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Description

BPL indicates the U.S. state, the outlying U.S. area or territory, or the foreign country where the person was born.

Codes and Frequencies




Can't find the category you are looking for? Try the Detailed codes

Comparability

While this variable yields similar information for all years, shifting political boundaries and an increasingly diverse population required more inclusive classification schemes in later years.

The BPL general code covers places available in multiple years. The first digit of BPL more or less corresponds to continents. The detailed code covers places not available over a number of years, or places that are subsets of other specified countries. Many detailed codes relate to the codes in the census PUMS for 1980, 1990, and 2000; in these years, the level of geographic detail increased greatly.

The ACS, the PRCS and the 5 percent sample of census 2000 have less detail than other recent samples; therefore, their residual (i.e., "n.s.") categories often have differing content from other years. Users should consult the Birthplace codes (see below) to see the limited birthplace codes available in these samples. The residual categories in the ACS, the PRCS and the 5 percent sample of census 2000 are typically coded to "not specified" categories, when they should more properly be called "not elsewhere classified."

The ACS and the PRCS also included new codes for "Other, not elsewhere classified" (95000), Czech Republic (45213), Slovenia (45780), Kosovo (45790), and Eritrea (60065). Eritrea could not be given the ideal place in the coding scheme because of a lack of space within the existing IPUMS classification. 54400 "Yemen Arab Republic (North)" is simply "Yemen" in 2000, and therefore includes persons from South Yemen as well.

Users should examine other IPUMS variables dealing with birthplaces, ancestry, and language (MBPL, FBPL, MTONGUE, MMTONGUE, FMTONGUE) to determine which variables are most useful for their purposes.

Factors affecting persons born in the United States:

Prior to 1900, the census provided no explicit instructions to enumerators other than to report the state or territory in which the person was born. From 1900 onwards, native-born Americans were to follow contemporary boundaries when reporting the state, territory, or U.S. possession in which they were born.
  • The 1950 enumerator instructions and the 1960, 1970, and 1980 census forms further instructed respondents to give their state (or country) of birth as the state (or country) in which their mother resided when they were born, even if their mother went to a hospital in another state (or country) to give birth. This instruction was dropped in 1990, when evaluations by the Census Bureau showed that many respondents either ignored or misunderstood it.

Factors affecting persons born outside the United States:

  • Boundaries of several foreign countries changed over the period covered by the IPUMS, as did the detail with which the census instructed enumerators and/or respondents to report birthplaces. Central and Eastern Europe around the time of the World Wars pose special difficulties. For some countries and years, the census gave specific instructions; for others, enumerators and respondents were free to report birthplaces as they saw fit. Furthermore, it is not always clear how well enumerators and/or respondents followed the instructions on the form.
The makers of each sample preserved as much detail as they thought would be useful to potential users. While censuses usually recorded country of birth, some samples (especially the earlier ones) combined groups of non-European countries -- such as those of Central America, South America, or Africa -- into one category, since the number of cases for each individual country was thought to be too small to be useful. In some samples, detail below the nation-state level is available. Users can examine the codes and frequencies table to determine the amount of detail preserved in each sample (and thus in the IPUMS).
  • Beginning with the 1900 census, persons born abroad to American parents were to indicate this, and were not to give a separate country of birth. These cases are coded 900 under the general category "Abroad."
  • Persons born "at sea" were instructed to indicate this status beginning with the 1900 census. Some people did so in previous years, and they are so coded in the IPUMS.

Birthplace instructions by year:

1850:

Enumerators simply recorded whatever birthplace respondents reported. Some reported countries or regions (such as Poland) that did not exist as nation-states at the time; this occurred frequently in later years as well.

1860-1880:

Instructions were not much more explicit than those for 1850. Enumerators were to record the country "as specifically as possible." Those born within Great Britain were to specify England, Wales, Scotland, or Ireland. Those born within Germany were to specify the particular state. As in 1850, the detail of responses varied and did not always accord with contemporary political boundaries. To cite only one example, most people born in Canada simply replied "Canada," but in 1880 more than 1000 persons included in the sample responded with a specific Canadian province (e.g., New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Quebec).

