Questionnaire Text

2019 ACS 2011 ACS 2003 ACS 1940 1%
2018 ACS 2010 ACS 2002 ACS 1930 5%
2017 ACS 2009 ACS 2001 ACS 1920 1%
2016 ACS 2008 ACS 2000 5% 1910 1%
2015 ACS 2007 ACS 1990 5% 1900 5%
2014 ACS 2006 ACS 1980 5% 1870 1%
2013 ACS 2005 ACS 1970 Form 1 Metro
2012 ACS 2004 ACS 1950 1%
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2019 ACS
Questionnaire form view entire document:  text  image

8. Is this person a citizen of the United States?
[ ] Yes, born in the United States -> SKIP to 10a
[ ] Yes, born in Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or Northern Marianas
[ ] Yes, born abroad of U.S. citizen parent or parents
[ ] Yes, U.S. citizen by naturalization --> Print year of naturalization --> [ ][ ][ ][ ]
[ ] No, not a U.S. citizen

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2018 ACS
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8. Is this person a citizen of the United States?
[ ] Yes, born in the United States -> SKIP to 10a
[ ] Yes, born in Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or Northern Marianas
[ ] Yes, born abroad of U.S. citizen parent or parents
[ ] Yes, U.S. citizen by naturalization --> Print year of naturalization --> [ ][ ][ ][ ]
[ ] No, not a U.S. citizen

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2017 ACS
Questionnaire form view entire document:  text  image

8. Is this person a citizen of the United States?
[ ] Yes, born in the United States -> SKIP to 10a
[ ] Yes, born in Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or Northern Marianas
[ ] Yes, born abroad of U.S. citizen parent or parents
[ ] Yes, U.S. citizen by naturalization --> Print year of naturalization --> [ ][ ][ ][ ]
[ ] No, not a U.S. citizen

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2016 ACS
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8. Is this person a citizen of the United States?
[ ] Yes, born in the United States -> SKIP to 10a
[ ] Yes, born in Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or Northern Marianas
[ ] Yes, born abroad of U.S. citizen parent or parents
[ ] Yes, U.S. citizen by naturalization --> Print year of naturalization --> [ ][ ][ ][ ]
[ ] No, not a U.S. citizen
Questionnaire instructions view entire document:  text  image

8. If the person was born in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia), mark the "Yes, born in the United States" box. If the person was born in Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or Northern Marianas, mark the "Yes, born in Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or Northern Marianas" box. If the person was born outside the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia) or at sea and had at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen at the time of the person's birth, mark the "Yes, born abroad of U.S. citizen parent or parents" box. Mark the "Yes, U.S. citizen by naturalization" box only if this person was born outside the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia) and has completed the naturalization process and is now a United States citizen. In the boxes below "Print year of naturalization," print the four-digit year this person completed the formal naturalization process. If this person is not a U.S. citizen, mark the "No, not a U.S. citizen" box. Legal Permanent Residents (LPRs) or "green card" holders, or other non-naturalized immigrants or visitors to the U.S. are not citizens of the United States and therefore should mark the "No, not a U.S. citizen" box.

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2015 ACS
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8. Is this person a citizen of the United States?
[ ] Yes, born in the United States -> SKIP to 10a
[ ] Yes, born in Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or Northern Marianas
[ ] Yes, born abroad of U.S. citizen parent or parents
[ ] Yes, U.S. citizen by naturalization --> Print year of naturalization --> [ ][ ][ ][ ]
[ ] No, not a U.S. citizen
Questionnaire instructions view entire document:  text  image

8. If the person was born in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia), mark the "Yes, born in the United States" box. If the person was born in Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or Northern Marianas, mark the "Yes, born in Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or Northern Marianas" box. If the person was born outside the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia) or at sea and had at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen at the time of the person's birth, mark the "Yes, born abroad of U.S. citizen parent or parents" box. Mark the "Yes, U.S. citizen by naturalization" box only if this person was born outside the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia) and has completed the naturalization process and is now a United States citizen. In the boxes below "Print year of naturalization," print the four-digit year this person completed the formal naturalization process. If this person is not a U.S. citizen, mark the "No, not a U.S. citizen" box. Legal Permanent Residents (LPRs) or "green card" holders, or other non-naturalized immigrants or visitors to the U.S. are not citizens of the United States and therefore should mark the "No, not a U.S. citizen" box.

