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YRIMMIG
Year of immigration

Description

YRIMMIG reports the year in which a foreign-born person entered the United States (or Puerto Rico, for the 1910 and 1920 Puerto Rico samples).

For the 1900-1930 samples and the 2000-2004 ACS, YRIMMIG reports the exact year of immigration. For 1970-1990, the respondent was asked to report the range of years that included their year of arrival. For the 2000 census and the ACS from 2005 onward, exact years are reported back to 1935; some years prior to 1935 are collapsed into categories (see the codes page for details). The codes for all such categories represent the latest possible year in which a respondent could have immigrated.

Other immigration variables are available; see the following table:

table_208.html
  USA Puerto Rico

Year immigrated

YRIMMIG YRIMMIPR
Number of years living in area (continuous; limited availability) YRSUSA1 YRSPR
Number of years living in area (intervalled; wide availability) YRSUSA2 YRSPR2

Codes

YRIMMIG is a 4-digit numeric variable reporting the year in which a foreign-born person entered the United States (or Puerto Rico for the 1910 and 1920 Puerto Rico samples. YRIMMIG specific variable codes for missing, edited, or unidentified observations, observations not applicable (N/A), observations not in universe (NIU), top and bottom value coding, etc. are provided below if applicable by Census year (and data sample if specified).

YRIMMIG Specific Variable Codes
0000 = N/A

See table below for Census Year specific codes

YRIMMIG
Code 1970 1980 1990 2000 PUMS ACS
1910 - - - 1910 or earlier -
1914 1911-1914 - - 1911-1914 -
1919 - - - 1915-1919 1919 or earlier
1924 1915-1924 - - - -
1932 - - - - 1931-1932*
1934 1925-1934 - - - 1933-1934*
1944 1935-1944 - - - -
1949 1945-1949 1949 or earlier 1949 or earlier - -
1954 1950-1954 - - - -
1959 1955-1959 1950-1959 1950-1959 - -
1964 1960-1964 1960-1964 1960-1964 - -
1969 - 1965-1969 1965-1969 - -
1970 1965-1970 - - - -
1974 - 1970-1974 1970-1974 - -
1979 - - 1975-1979 - -
1980 - 1975-1980 - - -
1981 - - 1980-1981 - -
1984 - - 1982-1984 - -
1986 - - 1985-1986 - -
1990 - - 1987-1990 - -
*(2005-onward only)

Comparability

The 1900 census asked when the person arrived in the United States. It is not clear how people who had come and gone and then returned to the United States would have responded. The 1910 and 1920 US censuses asked for the year of the person's first arrival in the United States (or Puerto Rico). The 1970, 1980, and 1990 censuses asked when the person first came to stay; the 2000 census and the ACS asked when the person first came to live in the United States.

In the 1990-2000 censuses and the ACS, the question was asked of persons in outlying areas (U.S. territories), as well as of the foreign-born. In 1900-1930, persons born in outlying areas were legally considered foreign-born and were therefore included. The universe for 1970-1980 is not completely comparable to other years, because 1970-1980 did not include persons born in outlying areas.

From 1900-1930, if a respondent came to live in the United States more than once the enumerator was instructed to enter the first year the respondent arrived. Starting in 2000 the enumerator was instructed to enter the latest year of arrival.

Universe

  • 1900-1930: Foreign-born persons. Not available in Hawaii.
  • 1970: Foreign-born persons. Not available in Hawaii.
  • 1980: Foreign-born persons who were not citizens at birth.
  • 1990-2000: Foreign-born persons and persons born in U.S. outlying areas.
  • ACS: Foreign-born persons and persons born in U.S. outlying areas.

Availability

United States
  • 2017: All samples
  • 2016: All samples
  • 2015: All samples
  • 2014: All samples
  • 2013: All samples
  • 2012: All samples
  • 2011: All samples
  • 2010: ACS; ACS 3yr; ACS 5yr
  • 2009: All samples
  • 2008: All samples
  • 2007: All samples
  • 2006: All samples
  • 2005: All samples
  • 2004: All samples
  • 2003: All samples
  • 2002: All samples
  • 2001: All samples
  • 2000: All samples
  • 1990: All samples
  • 1980: All samples
  • 1970: 1% state fm1; 1% metro fm1; 1% neigh fm1
  • 1960: --
  • 1950: --
  • 1940: --
  • 1930: All samples
  • 1920: All samples
  • 1910: All samples
  • 1900: All samples
  • 1880: --
  • 1870: --
  • 1860: --
  • 1850: --
Puerto Rico
  • 2017: --
  • 2016: --
  • 2015: --
  • 2014: --
  • 2013: --
  • 2012: --
  • 2011: --
  • 2010: --
  • 2009: --
  • 2008: --
  • 2007: --
  • 2006: --
  • 2005: --
  • 2000: --
  • 1990: --
  • 1980: --
  • 1970: --
  • 1930: --
  • 1920: --
  • 1910: --

Flags

QYRIMM 

Editing Procedure


CITIZEN (Citizen)

YRIMMIG (Year of immigration)

YRNATUR (Year naturalized)

ACS Years: 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015

ACS editing procedure:

Starting in 2008, the ACS asked naturalized citizens what year they were naturalized (YRNATUR).

