1890 Census: Instructions to Enumerators

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[Note: Most of the 1890 completed census forms were lost in a fire and thus data is unavailable for this census year.]

PERSONS, FAMILIES, AND DWELLINGS

A. Number of dwelling house in the order of visitation.-In the space against the inquiry marked A is to be entered the number of the dwelling house in the order of visitation. The object of this inquiry is to ascertain the total number of swelling houses. A dwelling house for the purposes of the census means any building or place of abode, of whatever character, material, or structure, in which any person is living at the time of taking the census. It may be a room above a warehouse or factory, a loft above a stable, a wigwam on the outskirts of a settlement, or a dwelling house in the ordinary sense of that term. A tenement house, whether it contains two, three, or forty families, should be considered for the purposes of the census as one house. A building under one roof suited for two or more families, but with a dividing partition wall and separate front door for each part of the building, should be counted as two or more houses. A block of houses under one roof, but with separate front doors, should be considered as so many houses, without regard to the number of families in each separate house in the block. Wholly uninhabited dwellings are not to be counted.

B. Number of families in this dwelling house.-The inquiry marked B calls for the number of families, whether one or more, in each dwelling house. Where there is more than one family in a dwelling house, this inquiry should be answered only on the schedule for the first family enumerated and omitted on the schedules for the second and subsequent families enumerated in the same house, to avoid duplication of results; the space on the schedules for the second and subsequent families should be filled, however, by an X, as not being applicable. An example of this character is given on the printed sheets illustrative of the manner of filling schedules.

C.Number of person in this dwelling house.-The inquiry marked C calls for the number of person in each dwelling house, and where there is more than one family in the house the answer should represent the total number of persons included in the several families occupying the same house. Where there is but a single family to a house, the answer to this inquiry should be the same as for Inquiry E. Where there is more than one family in a dwelling house, this inquiry, as in the case of Inquiry B, should be answered only on the schedule for the first family enumerated.

D. Number of family in order of visitation.-In answer to the inquiry marked D enter the number, in the order of visitation, of each family residing in the district. The fact that more than one family is often found in a house makes the family number exceed, necessarily, the house number, as called for by Inquiry A.

The word family, for the purposes of the census, includes persons living alone, as well as families in the ordinary sense of that term, and also all larger aggregations of people having only the tie of a common roof and table. A hotel, with all its inmates, constitutes but one family within the meaning of this term. A hospital, a prison, an asylum is equally a family for the purposes of the census. On the other hand, the solitary inmate of a cabin, a loft, or a room finished off above a store, and, indeed, all individuals living out of families, constitute a family in the meaning of the census act.

By "individuals living out of families" is meant all persons occupying lofts in public buildings, above stores, warehouses, factories, and stables, having no other usual place of abode; persons living solitary in cabins, huts, or tents; persons sleeping on river boats, canal boats, barges, etc., having no other usual place of abode, and persons in police stations having no homes. Of the classes just mentioned the most important, numerically, is the first, viz.: Those persons, chiefly in cities, who occupy rooms in public buildings, or above stores, warehouses, factories, and stables. In order to reach such persons, the enumerator will need not only to keep his eyes open to all indications of such casual residence in his enumeration district, but to make inquiry both of the parties occupying the business portion of such buildings and also of the police. In the case, however, of tenement houses and of the so-called "flats" of the great cities as many families are to be recorded as there are separate tables.

A person's home is where he sleeps. There are many people who lodge in one place and board in another. All such persons should be returned as member of that family with which they lodge.

E. Number of persons in this family.-The answer to this inquiry should correspond to the number of columns filled on each schedule, and care should be taken to have all the members of the family included in this statement and a column filled for each person in the family, including servants, boarders, lodgers, etc. Be sure that the person answering the inquiries thoroughly understands the question, and does not omit any person who should be counted as a member of the family.

NAMES, RELATIONSHIP TO HEAD OF FAMILY, AND WHETHER SURVIVORS OF THE WAR OF THE REBELLION

1. Christian name in full, initial of middle name, and surname. Opposite to the inquiry numbered 1 on the schedule are to be entered the names of all persons whose usual place of abode on the 1st day of June, 1890, was in the family, enumerated.