1900:

Enumerators were instructed to record the nation-state of the person's birth -- that is "a region whose people have direct relation with other countries." However, the instructions made several exceptions to this general rule. As in 1880, enumerators were to distinguish the various parts of Great Britain. They were also to identify three areas -- Austria, Hungary, and Bohemia -- within the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and they were to identify persons born in Finland (which was ruled by Russia in 1900). They were also to determine and record whether people responding "Canada" were of English or French descent. Persons who initially responded "Poland" were to specify Austrian Poland, German Poland, or Russian Poland. Most respondents apparently complied, but the 1900 sample includes a few who responded "Austria-Hungary" or "Poland." Nationalism might have played a role in some respondents' answers; for example, a person of Russian descent who was born in Finland may have responded "Russia," even though the instructions intended otherwise.

1910:

Enumerators were to distinguish between the various parts of Great Britain and to separate Finland from Russia, as in 1880 and 1900. They were also to separate Austria and Hungary -- but unlike the 1900 instructions, those for 1910 made no mention of Bohemia. 1910 also differed from 1900 in that no mention was made of the areas of Poland or the French-English Canadian distinction. The 1910 instructions asked enumerators to make a new distinction between Turkey in Europe and Turkey in Asia. As in previous years, some enumerators or respondents gave answers contrary to these instructions. Puerto Rico was distinguished from other U.S. possessions.

1920:

Enumerators were again to distinguish between the various parts of Great Britain. They were additionally instructed to distinguish Cuba and Puerto Rico from the rest of the West Indies. To account for the impact of World War I on the political geography of Central and Eastern Europe, enumerators were to ask those born in Austria-Hungary, Germany, Russia, or Turkey, as defined by their prewar boundaries, to specify in which province, state, or region they were born.

1930:

Enumerators were again to distinguish between the various parts of Great Britain. They were additionally instructed to distinguish Cuba and Puerto Rico from the rest of the West Indies. They were also to determine and record whether people responding "Canada" were of English or French descent. In 1930, however, the enumerator instructions also state that "it is essential that each foreign-born person be credited to the country in which his birthplace is now located." Thus for persons born in Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, Russia, and Turkey, enumerators were expected to "ask specifically whether the birthplace is located within the present area of the country; and if not, find out to what country it has been transferred. If a person was born in the Province of Bohemia, for example, which was formerly in Austria but is now a part of Czechoslovakia, the proper return for country of birth is Czechoslovakia. If you can not ascertain with certainty the present location of the birthplace, where this group of countries is involved, enter in addition to the name of the country, the name of the Province or State in which the person was born, as Alsace-Lorraine, Bohemia, Croatia, Galicia, Moravia, Slovakia, etc., or the city, as Warsaw, Prague, Strasbourg, etc."

1940:

For persons born in Central European countries affected by recent boundary changes, enumerators were to record the country in which the respondent's birthplace was situated as of January 1, 1937. If this was not known, they were to record the province, state, or city, so editors could later fit the responses into the appropriate 1937 nation-state boundaries. 1940 was the first census contained in the IPUMS to explicitly instruct enumerators to determine the country in which the birthplace was located at a point in time relatively contemporary with the census. 1937 was chosen as the reference year, instead of 1940, to get around the political shifts occurring just before and during World War II. This practice of reporting foreign birthplaces in terms of contemporary national boundaries may have been the intention prior to 1940, since birthplaces within the United States had long been recorded according to contemporary state boundaries and place names. Still, before 1940 the census gave no explicit instructions in this regard for recording foreign birthplaces, except for those mentioned above applying to specific nation-states.

The 1940 census continued to separately identify the various kingdoms of Great Britain. Ireland was now independent and distinguished from the UK's Northern Ireland. Cuba and Puerto Rico were to be distinguished from the rest of the West Indies. The 1940 census re-instituted the 1900 distinction between French and English Canada.

1950:

Enumerators were to record the full name of the foreign country according to contemporary (1950) international boundaries. If this was not known, they were to report the locality as precisely as possible, so editors could later fit the responses into the appropriate country.

