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PWMETRO
Place of work: metropolitan area

Description

PWMETRO identifies the metropolitan area in which the respondent worked, if the respondent's workplace was in an identifiable metropolitan area, given confidentiality restrictions.

In 1980, responses to questions about workplace location were coded for only half the persons included in the IPUMS. These cases provide representative proportional distributions but not accurate absolute numbers for the population as a whole. To generate accurate absolute numbers, users should select cases coded as 2 in MIGSAMP and multiply by 2 as well as by PERWT.

Note about 2012 ACS samples: The Census Bureau redraws PUMA boundaries every 10 years based on population information gathered from the most recent decennial census. The 2012 ACS files are the first to use the new PUMA codes and boundaries based on the 2010 Decennial Census. The Census Bureau also constructs Place of Work PUMAs (PWPUMA00) to be used with place of work variables. Because this variable is based on Place of Work PUMA boundaries in contemporary samples, it is not currently available for 2012 ACS files. IPUMS-USA is working on constructing as many identifiable units as possible based on the new Census 2010 PWPUMAs.

Users who wish to construct this variable can use the logic described in the comparability statement to identify geographic areas using PWPUMAs. A map showing the new Census 2010 PWPUMAs is available in the IPUMS-USA Geographic Tools area.

Codes and Frequencies



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Comparability

This variable means the same thing in all years, but the definition of metropolitan area and the population threshold for identifying a metropolitan area varies across years and samples. In all years, metropolitan areas are counties or groups of counties centering on and economically integrated with a substantial urban area; see METAREA for a year-by-year discussion of the Census Bureau's criteria for classifying a locale as part of a metropolitan area.

PWMETRO is constructed from other variables reflecting the lowest-level geographic unit identified in a given year and sample. For 1980, this unit is the country group (a combination of counties or portions of counties with 100,000+ population), in PWCNTYGP. For 1990 and the 5 percent sample of census 2000, the unit is the Public Use Microdata Area (contiguous territory of 100,000+ residents), in PWPUMA and PWPUMA00, respectively. For the 1 percent sample of census 2000, this unit is the Super-PUMA (an area of 400,000+ population within a state), in PWPUMAS. The codes for county groups, PUMAs, and Super-PUMAs identified for place of work differ slightly from the same geographic units identified for place of current residence; see the aforementioned variables for details. In the 2005-onward ACS and PRCS samples, PWSTATE2 and PWPUMA00 are used to construct PWMETRO.

For the 1980 State sample and the 1990-onward samples, many metropolitan areas are only partially identified, and a substantial share of individuals who worked in these metropolitan areas are not reported as part of the workforce for such metropolitan areas in PWMETRO (receiving, instead, a code of 0000, Not identifiable). See the User Caution at the end of METAREA for detailed discussion of this issue.

In the 2005-onward ACS and PRCS, the lowest level of geography identified was the PUMA. The 2005-2011 ACS and PRCS samples had the same boundaries as the 2000 PUMA Census data. The Census Bureau has not released information associating the PUMA boundaries with 2005-2011 metropolitan areas. For this reason, the 2005-2011 ACS and PRCS versions of PWMETRO presents metropolitan area classifications based on metropolitan area boundaries from 2000. The 2005-2011 metropolitan area boundaries in PWMETRO are thus consistent with the 2000 metropolitan boundaries.

Universe

  • 1980: Persons age 16+ who worked last week and reported their place of work in the United States; 50 percent of cases (see MIGSAMP); not available for Puerto Rico.
  • 1990: Persons age 16+ who worked last week; not available for Puerto Rico.
  • 2000: Persons age 16+ who worked last week.
  • ACS, PRCS: Persons age 16+ who worked last week.

Availability

United States
  • 2016: --
  • 2015: --
  • 2014: --
  • 2013: --
  • 2012: --
  • 2011: All samples
  • 2010: ACS; ACS 3yr; ACS 5yr
  • 2009: All samples
  • 2008: All samples
  • 2007: All samples
  • 2006: All samples
  • 2005: All samples
  • 2004: --
  • 2003: --
  • 2002: --
  • 2001: --
  • 2000: 5%; 1% old; 1% unwt; 1%
  • 1990: 5%; 1%; 1% unwt; 3% elderly
  • 1980: 5% state; 1% metro
  • 1970: --
  • 1960: --
  • 1950: --
  • 1940: --
  • 1930: --
  • 1920: --
  • 1910: --
  • 1900: --
  • 1880: --
  • 1870: --
  • 1860: --
  • 1850: --
Puerto Rico
  • 2016: --
  • 2015: --
  • 2014: --
  • 2013: --
  • 2012: --
  • 2011: All samples
  • 2010: PRCS; PRCS 3yr; PRCS 5yr
  • 2009: All samples
  • 2008: All samples
  • 2007: All samples
  • 2006: All samples
  • 2005: All samples
  • 2000: All samples
  • 1990: --
  • 1980: --
  • 1970: --
  • 1930: --
  • 1920: --
  • 1910: --

Flags

This variable has no flags.

Editing Procedure

There is no editing procedure available for this variable.