The census law furnishes no definition of the phrase "usual place of abode;" and it is difficult, under the American system of protracted enumeration, to afford administrative directions which will wholly obviate the danger that some persons will be reported in two places and others not reported at all. Much must be left to the judgment of the enumerator, who can, if he will take the pains, in the great majority of instances satisfy himself as to the propriety of including or not including doubtful cases in his enumeration of any given family. In the cases of boarders at hotels or students at schools or colleges the enumerator can by one or two well-directed inquiries ascertain whether the person concerning whom the question may arise has at the time any other place of abode within another district at which he is likely to be reported. Seafaring men are to be reported at their land homes, no matter how long they may have been absent, if they are supposed to be still alive. Hence, sailors temporarily at a sailors' boarding or lodging house, if they acknowledge any other home within the United States, are not be included in the family of the lodging or boarding house. Person engaged in internal transportation, canal men, expressmen, railroad men, etc., if they habitually return to their homes in the intervals of their occupations, will be reported as of their families, and not where they may be temporarily staying on the 1st of June, 1890.

In entering the members of a family the name of the father, mother, or other ostensible head of the family (in the case of hotels, jails, etc., the landlord, jailer, etc.) is to be entered in the first column. It is desirable that the wife should be enumerated in the second column, and the children of the family proper should follow in the order of their ages, as will naturally be the case. The names of all other persons in the family, whether relatives, boarders, lodgers, or servants, should be entered successively in subsequent columns.

The Christian name in full and initial of middle name of each person should be first entered and the surname immediately thereunder, as shown in the illustrative example.

2. Whether a soldier, sailor, or marine during the civil war (United States or Confederate), or widow of such person.-Write "Sol" for soldier, "Sail" for sailor, and "Ma" for marine. If the person served in the United States forces add "U.S." in parentheses, and if in the Confederate forces add "Conf." in parentheses, thus: Sol (U.S.); Sail (U.S.); Sol (Conf.), etc. In the case of a widow of a deceased soldier, sailor, or marine, use the letter "W" in addition to the above designations, as W. Sol (U.S.), W. Sol (Conf.), and so on.

The enumeration of the survivors of the late war, including their names, organizations, length of service, and the widows of such as have died, is to be taken on a special schedule prepared for the purpose, as provided for by the act of March 1, 1889, and relates only to those persons, or widows of persons, who served in the Army, Navy, or Marine Corps of the United States in the late war. The inquiry concerning the survivors of both the United States and Confederate forces is made on the population schedule so as to ascertain the number now living and the number who have died and have left widows.

3. Relationship to head of family.-Designate the head of a family, whether a husband or father, widow or unmarried person of either sex, by the word "Head;" other members of a family by wife, mother, father, son, daughter, grandson, daughter-in-law, aunt, uncle, nephew, niece, servant, or other properly distinctive term, according to the particular relationship which the person bears to the head of the family. Distinguish between boarders, who sleep and board in one place, and lodgers, who room in one place and board in another. If an inmate of an institution or school, write inmate, pupil, patient, prisoner, or some equivalent term which will clearly distinguish inmates from the officers and employees and their families. But all officers and employees of an institution who reside in the institution building are to be accounted, for census purposes, as one family, the head of which is the superintendent, matron, or other officer in charge. If more than one family resides in the institution building, group the members together and distinguish them in some intelligible way. In addition to defining their natural relationship to the head of the institution or of their own immediate family, their official position in the institution, if any, should be also noted, thus: Superintendent, clerk, teacher, watchman, nurse, etc.

COLOR, SEX, AND AGE

4. Whether white, black, mulatto. quadroon, octoroon, Chinese, Japanese, or Indian.-Write white, black, mulatto, quadroon, octoroon, Chinese, Japanese, or Indian, according to the color or race of the person enumerated. Be particularly careful to distinguish between blacks, mulattos, quadroons, and octoroons. The word "black" should be used to describe those persons who have three-fourths or more black blood; "mulatto," those persons who have from three-eighths to five-eighths black blood; "quadroon," those persons who have one-fourth black blood; and "octoroon," those persons who have one-eighth or any trace of black blood.