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2014 ACS
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8. Is this person a citizen of the United States?
[ ] Yes, born in the United States -> SKIP to 10a
[ ] Yes, born in Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or Northern Marianas
[ ] Yes, born abroad of U.S. citizen parent or parents
[ ] Yes, U.S. citizen by naturalization --> Print year of naturalization --> [ ][ ][ ][ ]
[ ] No, not a U.S. citizen
Questionnaire instructions view entire document:  text  image

8. If the person was born in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia), mark the "Yes, born in the United States" box. If the person was born in Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or Northern Marianas, mark the "Yes, born in Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or Northern Marianas" box. If the person was born outside the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia) or at sea and had at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen at the time of the person's birth, mark the "Yes, born abroad of U.S. citizen parent or parents" box. Mark the "Yes, U.S. citizen by naturalization" box only if this person was born outside the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia) and has completed the naturalization process and is now a United States citizen. In the boxes below "Print year of naturalization," print the four-digit year this person completed the formal naturalization process. If this person is not a U.S. citizen, mark the "No, not a U.S. citizen" box. Legal Permanent Residents (LPRs) or "green card" holders, or other non-naturalized immigrants or visitors to the U.S. are not citizens of the United States and therefore should mark the "No, not a U.S. citizen" box.

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2013 ACS
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8. Is this person a citizen of the United States?
[ ] Yes, born in the United States -> SKIP to 10a
[ ] Yes, born in Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or Northern Marianas
[ ] Yes, born abroad of U.S. citizen parent or parents
[ ] Yes, U.S. citizen by naturalization --> Print year of naturalization --> [ ][ ][ ][ ]
[ ] No, not a U.S. citizen
Questionnaire instructions view entire document:  text  image

8. If the person was born in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia), mark the "Yes, born in the United States" box. If the person was born in Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or Northern Marianas, mark the "Yes, born in Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or Northern Marianas" box. If the person was born outside the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia) or at sea and had at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen at the time of the person's birth, mark the "Yes, born abroad of U.S. citizen parent or parents" box. Mark the "Yes, U.S. citizen by naturalization" box only if this person was born outside the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia) and has completed the naturalization process and is now a United States citizen. In the boxes below "Print year of naturalization," print the four-digit year this person completed the formal naturalization process. If this person is not a U.S. citizen, mark the "No, not a U.S. citizen" box. Legal Permanent Residents (LPRs) or "green card" holders, or other non-naturalized immigrants or visitors to the U.S. are not citizens of the United States and therefore should mark the "No, not a U.S. citizen" box.

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2012 ACS
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8. Is this person a citizen of the United States?
[ ] Yes, born in the United States -> SKIP to 10a
[ ] Yes, born in Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or Northern Marianas
[ ] Yes, born abroad of U.S. citizen parent or parents
[ ] Yes, U.S. citizen by naturalization --> Print year of naturalization --> [ ][ ][ ][ ]
[ ] No, not a U.S. citizen
Questionnaire instructions view entire document:  text  image

8. If the person was born in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia), mark the "Yes, born in the United States" box. If the person was born in Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or Northern Marianas, mark the "Yes, born in Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or Northern Marianas" box. If the person was born outside the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia) or at sea and had at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen at the time of the person's birth, mark the "Yes, born abroad of U.S. citizen parent or parents" box. Mark the "Yes, U.S. citizen by naturalization" box only if this person was born outside the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia) and has completed the naturalization process and is now a United States citizen. In the boxes below "Print year of naturalization," print the four-digit year this person completed the formal naturalization process. If this person is not a U.S. citizen, mark the "No, not a U.S. citizen" box. Legal Permanent Residents (LPRs) or "green card" holders, or other non-naturalized immigrants or visitors to the U.S. are not citizens of the United States and therefore should mark the "No, not a U.S. citizen" box.

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2011 ACS
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8. Is this person a citizen of the United States?
[ ] Yes, born in the United States -> SKIP to 10a
[ ] Yes, born in Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or Northern Marianas
[ ] Yes, born abroad of U.S. citizen parent or parents
[ ] Yes, U.S. citizen by naturalization --> Print year of naturalization --> [ ][ ][ ][ ]
[ ] No, not a U.S. citizen
Questionnaire instructions view entire document:  text  image

8. If the person was born in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia), mark the "Yes, born in the United States" box. If the person was born in Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or Northern Marianas, mark the "Yes, born in Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or Northern Marianas" box. If the person was born outside the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia) or at sea and had at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen at the time of the person's birth, mark the "Yes, born abroad of U.S. citizen parent or parents" box. Mark the "Yes, U.S. citizen by naturalization" box only if this person was born outside the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia) and has completed the naturalization process and is now a United States citizen. In the boxes below "Print year of naturalization," print the four-digit year this person completed the formal naturalization process. If this person is not a U.S. citizen, mark the "No, not a U.S. citizen" box. Legal Permanent Residents (LPRs) or "green card" holders, or other non-naturalized immigrants or visitors to the U.S. are not citizens of the United States and therefore should mark the "No, not a U.S. citizen" box.

