1930 Census: Enumerator Instructions

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PLACE OF ABODE

114. Column 1. Street, avenue, road, etc.-This column applies to cities and all other localities where the streets or roads are known by names or numbers or letters. Write the name of the street, avenue, court, place, alley, or road lengthwise, in the manner shown on the illustrative example.

115. The places at which you begin and end work on any street are to be marked by heavy lines in ink (-) across the first and second columns. (See illustrative example, line 8.)

116. Column 2. House number or farm, etc.-Write the house number if there is one, opposite the name of the first person enumerated in the house. If a house is in the rear of another one fronting on a street and has no number of its own, give it the same number as the front house and add the word "rear."

117. Column 3. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation.-In this column the first dwelling house you should be numbered as "1," the second as "2," and son on until the enumeration of your district is completed. The number should always be entered opposite the name of the first person enumerated in each dwelling house, and should not be repeated for other persons or other families living in the same house.

118. Dwelling house defined.-A dwelling house, for census purposes, is a place in which, at the time of the census, one or more persons regularly sleep. It need not be a house in the usual sense of the word, but may be a room, in a factory, store, or office building, a loft over a garage, a boat, a tent, a freight car, or the like. A building like a tenement or apartment house counts as only one dwelling house, no matter how many persons or families live in it. A building like a tenement or apartment house counts as only one dwelling house, no matter how many persons or families live in it. A building with a solid partition was through it and a front door for each of the two parts, however, counts as two dwelling houses, as does each house in a block or row of "row" houses. But a 2-apartment house with one apartment over the other and a separate front door for each apartment counts as only one dwelling house.

119. Column 4. Number of family in order of visitation.-In this column number the families in your district in the order in which they are enumerated, entering the number opposite the name of the head of each family, as shown on the illustrative example. Thus, the first family you visit should be numbered as "1," the second as "2," and so on, until the enumeration of your district is completed.

120. Family defined.-The word "family," for census purposes, has a somewhat different application from what it has in popular usage. It means a group of persons living together in the same dwelling place. The persons constituting this group may or may not be related by ties of kinship, but if they live together forming one household they should be considered as one family. Thus a servant who sleeps in the house or on the premises should be included with the members of the family for which he or she works. Again, a boarder or lodger should be included with the members of the family with which he lodges; but a persons who boards in one place and lodges or rooms at another should be returned as a member of the family at the place where he lodges or rooms.

121. It should be noted, however, that two or more families may occupy the same dwelling house without living together. If they occupy separate portions of the dwelling house and their housekeeping is entirely separate, they should be returned as separate families.

122. Families in apartment houses.-In an apartment or tenement house, there will be as many families as there are separate occupied apartments or tenements, even though use may be made of a common cafe or restaurant.

123. Boarding-house families.-All the occupants and employees of a boarding house or lodging house, if that is their usual place of abode, make up, for census purposes, a single family.

124. Families in hotels.-All of the persons returned from a hotel should likewise be counted as a single "family," except that where a family of two or more members (as a husband and wife, or a mother and daughter) occupies permanent quarters in a hotel (or an apartment hotel), it should be returned separately, leaving the "hotel family" made up principally of individuals having no other family relations. The distinction between an apartment house and an apartment hotel, and in turn between an apartment hotel and a hotel devoted mainly to transients, will often be difficult to establish.

125. Institutional families.-The officials and inmates of an institution who live in the institution building or buildings form one family. But any officers or employees who sleep in detached houses or separate dwellings containing no inmates should be returned as separate families.

126. Persons living alone.-The census family may likewise consist of a single persons. Thus, an employee in a store who regularly sleeps there is to be returned, as a family and the store as his dwelling place. (See par. 82.)

NAME AND RELATION

127. Column 5. Name of each person enumerated.-Enter the name of every person whose usual place of abode on April 1, 1930, was with the family or in the dwelling place for which the enumeration is being made.

128. Order of entering names.-Enter the members of each family in the following order: (1) The head of the family; (2) his wife; (3) the children (whether sons or daughters) in the order of their ages, beginning with the oldest; and (4) all other persons living with the family, whether relatives, boarders, lodgers, or servants.

129. How names are to be written.-Enter first the last name or surname, then the given name in full, and the initial of the middle name, if any, except that where a person usually writes his first initial and his middle names, as "J. Henry Brown," you should write "Brown, J. Henry," rather than "Brown, John H."

130. Where the surname is the same as that of the person on the preceding line do not repeat the name, but draw a horizontal line (-) under the name above, as shown in the illustrative example.

131. Column 6. Relationship to head of family.-Designate the head of the family, whether husband or father, widow, or unmarried person of either sex, by the word "head"; for other members of a family write wife, father, mother, son, daughter, grandson, daughter-in-law, uncle, aunt, nephew, niece, boarder, lodger, servant, etc., according to the particular relationship which the person bears to the head of the family.

132. Home-maker.-Column 6 is to be used also to indicate which member of the family is the "home-maker," that is, which one is responsible for the care of the home and family. After the word "wife," "mother," or other term showing the relationship of such person to the head of the family, add the letter "H," thus: "Wife-H." Only one person in each family should receive this designation.