5. Sex.-Write male or female, as the case may be.

6. Age at nearest birthday. If under one year, give age in months.-Write the age in figures at nearest birthday in whole years, omitting months and days, for each person of one year of age or over. For children who on the 1st of June, 1890, were less than one year of age, give the age in months, or twelfths of a year, thus: 3/12, 7/12, 10/12. For a child less than one month old, state the age as follows: 0/12. The exact years of age for all persons one year old or over should be given whenever it can be obtained. In any event, do not accept the answer "Don't know," but ascertain as nearly as possible the approximate age of each person. The general tendency of persons in giving their ages is to use the round numbers, as 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, etc. It the age is given as "about 25," determine, if possible, whether the age should be entered as 24, 25, or 26. Particular attention should be paid to this, otherwise it will be found when the results are aggregated in this office that a much more than normal number of persons have been reported as 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, etc., years of age, and a much less than normal at 19, 21, 24, 26, 29, 31, etc.

CONJUGAL CONDITION AND CHILDREN AND CHILDREN LIVING

7. Whether single, married, widowed, or divorced.-Write single, married, widowed, or divorced, according to the conjugal condition of the person enumerated. No matter how young the person may be, the conjugal condition, if "single," should always be stated.

8. Whether married during the census year (June 1, 1889, to May 31, 1890).-Write yes or no, as the case may be.

9. Mother of how many children, and number of these children living.-This inquiry is to be made concerning all women who are or have been married, including those widowed or divorced. the answers should be given in figures, as follows: 6-5; that is, mother of six (6) children, of which five (5) are living. If a woman who is or has been married has had no children, or if none are living, state the fact thus: 0-) or 3-0, as the case may be.

PLACE OF BIRTH AND PARENT NATIVITY

10. Place of birth.-Give the place of birth of the person whose name appears at the head of the column opposite inquiry 1, and for whom the entries are being made.

11. Place of birth of father.-Give the place of birth of the father of the person for whom the entries are being made.

12. Place of birth of mother.-Give the place of birth of the mother of the person for whom the entries are being made.

If the person (inquiry 10), or father (inquiry 11), or mother (inquiry 12) were born in the United States, name the state or territory, or if of foreign birth name the country. The names of countries and not of cities, are wanted. In naming the country of foreign birth, however, do not write, for instance, "Great Britain," but give the particular country, as England, Scotland, or Wales.

If the person, or father, or mother were born in a foreign country of American parents [sic], write the name of the country and also the words "American citizen." If born at sea write the words, "At sea;" if in the case of the father or mother the words "At sea" be used, add the nationality of the father's father or mother's father.

If born in Canada or Newfoundland, write the word "English" or "French" after the particular place of birth, so as to distinguish between persons born in any part of British America of French and English extraction respectively. This is a most important requirement, and must be closely observed in each case and the distinction carefully made.

NATURALIZATION

Inquiries 13, 14, and 15 should be made concerning only those adult males of foreign birth who are 21 years of age or over.

13. Number of years in the United States.-Give the answer in figures, as 1, 2, 3, 6, 10, etc., according to the number of years such person (as stated above) may have resided in the United States.

14. Whether naturalized.-Write "Yes" or "No," as the case may be.

15. Whether naturalization papers have been taken out.-If naturalized (Inquiry 14), use the symbol X; if not naturalized (Inquiry 14), write "Yes" or "No," as the case may be, in answer to this inquiry (15).

PROFESSION, TRADE, OR OCCUPATION, AND MONTHS UNEMPLOYED

16. Profession, trade, or occupation.-This is a most important inquiry. Study these instructions closely, and in reporting occupations avoid the use of unmeaning terms. A person's occupation is the profession, trade, or branch of work upon which he chiefly depends for support, and in which he would ordinarily be engaged during the larger part of the year. General or indefinite terms which do not indicate the kind of work done by each person must not be used. You are under no obligation to give a person's occupation just as he expresses it. If he can not tell intelligibly what he is, find out what he does, describe his occupation accordingly. The name of the place worked in or article made or worked upon should not be used as the sole basis of the statement of a person's occupation. Endeavor to ascertain always the character of the service rendered or kind of work done, and so state it.

The illustrations given under each of the general classes of occupations show the nature of the answers which should be made to this inquiry. They are not intended to cover all occupations, but are indicative of the character of the answers desired in order to secure, for each persons enumerated, properly descriptive designations of service rendered or work done by way of occupation and as the means of gaining a livelihood.