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2010 ACS
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8. Is this person a citizen of the United States?
[ ] Yes, born in the United States -> SKIP to 10a
[ ] Yes, born in Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or Northern Marianas
[ ] Yes, born abroad of U.S. citizen parent or parents
[ ] Yes, U.S. citizen by naturalization --> Print year of naturalization --> [ ][ ][ ][ ]
[ ] No, not a U.S. citizen
Questionnaire instructions view entire document:  text  image

8. If the person was born in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia), mark the "Yes, born in the United States" box. If the person was born in Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or Northern Marianas, mark the "Yes, born in Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or Northern Marianas" box. If the person was born outside the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia) or at sea and had at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen at the time of the person's birth, mark the "Yes, born abroad of U.S. citizen parent or parents" box. Mark the "Yes, U.S. citizen by naturalization" box only if this person was born outside the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia) and has completed the naturalization process and is now a United States citizen. In the boxes below "Print year of naturalization," print the four-digit year this person completed the formal naturalization process. If this person is not a U.S. citizen, mark the "No, not a U.S. citizen" box. Legal Permanent Residents (LPRs) or "green card" holders, or other non-naturalized immigrants or visitors to the U.S. are not citizens of the United States and therefore should mark the "No, not a U.S. citizen" box.

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2009 ACS
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8. Is this person a citizen of the United States?
[ ] Yes, born in the United States -> SKIP to 10a
[ ] Yes, born in Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or Northern Marianas
[ ] Yes, born abroad of U.S. citizen parent or parents
[ ] Yes, U.S. citizen by naturalization --> Print year of naturalization --> [ ][ ][ ][ ]
[ ] No, not a U.S. citizen
Questionnaire instructions view entire document:  text  image

8. If the person was born in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia), mark the "Yes, born in the United States" box. If the person was born in Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or Northern Marianas, mark the "Yes, born in Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or Northern Marianas" box. If the person was born outside the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia) or at sea and had at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen at the time of the person's birth, mark the "Yes, born abroad of U.S. citizen parent or parents" box. Mark the "Yes, U.S. citizen by naturalization" box only if this person was born outside the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia) and has completed the naturalization process and is now a United States citizen. In the boxes below "Print year of naturalization," print the four-digit year this person completed the formal naturalization process. If this person is not a U.S. citizen, mark the "No, not a U.S. citizen" box. Legal Permanent Residents (LPRs) or "green card" holders, or other non-naturalized immigrants or visitors to the U.S. are not citizens of the United States and therefore should mark the "No, not a U.S. citizen" box.

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2008 ACS
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8. Is this person a citizen of the United States?
[ ] Yes, born in the United States -> SKIP to 10a
[ ] Yes, born in Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or Northern Marianas
[ ] Yes, born abroad of U.S. citizen parent or parents
[ ] Yes, U.S. citizen by naturalization --> Print year of naturalization --> [ ][ ][ ][ ]
[ ] No, not a U.S. citizen
Questionnaire instructions view entire document:  text  image

8. If the person was born in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia), mark the "Yes, born in the United States" box. If the person was born in Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or Northern Marianas, mark the "Yes, born in Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or Northern Marianas" box. If the person was born outside the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia) or at sea and had at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen at the time of the person's birth, mark the "Yes, born abroad of U.S. citizen parent or parents" box. Mark the "Yes, U.S. citizen by naturalization" box only if this person was born outside the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia) and has completed the naturalization process and is now a United States citizen. In the boxes below "Print year of naturalization," print the four-digit year this person completed the formal naturalization process. If this person is not a U.S. citizen, mark the "No, not a U.S. citizen" box. Legal Permanent Residents (LPRs) or "green card" holders, or other non-naturalized immigrants or visitors to the U.S. are not citizens of the United States and therefore should mark the "No, not a U.S. citizen" box.

