group. If it is not allocated, they will attempt again to allocate the value from other respondents in the same residence county. If it remains not allocated, it will be replaced with the state of residence.

After determining the state of the place of work, the Census then uses the same allocation method to determine the county of place of work within the state of work. For a person whose county of place of work is missing, it will be allocated. The Census first uses other respondents with the same state of work, residency tract, industry group, if they took public transit to work, and travel time to work. If it is not allocated, they will attempt again to allocate the value from other respondents in the state of work, residence tract, industry group, and if they took public transit to work. If it is not allocated, they will attempt again to allocate the value from other respondents in the same state of work, county of residence, industry group, and if they took public transit to work. If it is not allocated, they will attempt again to allocate the value from other respondents in the same state of work, residence county, and industry group. If it is not allocated, they will attempt again to allocate the value from other respondents in the same residence county and state of work. If it remains not allocated, and place of work state is equal to state of residence, county of place of work will be replaced with the county of residence. If it remains not allocated, and place of work state is not equal to state of residence, county of place of work will randomly assigned based on the distribution of counties of work within their state of work.

The descending process described above in detail is then used to determine the borough within New York, minor civil division, and place for those that are left unspecified.

Internal ACS variable : POW