The 1950 census instructions made exceptions to this rule similar to those made in 1940: the kingdoms of Great Britain were separately identified, the Ireland/Northern Ireland distinction was maintained, and French Canada was distinguished from the rest of Canada. For all persons born in the West Indies, the precise island was to be ascertained.

1960-2000, the ACS and the PRCS:

Respondents were to report their place of birth according to contemporary international boundaries, as recognized by the United States. The 1960-1990 forms instructed respondents to distinguish Northern Ireland from the Republic of Ireland. The 1980 and 1990 forms asked respondents to distinguish between the provinces of Great Britain, between the islands in the Caribbean, and between East and West Germany. 1990 distinguished between North and South Korea.

Some sub regions, such as parts of the Soviet Union, are identified separately. The 1960 and 1970 samples continued the practice of combining some (mostly non-European) countries into larger sub-continental regions, when the numbers of people from each country within the region was small. The 1980 and 1990 samples gave a separate code to each country (and to some smaller sub-regions). The ACS, the PRCS and the 5 percent sample of census 2000 used the earlier practice of combining some countries.

Constructing the BPL variable for the IPUMS:
With birthplace, as with all IPUMS variables, all information is preserved in the detailed codes of the IPUMS.

When grouping the data, the most difficult task was determining how to classify a location appearing in one sample, but not in another. Most of these cases were fairly straightforward; usually, they were countries that were identified separately in some samples but grouped with other countries into a more inclusive category in other samples. For example, Argentina (IPUMS code 300-05) was separately identified in all samples except for 1910, in which all South American countries were collapsed into the category "South America." In such cases, all countries contained in the more inclusive category are given the same IPUMS general code -- 300 in the case of South America -- and the detail contained in other years is preserved in the detailed codes (the last two digits). (Of course, some responses rarely or never occurred in the earlier censuses because few or no people from a particular country had entered the United States.)

In cases involving changes in political geography, the IPUMS coding scheme in effect imposes artificially static political boundaries. In some cases, countries (such as Korea) have broken into two or more independent units; in other cases, countries have been combined (like the German states or, later, East and West Germany) to create one larger unit. Generally, the IPUMS gives the largest unit ("Korea" or "Germany") a general code, while the smaller units are given separate detailed codes for the years in which they existed and are available. Thus, Korea has the IPUMS general code 506; the detailed codes are 506-00 for "Korea," 506-10 for "North Korea," and 506-20 for "South Korea."

Some countries, such as France and Germany, have changed in size over the years covered by the IPUMS. While some of the census instructions described above tried to deal with this problem -- and their success always depended upon how willing or able respondents were to reply correctly -- the IPUMS can do little about it. The response "Germany" is given the same code (453-00) in all years, even though Germany's boundaries have shifted; the census instructions might also have affected the number of people who gave "Germany" as a response.

The various "other" categories cannot be made compatible across years. The content of these categories varies with the list of specified places in a given region.

The IPUMS staff has no comment on the Antarctican population identified in the censuses of 1980 and 1990.

Universe

  • All persons.

Availability

United States
  • 2016: All samples
  • 2015: All samples
  • 2014: All samples
  • 2013: All samples
  • 2012: All samples
  • 2011: All samples
  • 2010: ACS; ACS 3yr; ACS 5yr
  • 2009: All samples
  • 2008: All samples
  • 2007: All samples
  • 2006: All samples
  • 2005: All samples
  • 2004: All samples
  • 2003: All samples
  • 2002: All samples
  • 2001: All samples
  • 2000: All samples
  • 1990: All samples
  • 1980: All samples
  • 1970: All samples
  • 1960: All samples
  • 1950: All samples
  • 1940: All samples
  • 1930: All samples
  • 1920: All samples
  • 1910: All samples
  • 1900: All samples
  • 1880: All samples
  • 1870: All samples
  • 1860: All samples
  • 1850: All samples
Puerto Rico
  • 2016: All samples
  • 2015: All samples
  • 2014: All samples
  • 2013: All samples
  • 2012: All samples
  • 2011: All samples
  • 2010: PRCS; PRCS 3yr; PRCS 5yr
  • 2009: All samples
  • 2008: All samples
  • 2007: All samples
  • 2006: All samples
  • 2005: All samples
  • 2000: All samples
  • 1990: All samples
  • 1980: All samples
  • 1970: All samples
  • 1930: All samples
  • 1920: All samples
  • 1910: All samples