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2007 ACS
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8. Is this person a citizen of the United States?
[ ] Yes, born in the United States -> SKIP to 10a
[ ] Yes, born in Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or Northern Marianas
[ ] Yes, born abroad of U.S. citizen parent or parents
[ ] Yes, U.S. citizen by naturalization --> Print year of naturalization --> [ ][ ][ ][ ]
[ ] No, not a U.S. citizen
Questionnaire instructions view entire document:  text  image

8.If the person was born in Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or Northern Marianas, mark the "Yes, born in Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or Northern Marianas" box. If the person was born outside the United States (or at sea) and has at least one American parent, mark the "Yes, born abroad of American parent or parents" box. Mark the "Yes, U.S. citizen by naturalization" box only if the person has completed the naturalization process and is now a United States citizen.

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2006 ACS
Questionnaire form view entire document:  text  image

8. Is this person a citizen of the United States?
[ ] Yes, born in the United States -> SKIP to 10a
[ ] Yes, born in Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or Northern Marianas
[ ] Yes, born abroad of U.S. citizen parent or parents
[ ] Yes, U.S. citizen by naturalization --> Print year of naturalization --> [ ][ ][ ][ ]
[ ] No, not a U.S. citizen
Questionnaire instructions view entire document:  text  image

8.If the person was born in Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or Northern Marianas, mark the "Yes, born in Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or Northern Marianas" box. If the person was born outside the United States (or at sea) and has at least one American parent, mark the "Yes, born abroad of American parent or parents" box. Mark the "Yes, U.S. citizen by naturalization" box only if the person has completed the naturalization process and is now a United States citizen.

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2005 ACS
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8. Is this person a citizen of the United States?
[ ] Yes, born in the United States -> SKIP to 10a
[ ] Yes, born in Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or Northern Marianas
[ ] Yes, born abroad of U.S. citizen parent or parents
[ ] Yes, U.S. citizen by naturalization --> Print year of naturalization --> [ ][ ][ ][ ]
[ ] No, not a U.S. citizen
Questionnaire instructions view entire document:  text  image

8.If the person was born in Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or Northern Marianas, mark the "Yes, born in Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or Northern Marianas" box. If the person was born outside the United States (or at sea) and has at least one American parent, mark the "Yes, born abroad of American parent or parents" box. Mark the "Yes, U.S. citizen by naturalization" box only if the person has completed the naturalization process and is now a United States citizen.

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2004 ACS
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8. Is this person a citizen of the United States?
[ ] Yes, born in the United States -> SKIP to 10a
[ ] Yes, born in Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or Northern Marianas
[ ] Yes, born abroad of U.S. citizen parent or parents
[ ] Yes, U.S. citizen by naturalization --> Print year of naturalization --> [ ][ ][ ][ ]
[ ] No, not a U.S. citizen
Questionnaire instructions view entire document:  text  image

8.If the person was born in Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or Northern Marianas, mark the "Yes, born in Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or Northern Marianas" box. If the person was born outside the United States (or at sea) and has at least one American parent, mark the "Yes, born abroad of American parent or parents" box. Mark the "Yes, U.S. citizen by naturalization" box only if the person has completed the naturalization process and is now a United States citizen.

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2003 ACS
Questionnaire form view entire document:  text  image

8. Is this person a citizen of the United States?
[ ] Yes, born in the United States -> SKIP to 10a
[ ] Yes, born in Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or Northern Marianas
[ ] Yes, born abroad of U.S. citizen parent or parents
[ ] Yes, U.S. citizen by naturalization --> Print year of naturalization --> [ ][ ][ ][ ]
[ ] No, not a U.S. citizen
Questionnaire instructions view entire document:  text  image

8.If the person was born in Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or Northern Marianas, mark the "Yes, born in Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or Northern Marianas" box. If the person was born outside the United States (or at sea) and has at least one American parent, mark the "Yes, born abroad of American parent or parents" box. Mark the "Yes, U.S. citizen by naturalization" box only if the person has completed the naturalization process and is now a United States citizen.

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2002 ACS
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8. Is this person a citizen of the United States?
[ ] Yes, born in the United States -> SKIP to 10a
[ ] Yes, born in Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or Northern Marianas
[ ] Yes, born abroad of U.S. citizen parent or parents
[ ] Yes, U.S. citizen by naturalization --> Print year of naturalization --> [ ][ ][ ][ ]
[ ] No, not a U.S. citizen
Questionnaire instructions view entire document:  text  image

8.If the person was born in Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or Northern Marianas, mark the "Yes, born in Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or Northern Marianas" box. If the person was born outside the United States (or at sea) and has at least one American parent, mark the "Yes, born abroad of American parent or parents" box. Mark the "Yes, U.S. citizen by naturalization" box only if the person has completed the naturalization process and is now a United States citizen.