133. Occupants of an institution or school, living under a common roof, should be designated as officer, inmate, pupil, patient, prisoner, etc.; and in the case of the chief officer his title should be used, as warden, principal, superintendent, etc., instead of the word "head." Pupils who live at the school only during the school term are not usually to be enumerated at the school. (See par. 68.)

134. If two or more persons share a common abode as partners, write head for one and partner for the other or others.

135. In the case of a hotel or boarding or lodging house family (see pars. 123 and 124), the head of the family is usually the manager or the person who keeps the hotel or boarding or lodging house.

HOME DATA

136. Column 7. Home owned or rented.-This question is to be answered only opposite the name of the head of each family, and only relates to the home or dwelling in which they are living on the date of the enumeration. If the home is owned, write "O"; if the home is rented, write "R." Make no entries in this column for the other members of the family.

137. If a dwelling is occupied by more than one family it is the home of each of them, and the question should be answered with reference to each family in the dwelling. The whole dwelling may be owned by one family and a part rented by the other family, or both may rent.

138. Owned homes.-A home is to be classed as owned if it is owned wholly or in part by the head of the family living in the home or by the wife of the head, or by a son, or a daughter, or other relative living in the same house with the head of the family. It is not necessary that full payment for the property should have been made or that the family should be the sole owner.

139. Rented homes.-Every home not owned, either wholly or in part, by the family living in it should be classed as rented, whether rent is actually paid or not.

140. Where the owner of a house occupies a room or floor, but rents out the major portion of the house, including the first floor, the person hiring the house is to be entered as "head," the home as "rented," and the owner as a "lodger"; or if the owner's living arrangements are entirely separate, he (or she) should be reported as a separate family with "owned" home.

141. Column 8. Value of home, if owned, or monthly rental, if rented.-If the house or apartment is owned, as indicated by the entry "O" in column 7, give in column 8, on the line for the head of the family, the current market value of the home as nearly as it can be ascertained. Unless the house has been recently purchased it will be necessary to estimate its value. The estimate should represent the amount for which the home, including such land as belongs to it, would sell under normal conditions-not at forced sale. The assessor's value, on which taxation is based, is not generally a safe guide, being usually below the market value. Make it clear to your informant that the values returned on the census schedule are not to be used in any way in connection with taxation and are not open to public inspection.

142. If the home is rented, as indicated by the entry "R" in column 7, give in column 8 the amount paid each month as rent, or one-twelfth of the annual rental, in case payment is not made monthly.

143. If no actual rental is paid, as where a workman receives the use of a house as a part of his wages, give in column 8 the estimated monthly rental value of the house. This estimate may be based on the amount of rent paid for similar houses in the neighborhood.

144. For a farm family (indicated by the entry "Yes" in column 10) make no entry in column 8. The value of the farm home is given on the farm schedule.

145. Column 9. Radio set.-If the family, or any member of the family, has a radio set, write "R" opposite the name of the head of the family. If the family has no radio set, leave this column blank.

146. Column 10. Does this family live on a farm?-This question is to be answered, "Yes" or "No," for every family, except that in a thickly settled city district a statement may be made on the first schedule to the effect that there are no farms in the district, and the column may then be left blank.

147. If the family lives on a farm, that is, a place for which a farm schedule is made out and which is also locally regarded as a farm, the answer should be "Yes," even though no member of the family works on the farm. It is a question here of residence, not of occupation.

148. Occasionally there will be a place for which a farm schedule is required, but which is not commonly regarded as a farm. A greenhouse establishment located in a city or village and having little land attached would be an example. For such a place the entry in column 10 should be "No." Likewise for a one-time farm on which no farming is now being done, the place being occupied as a residence only, the entry in column 10 should be "No," even though the place is still called a farm. Where the farmer and his family do not live on the farm, the entry should, of course, be "No."

PERSONAL DESCRIPTION

149. Column 11. Sex.-Write "M" for male and "F" for female, as indicated in the notes at the bottom of the schedule.

150. Column 12. Color or race.-Write "W" for white, "B" for black; "Mus" for mulatto; "In" for Indian; "Ch" for Chinese; "Jp" for Japanese; "Fil" for Filipino; "Hin" for Hindu; "Kor" for Korean. For a person of any other race, write the race in full.

151. Negroes.-A person of mixed white and Negro blood should be returned as a Negro, no matter how small the percentage of Negro blood. Both black and mulatto persons are to be returned as Negroes, without distinction. A person of mixed Indian and Negro blood should be returned a Negro, unless the Indian blood predominates and the status as an Indian is generally accepted in the community.

152. Indians.-A person of mixed white and Indian blood should be returned as Indian, except where the percentage of Indian blood is very small, or where he is regarded as a white person by those in the community where he lives. (Se par. 151 for mixed Indian and Negro.)