Flags

QBPL 

Editing Procedure


BPL (Birthplace)

ACS Years: 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015

ACS editing procedure:

Summary:

The editing procedure for BPL is very detailed. To help users understand this process, we first summarize these steps involved in Census' editing and allocation and then highlight the detailed steps in the sections below.

When a person has a blank or invalid response for BPL, the Census will use their citizenship status (CITIZEN) and other household member's BPL to infer the missing BPL. If these steps fail, the value for BPL will be allocated from another person with a similar value for AGE, RACE, and HISPAN. The flag variable, QBPL, will show when BPL is allocated.

For those who report citizenship as being born in US

If a person's reported birthplace is invalid or blank, but citizenship (CITIZEN) is "Yes, born in the United States", the first step is to use RELATE to look in the household for a sibling with a valid value for BPL. If there is a sibling in the household with a valid BPL, this will replace the missing or invalid value. The flag will indicate the value was allocated (QBPL).

Sibling pairs:

  • Reference person to Brother/Sister
  • Son/Daughter to Son/Daughter

If a person's reported birthplace remains invalid or blank and the person is less than 1 year old, the current state of resident will replace BPL. The flag will indicate the value was allocated (QBPL).

If a person's reported birthplace is still invalid or blank after the above steps, their BPL will be allocated. The allocated value is from a person born in the U.S. with a similar age, the same race (RACE) and ethnicity (HISPAN). The flag will indicate the value was allocated (QBPL).

For those who report citizenship as being born in Puerto Rico

If a person's reported birthplace is invalid or blank and their citizenship status (CITIZEN) is "Yes, born in Puerto Rico" their BPL will be replaced with "Puerto Rico." The flag will indicate the value was allocated (QBPL).

For those who report citizenship as being born in Puerto Rico or U.S. Island area

If a person's reported birthplace is invalid or blank and their citizenship status (CITIZEN) is "Yes, born in Puerto Rico or U.S. Island Area," they currently live in the United States, and there is a sibling or parent in the household with a BPL in a U.S. Island Area, the missing BPL will be replaced with the sibling or parent's BPL. To be a parent or sibling, the person with the missing BPL must have a RELATE value of "Reference person," "Brother/sister," or "Mother/Father" and the person with the valid BPL must have a RELATE value of "Reference person," "Brother/sister," or "Mother/Father." If there is no parent or sibling, but there is another relative (Husband/wife, Son/Daughter, Grandchild, In-law, or Other relative) with a BPL in a specific U.S. Island Area, the missing BPL will be replaced with the relative's BPL. The flag will indicate the value was allocated (QBPL).

If a person's reported birthplace remains invalid or blank, the next steps continues to look for a sibling in the household with a BPL in a specific U.S. Island Area. To be a sibling in this step, the person with the missing BPL must have a RELATE value of "Son/Daughter" and the person with the valid BPL must have a RELATE value of "Son/Daughter." The missing BPL will be replaced with the sibling's BPL. If there is no sibling, but there is another relative (Husband/wife, Son/Daughter, Grandchild, In-law, or Other relative) with a BPL in a specific U.S. Island Area, the missing BPL will be replaced with the relative's BPL. The flag will indicate the value was allocated (QBPL).

If a person's reported birthplace remains invalid or blank and there is a relative in the household with a BPL in a specific U.S. Island Area, the missing BPL will be replaced with the relative BPL. To be a relative, the person with the missing BPL must have a RELATE value of "Husband/wife," "Son/Daughter," "Grandchild," "In-law," or "Other relative" and the person with the valid BPL must have a RELATE value of "Reference person" "Husband/wife," "Son/Daughter," "Grandchild," "In-law," "Other relative," "Brother/sister," or "Mother/father." The flag will indicate the value was allocated (QBPL).