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2001 ACS
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8. Is this person a citizen of the United States?
[ ] Yes, born in the United States -> SKIP to 10a
[ ] Yes, born in Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or Northern Marianas
[ ] Yes, born abroad of U.S. citizen parent or parents
[ ] Yes, U.S. citizen by naturalization --> Print year of naturalization --> [ ][ ][ ][ ]
[ ] No, not a U.S. citizen
Questionnaire instructions view entire document:  text  image

8.If the person was born in Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or Northern Marianas, mark the "Yes, born in Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or Northern Marianas" box. If the person was born outside the United States (or at sea) and has at least one American parent, mark the "Yes, born abroad of American parent or parents" box. Mark the "Yes, U.S. citizen by naturalization" box only if the person has completed the naturalization process and is now a United States citizen.

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2000 5%
Questionnaire form view entire document:  text  image

13. Is this person a CITIZEN of the United States?
[] Yes, born in the United States --> Skip to 15a
[] Yes, born in Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or Northern Marianas
[] Yes, born abroad of American parent or parents
[] Yes, a U.S. citizen by naturalization
[] No, not a citizen of the United States

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1990 5%
Questionnaire form view entire document:  text  image

9. Is this person a CITIZEN of the United States?

[] Yes, born in the United States - Skip to 11
[] Yes, born in Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or Northern Marianas
[] Yes, born abroad of American parent or parents
[] Yes, U.S. citizen by naturalization
[] No, not a citizen of the United States

A person should fill the Yes, U.S. citizen by naturalization circle only if he/she has completed the naturalization process and is now a United States citizen. If the person was born in Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or Northern Marianas, he/she should fill the Yes, born in Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or Northern Marianas circle. If the person was born outside the United States (or at sea) and has at least one American parent, he/she should fill the Yes, born abroad of American parent or parents circle.

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1980 5%
Questionnaire form view entire document:  text  image


12. If this person was born in a foreign country --

"This question is only for persons born in a foreign country. Fill the Yes, a naturalized citizen circle only if the person has completed the naturalization process and is now a citizen. If the person has entered the U.S. more than once, fill the circle for the year he or she came to stay permanently."

a. Is this person a naturalized citizen of the United States?

[] Yes, a naturalized citizen
[] No, not a citizen
[] Born abroad of American parents

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1970 Form 1 Metro
Questionnaire form view entire document:  text  image

[Only on Form 1]
16. For persons born in a foreign country -
a. Is this person naturalized?
[] Yes, naturalized
[] No, alien
[] Born abroad of American parents

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1950 1%
Questionnaire form view entire document:  text  image
14. If foreign born:
Is he naturalized? (Yes, No, or AP for born abroad of American parents)


Questionnaire instructions view entire document:  text  image

Item 14. Naturalized?

129. Item 14. Ask for foreign-born persons.-Ask this question immediately after you have an answer of a foreign country for item 13. An entry is to be made in this column for all foreign-born persons and for persons born at sea, male or female, of whatever age, as follows:

a. "Yes" if the person has become an American citizen, either by taking out final naturalization papers or through the naturalization of either parent.

b. "No" if the person has neither become naturalized through naturalization of a parent nor taken out final papers. Enter "No" if the person has taken out first papers only.

c. "AP" if the person was born of American parents abroad or at sea.

130. Husband naturalized.-Prior to September 22, 1922, a foreign-born woman became a naturalized American citizen when her husband was naturalized, or if she married an American citizen. Since that date she has had to take out papers in her own name to become naturalized.

131. Parent naturalized.-A foreign-born child -under 18 years old should be reported "No," unless-the parents are citizens or are naturalized.

132. Born at sea.-A foreign-born person or a person born at sea was an American citizen at birth (a) if his father was an American citizen who had resided in the United States before the time of the child's birth, or (b) if the person was born after May 24, 1934, and if either parent was an American citizen who had resided in the United States before the time of the child's birth.


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1940 1%
Questionnaire form view entire document:  text  image
16. Citizenship of the foreign born.
Questionnaire instructions view entire document:  text  image

478. Column 16. Citizenship of the Foreign Born.-An entry is to be made in this column for all foreign-born persons and for persons born at sea, male and female, of whatever age, as follows:

"Na"
(for naturalized) if the persons has become an American citizen, either by taking out second or final naturalization papers or through the naturalization of either parent.
"Pa"
(for first papers) if the person has declared intention to become an American citizen and has taken out "first papers."
"Al"
(for alien) if the person has neither become naturalized nor taken out first papers.
"Am Cit"
(for American citizen born abroad) if the foreign-born person or person born at sea was an American citizen at birth.