If a person reports being born in the United Sates when asked their birthplace (BPL) but reports not being born in the U.S. when asked if they are a U.S. citizen (CITIZEN), CITIZEN will be replaced with "Born in the U.S." When this happens, QCITIZEN will show the value is allocated.

If year of immigration (YRIMMIG) is one year after the survey year, YRIMMIG will be replaced with the survey year.

If a person reports being born in Puerto Rico, Guam, Northern Marianas, or the Virgin Islands when asked their birthplace (BPL) and either does not have a response for when asked about their citizenship, says they are a citizen but does not specify what type, says they were born in the U.S., or says they are not a citizen, CITIZEN will be replaced with "Born in the Puerto Rico, etc." When this happens, QCITIZEN will show the value is allocated.

If a person is foreign born (BPL) and either does not have a response for when asked about their citizenship, says they are a citizen but does not specify what type, says they are a citizen who was born in the U.S., or says they are a citizen who was born in Puerto Rico (CITIZEN), CITIZEN will be allocated based on their parents citizenship. If the person has a parent in the household who is US-born, CITIZEN will be replaced with "Born abroad of American parents." If the parent is a naturalized citizen, CITIZEN will be replaced with "Naturalized citizen." If the parent is not a citizen, CITIZEN will be replaced with "Not a citizen." When this happens, QCITIZEN will show the value is allocated. RELATE is used to determine parents:

A person with value of "parent" in RELATE is the parent to the reference person or brother/sister.

The reference person and spouse are the parents to the son/daughter or foster child.

The son/daughter or foster child of the reference person are parents to grandchildren of the reference person.

If after the previous edits, a person still has a value of "Yes" for being a citizen, but does not specify which type of citizen or is missing (CITIZEN), and year of immigration is equal to or after the year they were born, CITIZEN will be allocated - the allocated value will be drawn from another person with the same age, race, and ethnicity. If year of immigration is also missing or is prior to when a person was born, CITIZEN and YRIMMIG will be allocated jointly - these values will be drawn from another person with the same age, race, and ethnicity. When this happens, QCITIZEN and/or QYRIMM will show the values are allocated.

If after the previous edits, a person indicates they are a citizen who was born in the U.S. or Puerto Rico but lists a foreign birthplace (BPL), and year of immigration is equal to or after the year they were born, CITIZEN will be allocated - the allocated value is drawn from another person of a similar age, race, and ethnicity. If year of immigration is also missing or is prior to when a person was born, CITIZEN and YRIMMIG will be allocated jointly from another person with a similar age, race, and ethnicity. When this happens, QCITIZEN and/or QYRIMM will show the values are allocated.

If a person reports being born in Puerto Rico, Guam, Northern Marianas, or the Virgin Islands when asked their birthplace (BPL) and says they are a citizen who was born abroad to American parents or says they are a naturalized citizen, CITIZEN will be replaced with "Born in the Puerto Rico, etc." When this happens, QCITIZEN will show the value is allocated.

If after the previous edits, a foreign-born (BPL) person still indicates being a naturalized citizen (CITIZEN), and year of immigration is after they year they were born and either the same year as the survey year or the year before the survey year, CITIZEN will be replaced with "Not a citizen." When this happens, QCITIZEN will show the value is allocated.

If a person reports being a citizen and born in the U.S. and they current live in one of the 50 states (STATE) or they report being a citizen who was born in Puerto Rice and they currently live in Puerto Rico, YRIMMIG will be replaced with "Not in universe."

For respondents who are in universe for having a year of immigration, if YRIMMIG is not reported or if it is before the year a person was born, YRIMMIG will be allocated from another person with a similar age, race, and ethnicity. When this happens, QYRIMM will show the value is allocated.

Beginning in 2008, if a person reports their year of naturalization as prior to 1883, reports being a naturalized citizen but leaves the year blank, reports a year of naturalization before they were born, or reports a year of naturalization after the survey year, YRNATUR will be allocated from someone else with a similar age (AGE), race (RACE), and ethnicity (HISPAN).

Beginning in 2008, if a person reports not being a U.S. citizen or being born in the U.S., U.S. territories, or abroad to U.S. parents (CITIZEN) and reports a value for year of naturalization, YRNATUR will be replaced with a missing value.

Internal ACS variable : CIT YOE and CITW