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STEPPOP
Probable step/adopted father

Description

USER CAUTION: The STEPMOM and STEPPOP variables are currently being re-developed for samples 1970 and later.

STEPPOP indicates whether a person's father, as identified by POPLOC, was likely to have been the person's stepfather or adoptive father. Non-zero values of STEPPOP explain why it is probable that the person's father was a step- or adoptive father. A value of 0 indicates no likely stepfather because (1) the father identified in POPLOC was probably the biological father or (2) there was no father of this person present in the household. The IPUMS assumes that the father is the biological father if he is (1) the householder and reported the child to be his son/daughter, or (2) the husband of the householder, who reported the child to be her son/daughter. For 1850-1870, POPLOC (and thus STEPPOP) is based on imputed relationship (IMPREL), rather than on RELATE.

For the 1940-1980 censuses and the ACS, the category "son/daughter" included adopted and/or stepchildren as well as biological children (see RELATE). The 1990 form distinguished stepchildren; the 2000 census form distinguished both stepchildren and adopted children. Thus, the capacity to identify stepfathers and adoptive fathers varies across years. Overall, many stepfathers and adoptive fathers cannot be identified with the information available, and STEPPOP always underrepresents their actual number in the population. See POPRULE and "Family Interrelationships" for more information.

The following codes are included in STEPPOP:
0 = Biological father or no father of this person present in household.
1 = Age difference between father and child was less than 14 years.
2 = Link was established only because the father was married to the mother (according to SPLOC). The listed order of family members on the form was non-standard.
3 = Form explicitly identified as stepfather - information not available for 1960, 1970, 1980, and the ACS.
5 = Form explicitly identified as adopted - information available only for the 1880, 1900, 1910 (U.S. and Puerto Rican), 1920 (U.S. and Puerto Rican), and 2000 (U.S. and Puerto Rican) censuses.
6 = Child was older than the father's marriage (current marriage for 1900 and 1910, first marriage for 1960 and 1970), and the father's response in BPL did not match the child's response in FBPL.
7 = Surname differed, and child was a male, a never-married female (1880), or a female under age 15 (1850-1870).

If a link could be made according to more than one rule, the lowest-numbered rule was applied.

Codes and Frequencies



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Comparability

Because of variation in the information available for linking fathers and children, there are differences across years. To limit analysis to links that could be made for all years, exclude cases with a value greater than 2 in STEPPOP.

Universe

  • All persons.

Availability

United States
  • 2016: ACS 5yr
  • 2015: --
  • 2014: --
  • 2013: --
  • 2012: --
  • 2011: --
  • 2010: --
  • 2009: --
  • 2008: --
  • 2007: --
  • 2006: --
  • 2005: --
  • 2004: --
  • 2003: --
  • 2002: --
  • 2001: --
  • 2000: --
  • 1990: --
  • 1980: --
  • 1970: --
  • 1960: All samples
  • 1950: All samples
  • 1940: All samples
  • 1930: All samples
  • 1920: All samples
  • 1910: All samples
  • 1900: All samples
  • 1880: All samples
  • 1870: All samples
  • 1860: All samples
  • 1850: All samples
Puerto Rico
  • 2016: PRCS 5yr
  • 2015: --
  • 2014: --
  • 2013: --
  • 2012: --
  • 2011: --
  • 2010: --
  • 2009: --
  • 2008: --
  • 2007: --
  • 2006: --
  • 2005: --
  • 2000: --
  • 1990: --
  • 1980: --
  • 1970: --
  • 1930: All samples
  • 1920: All samples
  • 1910: All samples

Flags

This variable has no flags.

Editing Procedure

There is no editing procedure available for this variable.