153. For a person reported as Indian in column 12, report is to be made in column 19 as to whether "full blood" or "mixed blood," and in column 20 the name of the tribe is to be reported. For Indians, columns 19 and 20 are thus to be used to indicate the degree of Indian blood and the tribe, instead of the birthplace of father and mother.

154. Mexicans.-Practically all Mexican laborers are of a racial mixture difficult to classify, though usually well recognized in the localities where they are found. In order to obtain separate figures for this racial group, it has been decided that all person born in Mexico, or having parents born in Mexico, who are not definitely white, Negro, Indian, Chinese, or Japanese, should be returned as Mexican ("Mex").

155. Other mixed races.-Any mixture of white and nonwhite should be reported according to the nonwhite parent. Mixtures of colored races should be reported according to the race of the father, except Negro-Indian (see par. 151).

156. Column 13. Age at last birthday.-This question calls for the age in completed years at last birthday. Remember, however, that the age question, like all other questions on the schedule, relates to April 1, 1930. Thus a person whose exact age on April 1, the census day, is 17 years, 11 months, and 25 days should be returned simply as 17, because that is his age at his last birthday prior to April 1, even though at the time of your visit he may have completed 18 years.

157. Age in round numbers.-In many cases persons will report the age in round numbers, like 30 or 45, or "about 30" or "about 45," when that is not the exact age. Therefore, when an age ending in "0" or "5" is reported, you should inquire whether it is the exact age. If, however, it is impossible to get the exact age, enter the approximate age rather than return the age as unknown.

158. Ages of children.-Take particular pains to get the exact ages of children. In the case of a child less than 5 years old, the age should be given in completed months, expressed as twelfths of a year. Thus the age of a child 3 months old should be entered as 3/12, a child 7 months old as 7/12, a child 1 year and 3 months old as 1 3/12, a child exactly 3 years old as 3 0/12, a child 3 years and 1 month old as 3 1/12, etc. It a child is not yet a month old, enter the age as 0/12. but note again that this question should be answered with reference to April 1. For instance, a child who is just a year old on the 5th of April 1930, should nevertheless be returned as 11/12, because that is its age in completed months on April 1.

159. Enumerators must make a special effort to obtain returns for all infants and young children. Children under 1 year of age, in particular, have frequently been omitted from the enumeration in past censuses.

160. Column 14. Marital condition.-Write "S" for a single or unmarried person of whatever age, "M" for a married person, "Wd" for widowed (man or woman), and "D" for divorced.

161. Column 15. Age at first marriage.-This question applies only to married persons; that is, those for whom the entry in column 14 is "M." Where the marriage is evidently a first marriage, it may be good policy to ask for "age at marriage," rather than "age at first marriage," or to ask the question in this form and then make certain that the parties have not been married before.

EDUCATION

162. Column 16. Attended school or college any time since September 1, 1929.-Write "Yes" for a person who attended school, college, or any educational institution at any time since September 1, 1929, and "No" for any person who has not attended school since that date. Include attendance at night school.

163. Column 17. Whether able to read and write.-Write "Yes" for a person 10 years of age or over who can read and write in any language, whether English or some other, and "No" for such persons who can not both read and write in some language. do not return any person as able to read and write simply because he can write his own name. For persons under 10 years of age, leave the column blank.

164. For a blind person, write "Yes" if he could read and write in any language before becoming blind or, if, being born blind, he has been taught to read and write in any language.

PLACE OF BIRTH

165. Column 18. Place of birth of person.-If the person was born in the United States, give the State or Territory in which born. The words "United States" are not sufficiently definite. A person born in what is now North Dakota, South Dakota, or Oklahoma should be so reported, although at the time of his birth the particular region may have had a different name. For a person born in Washington, D.C., write District of Columbia. Do not abbreviate the names of States or Territories.

166. If the person was born in a foreign country, enter the name of the country only, as Belgium, Czechoslovakia, France, Italy, Yugoslavia, Norway, Poland, China, etc., as the case may be, except as noted in the following paragraphs.

167. Since it is essential that each foreign-born person be credited to the country in which his birthplace is now located, special attention must be given to the six countries which lost a part of their territory in the readjustments following the World War. These six countries are as follows:

Austria, which lost territory to Czechoslovakia, Italy, Yugoslavia, Poland, and Rumania.
Hungary, which lost territory to Austria, Czechoslovakia, Italy, Poland, Rumania, and Yugoslavia.
Bulgaria, which lost territory to Greece and Yugoslavia.
Germany, which lost territory to Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Danzig, Denmark, France, Lithuania, and Poland.
Russia, which lost territory to Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, and Turkey.
Turkey, which lost territory to Greece and Italy and from which the following areas became independent:
Iraq (Mesopotamia); Palestine (including Transjordan); Syria (including Lebanon); and various States
and Kingdoms in Arabia (Asir, Hejaz, and Yemen).