If a person's reported birthplace remains invalid or blank after the above steps and they indicate having migrated from a U.S. Island Area (MIGPLAC1), the value of MIGPLAC1 will replace BPL. The flag will indicate the value was allocated (QBPL).

If a person's reported birthplace is still invalid or blank after the above steps, their BPL will be allocated. The allocated value is from another person born in Puerto Rico or U.S. Island Area with a similar age, the same race (RACE) and ethnicity (HISPAN). The flag will indicate the value was allocated (QBPL).

For those who report citizenship as being born in US, DC, Guam, U.S. Virgin Islands, or the Northern Marianas

If a person's reported birthplace is invalid or blank and their citizenship status (CITIZEN) is "Yes, born in a U.S. State, DC, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands or the Northern Marianas," they currently live in Puerto Rico, and there is a sibling or parent in the household with a BPL in a U.S. State, DC, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands or the Northern Marianas, the missing BPL will be replaced with the sibling or parent's BPL. To be a parent or sibling, the person with the missing BPL must have a RELATE value of "Reference person," "Brother/sister," or "Mother/Father" and the person with the valid BPL must have a RELATE value of "Reference person," "Brother/sister," or "Mother/Father." If there is no parent or sibling, but there is another relative (Husband/wife, Son/Daughter, Grandchild, In-law, or Other relative) with a BPL in U.S. State, DC, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands or the Northern Marianas, the missing BPL will be replaced with the relative's BPL. The flag will indicate the value was allocated (QBPL).

If a person's reported birthplace is still invalid or blank after the above steps, and there is a sibling in the household with a BPL in a U.S. State, DC, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands or the Northern Marianas, the missing BPL will be replaced with the sibling's BPL. To be a sibling, the person with the missing BPL must have a RELATE value of "Son/Daughter" and the person with the valid BPL must have a RELATE value of "Son/Daughter." If there is no sibling, but there is another relative (Husband/wife, Son/Daughter, Grandchild, In-law, or Other relative) with a BPL in a U.S. State, DC, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands or the Northern Marianas, the missing BPL will be replaced with the relative's BPL. The flag will indicate the value was allocated (QBPL).

If a person's reported birthplace is still invalid or blank after the above steps, and there is a relative in the household with a BPL in a U.S. State, DC, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands or the Northern Marianas, the missing BPL will be replaced with the relative's BPL. To be a relative, the person with the missing BPL must have a RELATE value of "Husband/wife," "Grandchild," "In-law," or "Other relative" and the person with the valid BPL must have a RELATE value of "Reference person" "Husband/wife," "Son/Daughter," "Grandchild," "In-law," "Other relative," "Brother/sister," or "Mother/father." The flag will indicate the value was allocated (QBPL).

If a person's reported birthplace is still invalid or blank after the above steps, and they indicate having migrated from a U.S. State, DC, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands or the Northern Marianas (MIGPLAC1), the value of MIGPLAC1 will replace BPL. The flag will indicate the value was allocated (QBPL).

If a person's reported birthplace is still invalid or blank after the above steps, their BPL will be allocated. The allocated value is from another person born in U.S. State, DC, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands or the Northern Marianas with a similar age, the same race (RACE) and ethnicity (HISPAN). The flag will indicate the value was allocated (QBPL).

For those who report citizenship as born abroad to U.S. parents, naturalized U.S. citizen, or not a U.S. citizen

If a person's reported birthplace is invalid or blank and their citizenship status (CITIZEN) is "Yes, born abroad to U.S. parents" "Yes, U.S. citizen by naturalization" or "Not a U.S. citizen", and there is a sibling or parent in the household with a BPL in American Samoa or a foreign country, the missing BPL will be replaced with the sibling or parent's BPL. To be a parent or sibling, the person with the missing BPL must have a RELATE value of "Reference person," "Brother/sister," or "Mother/Father" and the person with the valid BPL must have a RELATE value of "Reference person," "Brother/sister," or "Mother/Father." If there is no parent or sibling, but there is another relative (Husband/wife, Son/Daughter, Grandchild, In-law, or Other relative) with a BPL in American Samoa or a foreign country, the missing BPL will be replaced with the relative's BPL. The flag will indicate the value was allocated (QBPL).