AGRICULTURAL PURSUITS.-Be careful to distinguish between the farm laborer, the farmer, and farm overseer; also between the plantation laborer, and the planter, and plantation overseer. These three classes must be kept distinct, and each occupation separately returned.

Do not confuse the agricultural laborer, who works on the farm or plantation, with the general or day laborer, who works on the road or at odd jobs in the village or town. Distinguish also between woodchoppers at work regularly in the woods or forests and the laborer, who takes a job occasionally at chopping wood.

Make a separate return for farmers and planters who own, hire, or carry on a farm or plantation, and for gardeners, fruit growers, nurserymen, florists, vine growers,, etc., who are engaged in raising vegetables for market or in the cultivation of fruit, flowers, seeds, nursery products, etc. In the latter case, if a man combines two or more of these occupations, be careful to so state it, as florist, nurseryman, and seed grower.

Avoid the confusion of the garden laborer, nursery laborer, etc., who hires out his services, with the proprietor gardener, florist, nurseryman, etc., who carries on the business himself or employees others to assist him.

Return as dairymen or dairywomen those persons whose occupation in connection with the farm has to do chiefly with the dairy. Do not confuse them with employees of butter and cheese or condensed milk factories, who should be separately returned by some distinctive term.

Return stock herders and stock drovers separately from stock raisers.

Do not include lumbermen, raftsmen, log drivers, etc., engaged in hauling or transporting lumber (generally by water) from the forest to the mill, with the employees of lumber yards or lumber mills.

FISHING.-For fishermen and oystermen describe the occupation as accurately as possible. Be careful to avoid the return of fishermen on vessels as sailors. If they gain their living by fishing, they should be returned as "fishermen," and not as sailors.

MINING AND QUARRYING.-Make a careful distinction between the coal miners and miners of ores; also between miners generally and quarrymen. State the kind of ore mined or stone quarried.

Do not return proprietors or officials of mining or quarrying companies as miners or quarrymen, but state their business or official position accurately.

PROFESSIONAL PURSUITS.-This class includes actors, artists, and teachers of art, clergymen, dentists, designers, draftsmen, engravers, civil engineers, and surveyors, mechanical and mining engineers, government clerks and officials, journalists, lawyers, musicians and teachers of music, physicians, surgeons, professors (in colleges and universities), teachers (in schools), and other pursuits of a professional nature. Specify each profession in detail, according to the fact. These are cited simply as illustrations of these classes of pursuits.

Distinguish between actors, theatrical managers, and showmen. Make a separate return for government clerks occupying positions under the National, State, county, city, or town governments from clerks in offices, stores, manufacturing establishments, etc.; also distinguish government officials.

Return veterinary surgeons separately from other surgeons.

Distinguish journalists, editors, and reporters from authors and other literary persons who do not follow journalism as a distinct profession.

Return separately chemists, assayers, metallurgist, and other scientific persons.

DOMESTIC AND PERSONAL SERVICE.-Among this class of occupations are comprised hotel keepers, boarding-house keepers, restaurant keepers, saloon keepers, and bartenders; housekeepers, cooks, and servants (in hotels, boarding houses, hospitals, institutions, private families, etc.); barbers and hairdresser; city, town, and general day laborers; janitors, sextons, and undertakers; nurses and midwives; watchmen, policemen, and detectives. Specify each occupation or kind of service rendered in detail, according to the fact. The above are given only as examples of the occupations which would naturally be included under this general class of work.

Distinguish carefully between housekeepers, or women who receive a stated wage or salary for their services, and housewives, or women who keep house for their own families or for themselves, without any gainful occupation. The occupation of grown daughters who assist in the household duties without fixed remuneration should be returned as "Housework-without pay."

As stated under agricultural pursuits, do not confuse day laborers, at work for the city, town, or at odd jobs, with the agricultural laborer, at work on the farm or plantation or in the employ of gardeners, nurserymen, etc. State specifically the kind of work done in every instance.

Clerks in hotels, restaurants, and saloons should be so described and carefully distinguished from bartenders. In many instances bartenders will state their occupation as "clerk" in wine store, etc., but the character of the service rendered by such persons readily determine whether they should be classed as "bartenders" or not.