168. If the person reports one of these six countries as his place of birth or that of his parents, ask specifically whether the birthplace is located within the present area of the country; and if not, find out to what country it has been transferred. If a person was born in the Province of Bohemia, for example, which was formerly in Austria but is now a part of Czechoslovakia, the proper return for country of birth is Czechoslovakia. If you can not ascertain with certainty the present location of the birthplace, where this group of countries is involved, enter in addition to the name of the country, the name of the Province or State in which the person was born, as Alsace-Lorraine, Bohemia, Croatia, Galicia, Moravia, Slovakia, etc., or the city, as Warsaw, Prague, Strasbourg, etc.

169. Do not return a person as born in Great Britain but indicate the particular country, as England, Scotland, Wales, etc. Distinction must be made between Northern Ireland and Irish Free State. It is not sufficient to report that a person was born in Ireland.

170. French Canadians should be distinguished from other Canadians. For a French-speaking person born in Canada, enter "Canada-French"; for all other persons born in Canada, enter "Canada-English" (even though they may not actually speak English).

171. If a person was born in Cuba or Puerto Rico, so state, and do not write West Indies.

172. If a person was born abroad, but of American parents, write in column 18 both the birthplace and "Am. cit."-that is, American citizen. For a person born at sea, write "At sea."

173. Spell out the names of countries, provinces, etc., and do not abbreviate in any case.

174. Columns 19 and 20. Place of birth of parents.-Enter in columns 19 and 20, respectively, the State or country in which were born the father and the mother of the person whose own birthplace was entered in column 18. In designating the birthplace of the parents, follow the same instructions as for the person himself. (See pars. 165-173.) In case, however, a person does not know the State or Territory of birth of his father (or mother), but knows that he (or she) was born in the United States, write "United States" rather than "unknown."

174a. For the Indian population, which is practically all of native parentage, these columns are to be used for a different purpose. In column 19 is to be entered, in place of the country of birth of the father, the degree of Indian blood, as, "full blood" or "mixed blood." In column 20 is to be entered, in place of the country of birth of the mother, the tribe to which the Indian belongs.

MOTHER TONGUE

175. Column 21. Mother tongue of foreign born.-The question, "What is (his or her) mother tongue or native language" is to be asked with regard to every person who was born in any foreign country. By mother tongue is meant the language usually spoken in the home before the person came to the United States. Where persons have come to the United States by way of some other country, what is wanted is the native language of the person, or the language which he spoke in his native country. Do not abbreviate the language, and do not ask for the mother tongue of persons born in the United States.

176. Do not neglect to report the mother tongue simply because it is the same as the language of the country in which the person was born. Thus if a person reports that he was born in France and that his mother tongue is French, it is quite essential to enter the mother tongue as well as the country of birth. On the other hand, do not assume that the mother tongue is the same as the country of birth. For instance, do not report persons born in Austria as of Austrian mother tongue, or persons born in Hungary as of Hungarian mother tongue, especially since "Austrian" and "Hungarian" are not languages. The principal language of present-day Austria is German, and of Hungary, Magyar. Therefore make specific inquiry as to the language spoken. Do not accept "Scandinavian" as a mother tongue but specify whether Danish, Norwegian, or Swedish; similarly, do not report "Slavic" but specify whether Croatian,Serbian, Slovak, Slovenian, etc.

177. Principal foreign languages.-Following is a list of the principal languages which are likely to be reported as the mother tongue or native language of foreign-born persons:

Albanian
Arabic
Armenian
Basque
Breton
Bulgarian
Czech
Chinese
Croatian
Dalmation
Danish
Dutch
Egyptian
English
Estonian
Finnish
Flemish
French
Frisian
Friulian
Gaelic
Georgian
German
Great Russian
Greek
Gypsy
Hebrew
Hindu
Icelandic
Irish
Italian
Japanese
Korean
Kurdish
Lappish
Lettish
Lithuanian
Little Russian
Macedonian
Magyar
Montenegrin
Norwegian
Persian
Polish
Portuguese
Romansh
Rumanian [sic]
Russian
Ruthenian
Scotch
Serbian
Slovak
Slovenian
Spanish
Swedish
Syrian
Turkish
Ukrainian
Walloon
Welsh
Wendish
White Russian
Yiddish

CITIZENSHIP, ETC.

178. Column 22. Year of immigration to the United States.-This question applies to all foreign-born persons, male and female, of whatever age. It should be answered, therefore, for every persons whose birthplace was in a foreign country. Enter the year in which the person came to the United States. If he has come into the United States more than once, give the year of his first arrival.

179. Column 23. Naturalization.-This question applies to all foreign-born persons, male and female, or whatever age. Prior to September 22, 1922, a foreign-born woman became a citizen when her husband was naturalized. Since that date, she must take out papers in her own name, and if she does not do this she remains an alien even though her husband becomes naturalized. The question should be answered, therefore, for every person whose birthplace was in a foreign country, as follows:

180. For a foreign-born male 21 years of age and over write "Na" (for "naturalized") if he has either (1) taken out second or final naturalization papers, or (2) become naturalized while under the age of 21 by the naturalization of either parent.

181. For a foreign-born female 21 years of age and over write "Na" if she has either (1) taken out final papers, or (2) become naturalized through the naturalization of either parent while she was under the age of 21, or (3) if she became naturalized prior to 1922 by the naturalization of her husband. (See par. 179.)