If a person's reported birthplace is still invalid or blank after the above steps, and there is a sibling in the household with a BPL in American Samoa or a foreign country, the missing BPL will be replaced with the sibling's BPL. To be a sibling, the person with the missing BPL must have a RELATE value of "Son/Daughter" and the person with the valid BPL must have a RELATE value of "Son/Daughter." If there is no sibling, but there is another relative (Husband/wife, Son/Daughter, Grandchild, In-law, or Other relative) with a BPL in American Samoa or a foreign country, the missing BPL will be replaced with the relative's BPL. The flag will indicate the value was allocated (QBPL).

If a person's reported birthplace is still invalid or blank after the above steps, and there is a relative in the household with a BPL in American Samoa or a foreign country, the missing BPL will be replaced with the relative's BPL. To be a relative, the person with the missing BPL must have a RELATE value of "Husband/wife," "Grandchild," "In-law," or "Other relative" and the person with the valid BPL must have a RELATE value of "Reference person" "Husband/wife," "Son/Daughter," "Grandchild," "In-law," "Other relative," "Brother/sister," or "Mother/father." The flag will indicate the value was allocated (QBPL).

If a person's reported birthplace is still invalid or blank after the above steps, and they indicate having migrated from an American Samoa or a foreign country (MIGPLAC1), the value of MIGPLAC1 will replace BPL. The flag will indicate the value was allocated (QBPL).

If a person's reported birthplace is still invalid or blank after the above steps, their BPL will be allocated. The allocated value is from another person born abroad, with a similar age, the same race (RACE) and ethnicity (HISPAN). The flag will indicate the value was allocated (QBPL).

For those whose reported citizenship is blank or unspecified and U.S. checkbox for birthplace

The questionnaire first has a check box for being born in the U.S. or abroad and then a box for people to write the specific answer. If a person's reported birthplace is invalid or blank but they do check the box for being born in the U.S., their citizenship status (CITIZEN) is blank or is "Yes, unspecified", and there is a sibling or parent in the household with a BPL of a U.S. state, the missing BPL will be replaced with the sibling or parent's BPL. To be a parent or sibling in this step, the person with the missing BPL must have a RELATE value of "Reference person," "Brother/sister," and the person with the valid BPL must have a RELATE value of "Reference person," "Brother/sister."

If a person's reported birthplace is still invalid or blank after the above steps, and there is a sibling in the household with a BPL of a U.S. state, the missing BPL will be replaced with the sibling's BPL. To be a sibling in this step, the person with the missing BPL must have a RELATE value of "Son/daughter," and the person with the valid BPL must have a RELATE value of "Son/daughter."

If a person's reported birthplace is still invalid or blank and there is a relative in the household with a BPL in a U.S. state, the missing BPL will be replaced with the relative's BPL. To be a relative, the person with the missing BPL must have a RELATE value of "Husband/wife," "Father/mother," "Grandchild," "In-law," or "Other relative" and the person with the valid BPL must have a RELATE value of "Husband/wife," "Grandchild," "In-law," "Other relative," or "Mother/father." The flag will indicate the value was allocated (QBPL).

If a person's reported birthplace is still invalid or blank and they are under 1, BPL will be replaced with their current state of residence (STATE).

If a person's reported birthplace is still invalid or blank after the above steps, their citizenship status (CITIZEN) blank or is "Yes, unspecified", and they indicate having migrated from a U.S. state (MIGPLAC1), the value of MIGPLAC1 will replace BPL. The flag will indicate the value was allocated (QBPL).

If a person's reported birthplace is still invalid or blank after the above steps, their citizenship status (CITIZEN) is blank or is "Yes, unspecified", their BPL will be allocated. The allocated value is from a person born in the U.S., with a similar age, the same race (RACE) and ethnicity (HISPAN). The flag will indicate the value was allocated (QBPL).

