Citation of IPUMS USA

Publications and research reports based on the IPUMS USA database must cite it appropriately. We recommend including the date the data were accessed in your citation or reference.

IPUMS USA data should be cited as follows:

Full count data for 1790-1950 should also be cited as follows:

Steven Ruggles, Matt A. Nelson, Matthew Sobek, Catherine A. Fitch, Ronald Goeken, J. David Hacker, Evan Roberts, and J. Robert Warren. IPUMS Ancestry Full Count Data: Version 4.0 [dataset]. Minneapolis, MN: IPUMS, 2024.

For policy briefs or articles in the popular press that use the IPUMS USA database, we recommend that you cite the data as follows:

IPUMS USA, University of Minnesota, We also encourage authors to acknowledge the U.S. Census Bureau, the source of all the underlying data.


Citations for other IPUMS data files not obtained from the dissemination system are available via the following links:

1850-1940 Linked Census Data (MLP)
1850-1860 Slave Data


The licensing agreement for use of IPUMS USA data requires that users supply us with the title and full citation for any publications, research reports, or educational materials making use of the data or documentation. Please add your citation to the IPUMS bibliography.

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