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CITIZEN
Citizenship status

Description

CITIZEN reports the citizenship status of respondents, distinguishing between naturalized citizens and non-citizens. For 1900-1940, respondents who were not yet citizens but who had begun the naturalization process ("received first papers") are identified.

Codes and Frequencies



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Comparability

The universe for this variable changed considerably over time. For 1870, the variable reports the citizenship status of all men over 21, regardless of birthplace. In 1870, code 2 includes both naturalized adult males and men who were citizens at birth. For 1900 and 1910 (U.S. and Puerto Rican Censuses), information was collected only for adult men who were not citizens at birth, and code 2 includes only naturalized adult male citizens.

Until 1922, U.S. law held that foreign-born children under age 21 and foreign-born married women had the same citizenship status as their fathers/husbands. Thus, though prior to 1920 citizenship status was asked only for adult men, users can determine it for co-resident wives and children as well: all wives and children of native-born or naturalized men were considered citizens, regardless of their birthplace. After 1922, foreign-born married women had to go through the naturalization process themselves to become citizens, and foreign-born children under age 18 became naturalized upon the naturalization of either parent.

For 1920-1940, citizenship status was ascertained for all persons who were not U.S. citizens at birth. Beginning in 1950, the universe was expanded to include all foreign-born individuals, regardless of their U.S. citizenship status at birth, and the category "Born abroad of American parents" was introduced. In the 1990 and 2000 U.S. censuses and the ACS, information was also collected for persons born in outlying U.S. territories (Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, the Northern Marianas) and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico; these person fall into the N/A category (not foreign born). For the 1980-2000 Puerto Rican samples and the PRCS, those born in Puerto Rico also fall into the N/A category (not foreign born).

Universe

  • 1870: Men age 21+.
  • 1900-1910: Men age 21+ who were not citizens at birth.
  • 1920-1940: Persons who were not citizens at birth.
  • 1950: Foreign-born persons.
  • 1970: Foreign-born persons; not available for Puerto Rico.
  • 1980-2000: Foreign-born persons.
  • ACS, PRCS: Foreign-born persons.

Availability

United States
  • 2016: All samples
  • 2015: All samples
  • 2014: All samples
  • 2013: All samples
  • 2012: All samples
  • 2011: All samples
  • 2010: ACS; ACS 3yr; ACS 5yr
  • 2009: All samples
  • 2008: All samples
  • 2007: All samples
  • 2006: All samples
  • 2005: All samples
  • 2004: All samples
  • 2003: All samples
  • 2002: All samples
  • 2001: All samples
  • 2000: All samples
  • 1990: All samples
  • 1980: All samples
  • 1970: 1% state fm1; 1% metro fm1; 1% neigh fm1
  • 1960: --
  • 1950: All samples
  • 1940: All samples
  • 1930: All samples
  • 1920: All samples
  • 1910: All samples
  • 1900: All samples
  • 1880: --
  • 1870: All samples
  • 1860: --
  • 1850: --
Puerto Rico
  • 2016: All samples
  • 2015: All samples
  • 2014: All samples
  • 2013: All samples
  • 2012: All samples
  • 2011: All samples
  • 2010: PRCS; PRCS 3yr; PRCS 5yr
  • 2009: All samples
  • 2008: All samples
  • 2007: All samples
  • 2006: All samples
  • 2005: All samples
  • 2000: All samples
  • 1990: All samples
  • 1980: All samples
  • 1970: --
  • 1930: All samples
  • 1920: All samples
  • 1910: All samples

Flags

QCITIZEN 

Editing Procedure


CITIZEN (Citizen)

YRIMMIG (Year of immigration)

YRNATUR (Year naturalized)

ACS Years: 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015

ACS editing procedure:

Starting in 2008, the ACS asked naturalized citizens what year they were naturalized (YRNATUR).

If a person reports being born in the United Sates when asked their birthplace (BPL) but reports not being born in the U.S. when asked if they are a U.S. citizen (CITIZEN), CITIZEN will be replaced with "Born in the U.S." When this happens, QCITIZEN will show the value is allocated.

