Citation of IPUMS USA

The IPUMS USA terms of use stipulate that the data are appropriately cited. Publications and research reports should include the appropriate citation. The current IPUMS USA citation is as follows:

Full count data for 1790-1950 should also be cited as follows:

Steven Ruggles, Matt A. Nelson, Matthew Sobek, Catherine A. Fitch, Ronald Goeken, J. David Hacker, Evan Roberts, and J. Robert Warren. IPUMS Ancestry Full Count Data: Version 4.0 [dataset]. Minneapolis, MN: IPUMS, 2024.

For policy briefs, online resources, or articles in the popular press, we recommend that you cite the use of IPUMS USA data as follows:

IPUMS USA, University of Minnesota,

Users should also acknowledge the USA source data provided by the United States Census Bureau, which are the underlying data used by IPUMS USA.

Please see the IPUMS USA DOI version history for previous versions of the data and the revision history for documentation about changes to the data over time.

The terms of use further require that data users provide us with the title and full citation for any publications, research reports, or educational materials making use of the data or documentation. Please add citations to the IPUMS bibliography.


Citations for other IPUMS data files not obtained from the dissemination system are available via the following links:

1850-1940 Linked Census Data (MLP)
1850-1860 Slave Data

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