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1930 5%
Questionnaire form view entire document:  text  image
23. Naturalization.
Questionnaire instructions view entire document:  text  image

179. Column 23. Naturalization.-This question applies to all foreign-born persons, male and female, or whatever age. Prior to September 22, 1922, a foreign-born woman became a citizen when her husband was naturalized. Since that date, she must take out papers in her own name, and if she does not do this she remains an alien even though her husband becomes naturalized. The question should be answered, therefore, for every person whose birthplace was in a foreign country, as follows:

180. For a foreign-born male 21 years of age and over write "Na" (for "naturalized") if he has either (1) taken out second or final naturalization papers, or (2) become naturalized while under the age of 21 by the naturalization of either parent.

181. For a foreign-born female 21 years of age and over write "Na" if she has either (1) taken out final papers, or (2) become naturalized through the naturalization of either parent while she was under the age of 21, or (3) if she became naturalized prior to 1922 by the naturalization of her husband. (See par. 179.)

182. For a foreign-born person under 21 years of age write "Na" if either parent has been naturalized. This applies to infants and young children as well as to older persons under 21.

183. For all foreign-born persons who have not been naturalized but have taken out first papers write "Pa" (for "papers"). Note that a person must be at least 18 years of age in order to take out first papers. Minor children should not be returned "Pa" merely because their parents have taken out first papers.

184. For all foreign-born persons neither naturalized nor having first papers, write "Al" (for "alien").


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1920 1%
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14. Naturalized or alien.
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1910 1%
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16. Whether naturalized or alien.
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132. Column 16. Whether naturalized or alien.—This question applies only to foreign-born males 21 years of age and over. It does not apply to females, to foreign-born minors, or to any male born in the United States. If the person was born abroad, but has become a full citizen, either by taking out second or final papers of naturalization or through the naturalization of his parents while he was under the age of 21 years, write "Na" (for naturalized). If he has declared his intention to become an American citizen and has taken out his "first papers," write "Pa" (for papers). If he has taken no steps toward becoming an American citizen, write "Al" (for alien).

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1900 5%
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18. Naturalization.
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151. Column 18. Naturalization.—If the persons is a native of the United States, leave the column blank. If he was born abroad, and has taken no steps toward becoming an American citizen, write "Al" (for alien). If he has declared his intention to become an American citizen and taken out his "first" papers, write "Pa" (for papers). If he has become a full citizen by taking out second or final papers of naturalization, write "Na" (for naturalized).

152. The question of naturalization (column 18) applies only to foreign-born males 21 years of age and over. It does not apply to foreign-born minors, to foreign-born females, or to any person, male or female, who was born in the United States, either of native or foreign parentage.


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1870 1%
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Constitutional relations:
19. Male citizens of United States of 21 years of age and upwards.
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Upon the answers to the questions under this head will depend the distribution of representative power in the General Government. It is therefore imperative that this part of the enumeration should be performed with absolute accuracy. Every male person born within the United States, who has attained the age of 21 years, is a citizen of the United States by force ofthe Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution; also, all person born out of the limits and jurisdiction of the United States, whose fathers at the time of their birth were citizens of the United States (act of February 10, 1855); also, all persons born out of the limits and jurisdiction of the United States, who have been declared by judgment of court to have been duly naturalized, having taken out both "papers."
The part of the enumerator’s duty which relates to column 19 is therefore easy, but it is none the less of importance. It is a matter of more delicacy to obtain the information required by column 20. Many persons never try to vote, and therefore do not know whether their right to vote is or is not abridged. It is not only those whose votes have actually been challenged, and refused at the polls for some disability or want of qualification, who must be reported in this column; but all who come within the scope of any State law denying or abridging suffrage to any class or individual on any other ground than participation in rebellion, or legal conviction of crime. Assistant marshals, therefore, will be required to carefully study the laws of their own States in these respects, and to satisfy themselves, in the case of each male citizen of the United States above the age of 21 years, whether he does or does not, come within one of these classes.
As the fifteenth amendment to the Constitution, prohibiting the exclusion from the suffrage of any person on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude, has become the law of the land, all State laws working such exclusion have ceased to be of virtue. If any person is, in any State, still practically denied the right to vote by reason of any such State laws not repealed, that denial is merely an act of violence, of which the courts may have cognizance, but which does not come within the view of marshals and their assistants in respect to the census.