If year of immigration (YRIMMIG) is one year after the survey year, YRIMMIG will be replaced with the survey year.

If a person reports being born in Puerto Rico, Guam, Northern Marianas, or the Virgin Islands when asked their birthplace (BPL) and either does not have a response for when asked about their citizenship, says they are a citizen but does not specify what type, says they were born in the U.S., or says they are not a citizen, CITIZEN will be replaced with "Born in the Puerto Rico, etc." When this happens, QCITIZEN will show the value is allocated.

If a person is foreign born (BPL) and either does not have a response for when asked about their citizenship, says they are a citizen but does not specify what type, says they are a citizen who was born in the U.S., or says they are a citizen who was born in Puerto Rico (CITIZEN), CITIZEN will be allocated based on their parents citizenship. If the person has a parent in the household who is US-born, CITIZEN will be replaced with "Born abroad of American parents." If the parent is a naturalized citizen, CITIZEN will be replaced with "Naturalized citizen." If the parent is not a citizen, CITIZEN will be replaced with "Not a citizen." When this happens, QCITIZEN will show the value is allocated. RELATE is used to determine parents:

A person with value of "parent" in RELATE is the parent to the reference person or brother/sister.

The reference person and spouse are the parents to the son/daughter or foster child.

The son/daughter or foster child of the reference person are parents to grandchildren of the reference person.

If after the previous edits, a person still has a value of "Yes" for being a citizen, but does not specify which type of citizen or is missing (CITIZEN), and year of immigration is equal to or after the year they were born, CITIZEN will be allocated - the allocated value will be drawn from another person with the same age, race, and ethnicity. If year of immigration is also missing or is prior to when a person was born, CITIZEN and YRIMMIG will be allocated jointly - these values will be drawn from another person with the same age, race, and ethnicity. When this happens, QCITIZEN and/or QYRIMM will show the values are allocated.

If after the previous edits, a person indicates they are a citizen who was born in the U.S. or Puerto Rico but lists a foreign birthplace (BPL), and year of immigration is equal to or after the year they were born, CITIZEN will be allocated - the allocated value is drawn from another person of a similar age, race, and ethnicity. If year of immigration is also missing or is prior to when a person was born, CITIZEN and YRIMMIG will be allocated jointly from another person with a similar age, race, and ethnicity. When this happens, QCITIZEN and/or QYRIMM will show the values are allocated.

If a person reports being born in Puerto Rico, Guam, Northern Marianas, or the Virgin Islands when asked their birthplace (BPL) and says they are a citizen who was born abroad to American parents or says they are a naturalized citizen, CITIZEN will be replaced with "Born in the Puerto Rico, etc." When this happens, QCITIZEN will show the value is allocated.

If after the previous edits, a foreign-born (BPL) person still indicates being a naturalized citizen (CITIZEN), and year of immigration is after they year they were born and either the same year as the survey year or the year before the survey year, CITIZEN will be replaced with "Not a citizen." When this happens, QCITIZEN will show the value is allocated.

If a person reports being a citizen and born in the U.S. and they current live in one of the 50 states (STATE) or they report being a citizen who was born in Puerto Rice and they currently live in Puerto Rico, YRIMMIG will be replaced with "Not in universe."

For respondents who are in universe for having a year of immigration, if YRIMMIG is not reported or if it is before the year a person was born, YRIMMIG will be allocated from another person with a similar age, race, and ethnicity. When this happens, QYRIMM will show the value is allocated.

Beginning in 2008, if a person reports their year of naturalization as prior to 1883, reports being a naturalized citizen but leaves the year blank, reports a year of naturalization before they were born, or reports a year of naturalization after the survey year, YRNATUR will be allocated from someone else with a similar age (AGE), race (RACE), and ethnicity (HISPAN).

Beginning in 2008, if a person reports not being a U.S. citizen or being born in the U.S., U.S. territories, or abroad to U.S. parents (CITIZEN) and reports a value for year of naturalization, YRNATUR will be replaced with a missing value.

Internal ACS variable : CIT YOE and CITW