For those whose reported citizenship is blank or unspecified and foreign checkbox for birthplace

The questionnaire first has a check box for being born in the U.S. or abroad and then a box for people to write the specific answer. If a person's reported birthplace is invalid or blank but they do check the box for being born outside the U.S., their citizenship status (CITIZEN) is blank or is "Yes, unspecified", and there is a sibling or parent in the household with a BPL of a U.S. Island Area or a foreign country, the missing BPL will be replaced with the sibling or parent's BPL. To be a parent or sibling in this step, the person with the missing BPL must have a RELATE value of "Reference person," "Brother/sister," and the person with the valid BPL must have a RELATE value of "Reference person," "Brother/sister."

If the first step did not yield a BPL, the next step is to see if there is a sibling in the household with a BPL of a U.S. Island Area or a foreign country, the missing BPL will be replaced with the sibling's BPL. To be a sibling in this step, the person with the missing BPL must have a RELATE value of "Son/daughter," and the person with the valid BPL must have a RELATE value of "Son/daughter."

If a person's reported birthplace is still invalid or blank and there is a relative in the household with a BPL in a U.S. Island Area or a foreign country, the missing BPL will be replaced with the relative's BPL. To be a relative, the person with the missing BPL must have a RELATE value of "Husband/wife," "Father/mother," "Grandchild," "In-law," or "Other relative" and the person with the valid BPL must have a RELATE value of "Husband/wife," "Grandchild," "In-law," "Other relative," or "Mother/father." The flag will indicate the value was allocated (QBPL).

If a person's reported birthplace is still invalid or blank after the above steps and they indicate having migrated from a U.S. Island Area or a foreign country (MIGPLAC1), the value of MIGPLAC1 will replace BPL. The flag will indicate the value was allocated (QBPL).

If the person's age is less than 1 and the current state of residence (STATE) is Puerto Rico, BPL will be replaced with Puerto Rico.

If a person's reported birthplace is still invalid or blank after the above steps, their BPL will be allocated. The allocated value is from a person born abroad, with a similar age, the same race (RACE) and ethnicity (HISPAN). The flag will indicate the value was allocated (QBPL).

For those whose reported citizenship is blank or unspecified

The questionnaire first has a check box for being born in the U.S. or abroad and then a box for people to write the specific answer. If a person's reported birthplace is invalid or blank and they do not check the box for being born inside or outside the U.S., their citizenship status (CITIZEN) is blank or is "Yes, unspecified", and there is a sibling or parent in the household with a valid BPL, the missing BPL will be replaced with the sibling or parent's BPL. To be a parent or sibling in this step, the person with the missing BPL must have a RELATE value of "Reference person," "Brother/sister," and the person with the valid BPL must have a RELATE value of "Reference person," "Brother/sister."

If the first step did not yield a BPL, the next step is to see if there is a sibling in the household with a valid BPL. The missing BPL will be replaced with the sibling's BPL. To be a sibling in this step, the person with the missing BPL must have a RELATE value of "Son/daughter," and the person with the valid BPL must have a RELATE value of "Son/daughter."

If a person's reported birthplace is still invalid or blank and there is a relative in the household with a valid BPL, the missing BPL will be replaced with the relative's BPL. To be a relative, the person with the missing BPL must have a RELATE value of "Husband/wife," "Father/mother," "Grandchild," "In-law," or "Other relative" and the person with the valid BPL must have a RELATE value of "Husband/wife," "Grandchild," "In-law," "Other relative," or "Mother/father." The flag will indicate the value was allocated (QBPL).

If the person's age is less than 1 and the current state of residence (STATE) is valid, BPL will be replaced with their current state of residence.

If a person's reported birthplace is still invalid or blank after the above steps and they indicate having migrated from somewhere (MIGPLAC1), the value of MIGPLAC1 will replace BPL. The flag will indicate the value was allocated (QBPL).

If a person's reported birthplace is still invalid or blank after the above steps, their BPL will be allocated. The allocated value is from a person with a similar age, the same race (RACE) and ethnicity (HISPAN). The flag will indicate the value was allocated (QBPL).