182. For a foreign-born person under 21 years of age write "Na" if either parent has been naturalized. This applies to infants and young children as well as to older persons under 21.

183. For all foreign-born persons who have not been naturalized but have taken out first papers write "Pa" (for "papers"). Note that a person must be at least 18 years of age in order to take out first papers. Minor children should not be returned "Pa" merely because their parents have taken out first papers.

184. For all foreign-born persons neither naturalized nor having first papers, write "Al" (for "alien").

185. Column 24. Whether able to speak English.-Write "Yes" for a person 10 years of age and over who can speak English, and "No" for such a person who can not speak English. For persons under 10 years of age leave the column blank.

OCCUPATION AND INDUSTRY

186. Column 25. Occupation.-An entry should be made in this column for every person enumerated. The entry should be either (1) the gainful occupation pursued-that is, the word or words which most accurately indicate the particular kind of gainful work done, as physician, carpenter, dressmaker, salesman, newsboy; or (2) none (that is, no gainful occupation). The entry none should be made in the case of persons who follow no gainful occupation. A "gainful occupation" in census usage is an occupation by which the person who pursues it earns money or a money equivalent, or in which he assists in the production of marketable goods. The term "gainful worker," as interpreted for census purposes, does not include women doing housework in their own homes, without wages, and having no other employment (see par. 194), nor children working at home, merely on general household work, on chores, or at odd times on other work.

187. Occasionally there will be doubt as to whether an occupation should be returned for a person who works only a small part of the time at the occupation. In such cases the rule may generally be followed that, unless the person spends at least the equivalent of one day per week at the occupation, he or she should not be returned as a gainful worker-that is, the entry in column 25 should be none.

188. Persons retired or incapacitated.-Care should be taken in making the return for persons who on account of old age, permanent invalidism, or other reasons are no longer following any occupation. Such persons may desire to return the occupations formerly followed, which would be incorrect. If living on their own income, or if they are supported by other persons or institutions, or if they work only occasionally or only a short time each day, the return should be none.

189. Occupation of persons unemployed.-On the other hand, persons out of employment when visited by the enumerator may state that they have no occupation, when the fact is that they usually have an occupation but happen to be idle or unemployed at the time of the visit. In such cases the return should be the occupation followed when the person is employed or the occupation in which last regularly employed, and the fact that the person was not at work should be recorded in column 28. (See par. 225).

190. Persons having two occupations.-If a person has two occupations, return only the more important one; that is, the one from which he gets the more money. If you can not learn that, return the one at which he spends the more time. For example: Return a man as a farmer if he gets more of his income from farming, although he may also fallow the occupation of a clergyman or preacher; but return him as a clergyman if he gets more of his income from that occupation.

191. Column 26. Industry.-Make an entry in this column in all cases where an occupation is reported in column 25. But when the entry in column 25 is "none," leave column 26 blank. The entry in column 26, when made, should be the name of the industry, or the business, or the place in which this person works, as cotton mill, coal mine, dry-goods store, insurance office, bank, etc.

192. Never use the word "Company" in column 26. An "oil company," for example, may operate oil wells, or a pipe line, or an oil refinery, or a cottonseed oil mill, or it may be engaged in selling oil. Never enter in column 26 such indefinite terms as "factory," "mill," "shop," or "store," without stating the kind of factory, etc., as soap factory, cotton mill, blacksmith shop, grocery store. Likewise, never enter a firm name in column 26, as "Jones & Co.," but state the industry or business in which the person works, as coal mine, real estate, etc. Avoid entering the word "Contractor" in column 26. enter, instead, the name of the industry in which the person works, as building construction, street construction, etc.

193. The purpose of columns 25 and 26 is to bring out the specific occupation or work performed and the industry, business, or place in which such work is performed. In rare cases, especially with professions, you may use in column 26 the expression general practice or independent, or, for some laborers, odd jobs. The supervisor has been instructed not to certify your vouchers for payment if he does not find an entry in both of these columns for every person gainfully employed.

194. Women doing housework.-In the case of a woman doing housework in her own home and having no other employment, the entry in column 25 should be none. But a woman doing housework for wages should be returned in column 25 as housekeeper, servant, cook, or chambermaid, as the case may be; and the entry in column 26 should state the kind of place where she works, as private family, hotel, or boarding house.

195. Where a woman not only looks after her own home but also has employment outside or does work at home for which she receives payment, the outside work or gainful employment should ordinarily be reported as her occupation, unless this takes only a very small fraction of the woman's time. For instance, a woman who regularly takes in washing should be reported as laundress or washerwoman, followed in column 26 by at home.

196. Farm workers.-Return a person in charge of a farm as a farmer, whether he owns it or operates it as a tenant, renter, or cropper; but a person who manages a farm for some one else for wages or a salary should be reported as a farm manager. A man who directs farm labor under the supervision of the own or of a manager should be reported as a farm foreman or a farm overseer; and a person who works on a farm for some one else, but not as a manager or foreman should be reported as a farm laborer.

