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STEPMOM
Probable step/adopted mother

Description

USER CAUTION: The STEPMOM and STEPPOP variables are currently being re-developed for samples 1970 and later.

STEPMOM reports whether a person's mother, as identified by MOMLOC, was likely to have been the person's stepmother or adoptive mother. Non-zero values of STEPMOM explain why it is probable that the person's mother was a step- or adoptive mother. A value of 0 indicates no likely stepmother because (1) the mother identified in MOMLOC was probably the biological mother or (2) there was no mother of this person present in the household. The IPUMS assumes that the mother is the biological mother if she is (1) the householder and reported the child to be her son/daughter, or (2) the wife of the householder, who reported the child to be his son/daughter. For 1850-1870, MOMLOC (and thus STEPMOM) is based on imputed relationship (IMPREL), rather than on RELATE.

For the 1940-1980 censuses, the ACS, and the PRCS the category "son/daughter" included adopted and/or step-children as well as biological children (see RELATE). The 1990 form distinguished stepchildren; the 2000 census form distinguished both stepchildren and adopted children. Thus, the capacity to identify stepmothers and adoptive mothers varies across years. Overall, many stepmothers and adoptive mothers in the population cannot be identified with the information available, and STEPMOM always under-represents their actual number in the population. See MOMRULE and "Family Interrelationships" for more information.

The following codes are included in STEPMOM:
0 = Biological mother or no mother of this person present in household.
1 = Age difference between mother and child was less than 12 or greater than 54 years.
2 = Link was established only because the mother was married to the father (according to SPLOC). The listed order of family members on the form was non-standard.
3 = Form explicitly identified as stepmother - information not available for 1960, 1970, 1980, the ACS, and the PRCS.
4 = Mother had 0 children surviving.
5 = Form explicitly identified as adopted - information available only for the 1880, 1900, 1910 (U.S. and Puerto Rican), 1920 (U.S. and Puerto Rican), and 2000 (U.S. and Puerto Rican) censuses.
6 = Child was older than the mother's marriage (current marriage for 1900 and 1910, first marriage for 1960 and 1970), and the mother's response in BPL did not match the child's response in MBPL.
7 = If the number of children linked to each mother exceeded the number of children born or the number of children surviving (whichever is valid), the IPUMS unlinked the eldest child(ren) with the same surname, unless the mother was listed as wife and the child was listed as a stepchild of the head.

If a link could be made according to more than one rule, the lowest-numbered rule was applied.

Codes and Frequencies



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Comparability

Because of variation in the information available for linking mothers and children, there are differences across years. To limit analysis to links that could be made for all years, exclude cases with a value greater than 2 in STEPMOM.

Universe

  • All persons.

Availability

United States
  • 2017: All samples
  • 2016: --
  • 2015: --
  • 2014: --
  • 2013: --
  • 2012: --
  • 2011: --
  • 2010: --
  • 2009: --
  • 2008: --
  • 2007: --
  • 2006: --
  • 2005: --
  • 2004: --
  • 2003: --
  • 2002: --
  • 2001: --
  • 2000: --
  • 1990: --
  • 1980: --
  • 1970: --
  • 1960: All samples
  • 1950: All samples
  • 1940: All samples
  • 1930: All samples
  • 1920: All samples
  • 1910: All samples
  • 1900: All samples
  • 1880: All samples
  • 1870: All samples
  • 1860: All samples
  • 1850: All samples
Puerto Rico
  • 2017: All samples
  • 2016: --
  • 2015: --
  • 2014: --
  • 2013: --
  • 2012: --
  • 2011: --
  • 2010: --
  • 2009: --
  • 2008: --
  • 2007: --
  • 2006: --
  • 2005: --
  • 2000: --
  • 1990: --
  • 1980: --
  • 1970: --
  • 1930: All samples
  • 1920: All samples
  • 1910: All samples

Flags

This variable has no flags.

Editing Procedure

There is no editing procedure available for this variable.