1970 Occupation Coding Guidelines

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[Excerpted from "Work patterns: occupation, industry, and related concepts" in U.S. Bureau of the Census, "Part II. Population Census Concepts Public Use Samples of Basic Records From the 1970 Census: Description and Technical Documentation, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce, 1984, pp. 152-154.]

95. Occupation-Ascertained for persons 14 years of age and over in the experienced civilian labor force or in the labor reserve. Employed persons were to report the occupation at which they worked the most hours during the reference week. The experienced unemployed and persons in the labor reserve were to report their last occupation. (Excludes the small number of experienced unemployed persons who last worked more than 10 years ago.)

In 1960, respondents were asked to describe what kind of work they were doing, for example, 8th grade English teacher, farmer, grocery checker, etc. In 1970, respondents were asked to give this information and, in addition, to specify their most important activities on duties on the job, such as types, cleans building, sells cares, etc., and to indicate their job title. This additional information was requested so that occupation can be coded more accurately.

Information supplied by respondents is assigned an occupation code by clerks. In 1960, there were 11 major occupation groups and an occupation not reported category (listed below). The major occupation groups were divided into 494 items: 297 specific occupations and 197 subcategories which were mainly industry distributions of 13 specific occupations. Tabulations which present the complete range of specific occupations and subcategories are referred to as detailed occupation tabulations. Other tabulations present intermediate levels of classification, combining specific occupations and subcategories into broader groupings.

The occupation classification scheme employed in 1960 is fully described in Bureau of the Census, 1960 Census of Population, Classified Index of Occupations and Industries, available from the Superintendent of Documents.

1960 Major Occupation Groups

95.1 Professional, technical and kindred workers
95.2 Farmers and farm managers
95.3 Managers, officials, and proprietors, except farm
95.4 Clerical and kindred workers
95.5 Sales workers
95.6 Craftsmen, foremen, and kindred workers
95.7 Operatives and kindred workers
95.8 Private household workers
95.9 Service workers, except private household
95.10 Farm laborers and foremen
95.11 Laborers, except farm and mining
95.12 Occupation not reported

For 1970, there are 12 major groups instead of 11 as in 1960. The new major group, entitled "Transport Equipment Operatives," is made up of bus drivers, parking attendants, truck drivers, and others similarly employed. The categories comprising the new major group were moved from the 1960 major group "Operatives and Kindred Workers," affording a basis for comparability.

1970 Major Occupational Groups Occupational Areas
Professional, technical, and kindred workers White collar workers
Managers and administrators, except farm White collar workers
Sales Workers White collar workers
Clerical and kindred workers White collar workers
Craftsmen and kindred workers Blue collar workers
Operatives, except transport Blue collar workers
Transport equipment operatives Blue collar workers
Laborers, except farm Blue collar workers
Farmers and farm managers Farm workers
Farm laborers and farm foremen Farm workers
Service workers, except private household Service workers
Private household workers Service workers

A third revision to the major groups relates to the processing of the data. Individuals who did not report an occupation were allocated to a major group through an allocation matrix based on selected demographic and economic characteristics. Thus, major group totals in 1970 include persons allocated to the major groups.

Fourth, instead of having the categories within each major group listed alphabetically, subgroupings, or occupation "families," have been established in several major groups. For example, the service workers group, to clarify its content, has been reclassified into 5 subcategories-cleaning service, food service, health service, personal service, and protective service.

The Classified Index of Occupations to be used in the 1970 census is scheduled to be published this year. Copies will be available from the Superintendent of Documents of the Government Printing Office. Also, see the Statistical Reporter, December, 1969, for a relevant article and occupations listing.

96. Industry-Ascertained for persons 14 years of age and over in the experienced civilian labor force and in the labor reserve. Employed persons were to report the job at which they worked the most hours during the reference week. The experienced unemployed and persons in the labor reserve were to report the job they last held. Respondents were asked the name of their employer (company or organization); what kind of business or industry this was (describe activity at location where employed, for example, county junior high school, auto assembly plant, retail supermarket, farm, etc.); and to indicate whether this was primarily manufacturing, wholesale trade, retail trade, or other. The name of employer is a basic tool in coding industry, since coders refer to lists of establishments showing their industrial classification from the quinquennial Economic Censuses.

Information supplied by respondents is assigned an industry code. In 1960, there were 12 major industry groups and an industry not reported category (listed below). These groups were further classified into 150 specific categories. Intermediate levels of industry classification scheme were presented in some tables. The 1960 industry classification scheme is described fully in Bureau of the Census, 1960 Census of Population, Classified Index of Occupations and Industries, available from the Superintendent of Documents.

96.1 Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries
96.2 Mining
96.3 Construction
96.4 Manufacturing
96.5 Transportation, communication, and other utilities
96.6 Wholesale and retail trade
96.7 Finance, insurance, and real estate
96.8 Business and repair services
96.9 Personal services
96.10 Entertainment and recreation services
96.11 Professional and related services
96.12 Public administration
96.13 Industry not reported

For the 1970 census, the Industry Classification System, like that for occupation, has been revised. This system is designed for use in classifying the industry returns for the 1970 population census and demographic surveys to be conducted by the Bureau of the Census during the decade of the seventies. The system is patterned after the classification outlined in the 1967 edition of the Standard Industrial Classification Manual (S.I.C.).

For 1970, there are 226 uniquely identified groups in the classification in contrast to the 150 groups in the 1960 classification. These 76 additional codes stemmed from revisions to 24 specific 1960 industry categories. For the most part, the changes represent establishment of smaller, more homogeneous groups. The 1960 "Industry Not Reported" category has been eliminated. Cases where codes are not reported will be allocated to the major groups.

The 1970 Classified Index of Industries will be published some time this year. Copies may be obtained form the Superintendent of Documents. Also, see the Statistical Reporter, April 1969, for a relevant article and industries listing.

97. Class of worker-Ascertained for persons 14 years of age and over in the experienced civilian labor force or in the labor reserve. Employed persons were to report class of worker for the job at which they worked the most hours during the reference week. The experienced unemployed and persons in the labor reserve were to report class of worker for the job last held. Respondents were asked to indicate class of worker by one of several categories shown below. Note that the determination of class of worker was independent of occupation and industry classification but refers to the same job.

97.1 Private wage and salary workers-includes persons who indicated they were employees of a private company, business, or individual, working for wages, salary, or commissions, and those noted in 97.3 below.

97.2 Government workers-Includes persons who indicated they worked for a governmental unit (Federal, State, or local). In 1970, employees of the Federal government, State government, and local governments were ascertained as separate subcategories.

97.3 Self-employed workers-Persons who indicated they were self-employed in own business, professional practice, or farm. In 1970, respondents were asked to specify whether their own business was incorporated or unincorporated. Those who said the business was incorporated are classified as private wage and salary workers rather than as self-employed.

97.4 Unpaid family workers-Persons who indicate they worked without pay in a family business or farm (the business or farm was operated by a family relative).

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