197. Women doing farm work.-A woman who works only occasionally, or only a short time each day at outdoor farm or garden work, or in the dairy, or in caring for livestock or poultry should not be returned as a farm laborer; but for a woman who works regularly and most of the time at such work, the return in column 25 should be farm laborer. Of course, a woman who herself operates or runs a farm or plantation should be reported as a farmer and not as a farm laborer.

198. Unusual occupations for women.-There are many occupations, such as carpenter and blacksmith, which women usually do not follow. Therefore, if you are told that a woman follows an occupation which is very peculiar or unusual for a woman, verify the statement.

199. Children on farms.-In the case of children who work regularly for their own parents on a farm, in an orchard, on a truck farm, etc., the entry in column 25 should be farm laborer, orchard laborer, or garden laborer, as the case may be.

00. Children working for parents.-Children who work for their parents at home merely on general household work, at chores, or at odd times on other work, should be reported as having no occupation. Those, however, who somewhat regularly assist their parents in the performance of work other than household work or chores should be reported as having the occupation represented by this work.

201. Unusual occupations for children.-It is very unusual for a child to be a farmer or other proprietor of any kind; to be an official, a manager, or a foreman; to follow a professional pursuit; or to pursue any of the skilled trades, such as blacksmith, carpenter, machinist, etc. Therefore, whenever you are told that a child is following an occupation usually followed only by adults, ask whether the child is not merely a helper or an apprentice in the occupation, and make the entry accordingly.

202. Keeping boarders.-Keeping boarders or lodgers should be returned as an occupation if the person engaged in it relies upon it as his (or her) principal means of support or principal source of income. In that case the return should be boarding-house keeper or lodging-house keeper. If, however, a family keeps a few boarders or roomers merely as a means of supplementing the earnings or income obtained from other occupations or from other sources, no one in the family should be returned as a boarding or lodging house keeper.

203. Officers, employees, and inmates of institutions or homes.-For an officer or regular employee of an institution or home, such as an asylum, penitentiary, jail, reform school, or convict camp, return the occupation followed in the institution. For an inmate of such institution, if regularly employed, return the occupation pursued in the institution, whether the employment be at productive labor or at other duties, such as cooking, scrubbing, laundry work, etc.; but if an inmate is not regularly employed - that is, has no specific duties or work to perform - write "none" in column 25. Do not return the occupation pursued prior to commitment to the institution.

204. Do not report any inmates of institutions on the Unemployment Schedule. Where the entry "No" has been made in column 28 for such an inmate, write in column 29 "Inst" to indicate the reason for not making the usual entries on the Unemployment Schedule.

205. Builders and contractors-Only persons engaged principally in securing and supervising the carrying out of building or other construction contracts should be returned as builders or contractors. Craftsmen who usually work with their tools should be returned as carpenters, plasterers, etc., and not as contractors.

206. Doctors or physicians.-In the case of a doctor or physician, enter in column 26 the class to which he belongs, as medical, osteopathic, chiropractic, etc.

207. Engineers.-Distinguish carefully the different kinds of engineers by stating the full descriptive titles, as civil engineer, electrical engineer, locomotive engineer, mechanical engineer, mining engineer, stationary engineer, etc.

208. Nurses.-In the case of a nurse, always specify whether she is a trained nurse, a practical nurse, or a child's nurse.

209. Cooks and general houseworkers.-Distinguish carefully between cooks and general houseworkers. Return a person who does general housework as a servant and not as a cook.

210. Workers attending school.-In the case of a person who is at work and also attends a school or college, enter the occupation followed in columns 25 and 26, and indicate the fact of school or college attendance in column 16.

211. Avoid general or indefinite terms.-Give the occupation and industry precisely. For example, return a worker in a coal mine as a foreman-coal mine; laborer-coal mine; driller-coal mine, etc. as the case may be.

212. The term "laborer" should be avoided if any more precise statement of the occupation can be secured. Employees in factories and mills, for example, usually have some definite designation, as weaver, roller, puddler, etc. Where the term "laborer" is used, be careful to state accurately the industry or business in column 26.

213. Avoid the use of the word "mechanic" whenever a more specific occupation can be given, such as carpenter, painter, electrician, etc.

214. Distinguish carefully the different kinds of "agents' by stating in column 26 the line of business followed, as real estate, insurance, etc.

215. Distinguish carefully between retail and wholesale merchants, as retail merchant-dry-goods; wholesale merchant-dry-goods.

216. Avoid the use of the work "clerk" wherever a more definite occupation can be named. Thus, an employee in a store who is wholly or principally engaged in selling goods should be called a salesman and not a clerk. A typist, accountant, bookkeeper, or cashier, etc., should be reported as such, and not as a clerk. Do not return a stenographer as a "secretary."

217. Distinguish a traveling salesman from a salesman in a store; the former should be reported as a commercial traveler.