For those whose reported birthplace is "United States, state not reported"

If a person's reported birthplace is "United States, state not reported" and there is a sibling or parent in the household with a BPL of a U.S. state, the missing BPL will be replaced with the sibling or parent's BPL. To be a parent or sibling in this step, the person with the missing BPL must have a RELATE value of "Reference person," "Brother/sister," and the person with the valid BPL must have a RELATE value of "Reference person," "Brother/sister."

If a person's reported birthplace is still unspecified, and there is a sibling in the household with a BPL of a U.S. state, the missing BPL will be replaced with the sibling's BPL. To be a sibling in this step, the person with the missing BPL must have a RELATE value of "Son/daughter," and the person with the valid BPL must have a RELATE value of "Son/daughter."

If a person's reported birthplace is still invalid or blank and they are under 1, BPL will be replaced with their current state of residence (STATE).

If a person's reported birthplace is still unspecified, and they indicate having migrated from a U.S. state (MIGPLAC1), the value of MIGPLAC1 will replace BPL. The flag will indicate the value was allocated (QBPL).

If a person's reported birthplace is still invalid or blank after the above steps, their BPL will be allocated. The allocated value is from a person born in the U.S., with a similar age, the same race (RACE) and ethnicity (HISPAN). The flag will indicate the value was allocated (QBPL).

For those whose reported birthplace is "U.S. Island Area, not specified"

If a person's reported birthplace is "U.S. Island Area, not specified" and there is a sibling or parent in the household with a BPL of a U.S. Island Area, the missing BPL will be replaced with the sibling or parent's BPL. To be a parent or sibling in this step, the person with the missing BPL must have a RELATE value of "Reference person," "Brother/sister," and the person with the valid BPL must have a RELATE value of "Reference person," "Brother/sister."

If a person's reported birthplace is still unspecified, and there is a sibling in the household with a BPL of a U.S. Island Area, the missing BPL will be replaced with the sibling's BPL. To be a sibling in this step, the person with the missing BPL must have a RELATE value of "Son/daughter," and the person with the valid BPL must have a RELATE value of "Son/daughter."

If a person's reported birthplace is still invalid or blank and they are under 1 and their state of residence is Puerto Rico, BPL will be replaced with Puerto Rico (STATE).

If a person's reported birthplace is still unspecified, and they indicate having migrated from a U.S. Island Area (MIGPLAC1), the value of MIGPLAC1 will replace BPL. The flag will indicate the value was allocated (QBPL).

If a person's reported birthplace is still invalid or blank after the above steps, their BPL will be allocated. The allocated value is from a person born in the U.S., with a similar age, the same race (RACE) and ethnicity (HISPAN). The flag will indicate the value was allocated (QBPL).

For those whose reported birthplace is "Abroad, country not reported"

If a person's reported birthplace is "Abroad, country not reported" and there is a sibling or parent in the household with a BPL of a foreign country or region, the missing BPL will be replaced with the sibling or parent's BPL. To be a parent or sibling in this step, the person with the missing BPL must have a RELATE value of "Reference person," "Brother/sister," and the person with the valid BPL must have a RELATE value of "Reference person," "Brother/sister."

If a person's reported birthplace is still unspecified, and there is a sibling in the household with a BPL of a foreign country or region, the missing BPL will be replaced with the sibling's BPL. To be a sibling in this step, the person with the missing BPL must have a RELATE value of "Son/daughter," and the person with the valid BPL must have a RELATE value of "Son/daughter."

If a person's reported birthplace is still unspecified, and they indicate having migrated from a foreign country (MIGPLAC1), the value of MIGPLAC1 will replace BPL. The flag will indicate the value was allocated (QBPL).

If a person's reported birthplace is still invalid or blank after the above steps, their BPL will be allocated. The allocated value is from a person born in a foreign country, with a similar age, the same race (RACE) and ethnicity (HISPAN). The flag will indicate the value was allocated (QBPL).

Internal ACS variable : POB