218. You need not give a person's occupation just as he expresses it. Always find out exactly the kind of work he does and the industry, business, or place in which he works, and so state it. For instance, if a person says that he is "in business," find out what branch of business, and what kind of work he does or what position he holds.

219. Illustrations of occupation returns.-The following illustrations, in addition to those given in the illustrative example, will indicate the method of returning some of the common occupations and industries. They will also suggest to you distinctions which you should make in other cases:

Column 25 Column 26
Farm laborer Farm.
Clergyman Baptist church.
Laborer Shipyard.
Laborer Street construction.
Laborer Garden.
Laborer Odd jobs.
Laborer Steam railroad.
Brakeman Steam railroad.
Weaver Cotton mill.
Laborer Cotton mill.
Doffer Cotton mill.
Locomotive engineer Steam railroad.
Stationary engineer Lumber mill.
Fireman Lumber mill.
Fireman Fire department.
Civil engineer General practice.
Electrical engineer Street railway.
Carpenter Car factory.
Carpenter Shipyard.
Carpenter House.
Teacher Public school.
Machinist Steel mill.
Agent Real estate.
Agent Insurance.
Cook Hotel.
Servant Private family.
Retail merchant Groceries.
Wholesale merchant Leather.
Janitor Apartment house.
Commercial traveler Dry goods.
Salesman Department store.
Bookkeeper Department store.
Assembler Automobile factory.
Cashier Department store.
Cashier Bank.
Conductor Steam railroad.
Conductor Street car.
Farmer General farm.
Author Independent.
Gardner Private estate.
Lawyer General practice.
Manager General farm.
Overseer Truck farm.
President Life-insurance co.
President Bank.
Superintendent Steel works.
Florist Flower shop.
Florist Flower garden.
Foreman Cotton mill.
Newsboy Street.
Newsdealer News stand.
Deliveryman Grocery store.
Teamster Express co.
Chauffeur Taxicab co.
Chauffeur Private family.
Miner Coal mine.
Laborer Coal mine.
Quarryman Marble.
Trained nurse Hospital.

20. Column 27. Class of worker.-For an employer - that is, one who employs helpers other than domestic servants in transacting his own business - write in column 27 "E"; for a wage or salary worker write "W"; for a person working on his own account write "O"; for an unpaid family worker - that is, a member of the family employed without pay on work which contributes to the family income - write "NP". For all persons returned as having no gainful occupation, leave column 27 blank.

221. Employer ("E").-An employer is one who employs helpers, other than domestic servants, in transacting his own business. The term "employer" does not include the superintendent, agent, manager, or other person employed to manage an establishment or business; and it does not include the foreman of a room, the boss of a gang, or the coal miner who hires his helper. All such should be returned as wage or salary workers, for, while any one of these may employ persons, none of them does so in transacting his own business. In short, no person who himself works for wages or a salary is to be returned as an employer.

222. Wage or salary worker ("W").-Any person who works for wages or salary, at piece rates, or on commission, and is subject to the control and direction of an employer, is to be considered a wage or salary worker. This classification will include the president of the bank or the manager of the factory as well as the clerks and the laborers who may be also employed by the bank or the factory.

223. Working on own account ("O").-A person who has a gainful occupation and is neither an employer, nor a wage or salary worker, nor an unpaid family worker, is considered to be working on his own account; such persons are the independent workers. They neither pay nor receive salaries or regular wages. Examples of this class are: Farmers and the owners of small establishments who do not employ helpers; professional men who work for fees and employ no helpers; and generally speaking, hucksters, peddlers, newsboys, bootblacks, etc.

224. Unpaid family worker ("NP").-A wife, son, daughter, or other relative of the head of the family who works regularly and without wages or salary on the family's farm, in a shop or store from which the family obtains its support, or on other work that contributes to the family's income (not including housework or incidental chores) is to be returned as an unpaid family worker. Examples are: A son working regularly and without wages on his father's farm; a wife working regularly without salary in her husband's store or office; a girl assisting her mother regularly without wages on sewing done in the home for a clothing factory.

EMPLOYMENT

25. Column 28. Whether actually at work yesterday ("Yes" or "No").-This question is to be asked with regard to all persons for whom an occupation has been entered in column 25. It will ordinarily refer to the day preceding the enumerator's call, and can be asked in the simple form "Was he at work yesterday?" In case "yesterday" was a holiday or the worker's "day off" or "rest day," the question should apply to his last regular working-day.

226. In certain occupations the employees have "rest days" in rotation. Some street car men, for example, begin their week's work on Tuesday and finish on Sunday, having a "rest day" on Monday. If you are enumerating such a man on Tuesday, you should find out whether or not he was at work Sunday, which would be his last regular working-day. Railway men may make runs on alternate days, working Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, for example, and "resting" on the intervening days. In every such case the question "Whether actually at work," must apply to the last regular working-day of the person enumerated.

227. Some men, such as longshoremen, coal miners, and laborers, have very irregular hours of work. In a case of this kind find out whether the man actually worked on the last working-day on which he might have been occupied. This will usually be literally "yesterday," unless "yesterday" was Sunday or a holiday.

228. Persons at work.-Write "Yes" if the person enumerated worked any part of the day to which the question applies. In the case of wage earners the question will offer no difficulty. In the case of men who run a business of their own it may not always be easy to determine whether the man is actually at work. In general, such men should be returned as "at work" if the business operates continuously under their orders, even though they may have been temporarily absent on the last regular working-day. The same return should be made for the professional or business man who is the active manager of an office, store, or factory, although he may be absent or not occupied with matters for which he receives pay on the day in question. For example, a man operating a cobbler's shop or an automobile repair and service station should be returned as at work on a given day if he spends any part of that day at the shop, even though he may not make any sales or do any work for which he receives payment. Similarly doctors, lawyers, dentists, and other professional men, and proprietors and managers of retail stores, who put in time at their place of business would be returned as "at work."

229. Farmers and farm laborers, including the members of the farmer's family who usually work on the farm, are to be considered at work if they are doing anything whatever in connection with the farm or with any farming activities or supplemental occupations.

230. Teachers in schools and college professors and instructors, if they hold positions, will be regarded as "at work," even though the enumeration date falls within the Easter or spring vacation. Highly skilled workmen, salesmen, foremen, superintendents, and managers whose pay is on a monthly or annual basis are to be returned as "at work" if they receive full pay and their working time is definitely engaged, even though they have days of partial or complete idleness now and then.

231. Persons who normally work only part time and who do not wish a full time job are to be returned as "at work," unless such part-time employment itself fails. For example, the waitress who works three hours daily during the lunch period is to be returned as at work if she was employed for this period "yesterday"; and the seamstress or laundress who regularly works one or more days a week, either at her own home or elsewhere, is to be returned as at work if she worked on her last regular working-day preceding the enumerator's visit.

232. Persons not at work.-Write "no" in case the person enumerated worked no part of the last regular working day. Men and women temporarily absent because of sickness, accidents, voluntary lay-offs, and all personal reasons are to be regarded as not at work, even though they continue to hold their positions.

233. Men locked out or on strike are "not at work," although in receipt of trade-union strike benefits or occupied in the conduct of the strike. Men who customarily work "by the job" are not at work if they have no job in process, even though actively seeking new contracts. Retail dealers are not at work if their last business has been permanently closed, although they may be planning a new enterprise. You will find, every now and then, a man who has been operating a small grocery or other retail store which has failed and who is, at the time of the enumeration, doing nothing at all which yields an income, but spending his time seeking new opportunities. Return such a man as not at work.

234. A woman reported as regularly pursuing some gainful occupation, in her own home or outside, in addition to doing her own housework, is to be returned as "not at work" if, for any reason, this gainful occupation fails, although she may continue to perform her household duties. Thus a woman who usually works as a laundress two days a week, in addition to her housework, is to be returned as "not at work" when the work as a laundress fails, even though she is quite fully occupied at home. Similarly the saleswoman in a store working daily in the rush hours, or on days of special sales, or on week-ends, is to be returned as not at work when this employment fails, although she may be busy at home duties.

235. Men who busy themselves with repair jobs, gardening, and home duties in the intervals of their regular occupation are to be returned as "not at work." Coal miners and longshoremen are to be returned as "not at work" if they are idle on the day to which the question applies, even though they get in as much time weekly as is usual at the mines or wharves where they are accustomed to labor. In general the list of those "not at work" should include all who did not labor at their gainful occupation on their last regular working day preceding the enumerator's visit.

236. Column 29. Line number on unemployment schedule.-Every gainful worker for whom the answer "No" is entered in column 28 is to be reported on the unemployment schedule. Enter in column 29 the number of the line on that schedule where this report appears.

VETERANS

237. Column 30. Veterans.-Write "Yes" for a man who is an ex-service veteran of the United States forces (Army, Navy, or Marine Corps) mobilized for any war or expedition, and "No" for a man who is not an ex-service veteran. No entry is to be made in this column for males under 21 years of age nor for females of any age whatever.

38. Column 31. What war or expedition.-Where the answer in column 30 is "Yes," give the name of the war or expedition in which the man served. The principal military activities in which service will be reported, together with a convenient abbreviation for each which you may use in this column, are listed below:

World War... WW
Spanish-American War... SP
Civil War... Civ
Philippine insurrection... Phil
Boxer rebellion... Box
Mexican expedition... Mex

239. Those men are to be counted as "veterans" who were in the Army, Navy, or Marine Corps of the United States during the period of any United States war, even though they may not have gotten beyond the training camp. A World War veteran would have been in the service between 1917 and 1921; a Spanish-American War veteran, between 1898 and 1902; a Civil War veteran, between 1861 and 1866.

240. Persons are not veterans of an expedition, however, unless they actually took part in the expedition. For example, veterans of the Mexican expedition must have been in Mexico or Mexican waters at the time of the expedition; veterans of the Boxer rebellion, in China or Chinese waters at the time of the rebellion, etc.

241. Persons in the military or naval service of the United States during peace times only are not to be listed as veterans.

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