Stationary engineers and firemen should be carefully distinguished from engineers and firemen employed on locomotives, steamboats, etc.

Soldiers, sailors, and marines enlisted in the service of the United States should be so returned. Distinguish between officers and enlisted men, and for civilian employees return the kind of service performed by them.

PURSUITS OF TRADE AND TRANSPORTATION.-Distinguish carefully between real estate agents, insurance agents, claim agents, commission agents, etc. If a persons is a real estate agent and also an auctioneer, as is often the case, return his occupation as real estate agent and auctioneer.

Return accountants, bookkeepers, clerks, cashiers, etc., separately, and state the kind of service rendered, as accountant-insurance; bookkeeper-wholesale dry goods; clerk-gas company; cashier-music store.

Do not confound a clerk with a salesman, as if often done, especially in dry goods stores, grocery stores, and provisions stores. Generally speaking, the persons so employed are to be considered as salesman, unless the bulk of their service is in the office on the books and accounts; otherwise they should be returned as salesman-dry goods; salesman-groceries, etc.

Stenographers and typewriters should be reported separately, and should not be described simply as "clerks."

Distinguish carefully between bank clerks, cashiers in banks, and bank officials, describing the particular position filled in each case. In no case should a bank cashier be confounded with cashiers in stores, etc.

Distinguish between foremen and overseers, packers and shippers, porters and helpers, and errand, office, and messenger boys in stores, etc., and state in each case the character of the duties performed by them, as foreman-wholesale wool house; packer-crockery; porter-rubber goods; errand boy-dry goods; messenger boy-telegraph.

State the kind of merchants and dealers, as dry goods merchant, wood and coal dealer, etc. Whenever a single word will express the business carried on, as grocer, it should be so stated.

In the case of hucksters and peddlers also state the kind of goods sold, as peddler-tinware.

Distinguish traveling salesmen from salesmen in stores, and state the kind of goods sold by them.

Return boarding and livery stable keepers separately from hostlers and other stable employees.

Distinguish also between expressmen, teamsters, draymen, and carriage and hack drivers.

Steam railroad employees should be reported separately, according to the nature of their work, as baggagemen, brakemen, conductors, laborers on railroad, locomotive engineers, locomotive firemen, switchment yardmen, etc.

Officials of railroad, telegraph, express, and other companies should be separately returned and carefully distinguished from the employees of such companies.

Boatmen, canal men, pilots, longshoremen, stevedores, and sailors (on steam or sailing vessels) should be separately returned.

Telegraph operators, telephone operators, telegraph linemen, telephone linemen, electriclight men, etc., should be kept distinct, and a separate return made for each class.

MANUFACTURING AND MECHANICAL PURSUITS.-In reporting occupations pertaining to manufacturers there are many difficulties in the way of showing the kind of work done rather than the article made or the place worked in. The nature of certain occupations is such that it is well nigh impossible to find properly descriptive terms without the use of some expression relating to the article made or place in which the work is carried on.

Do not accept "maker" of an article or "works in" mill, shop, or factory, but strive always to find out the particular work done.

Distinguish between persons who tend machines and the unskilled workman or laborer in mills, factories, and workshops. Describe the proprietor of the establishment as a "manufacturer," and specify the branch of manufacture, as cotton manufacturer, etc. In no case should a manufacturer be returned as a "maker" of an article.

In the case of apprentices, state the trade to which apprenticed, as apprentice-carpenter, etc.

Distinguish between butchers, whose business is to slaughter cattle, swine, etc., and provision dealers, who sell meats only.

Distinguish also between a glover, hatter, or furrier who actually make or make up in their own establishments all or part of the gloves, hats, or furs which they sell, and the person who simply deals in but does not make these articles.

Do not use the words "factory operative," but specify in every instance the kind of work done, as cotton mill-spinner; silk mill-weaver, etc.

Do not describe a person in a printing office as a "printer" where a more expressive term can be used, as compositer, pressman, press feeder, etc.

Make the proper distinction between a clock or watch "maker" and a clock or watch "repairer." Do not apply the word "jeweler" to those who make watches, watch chains, or jewelry in large establishments.

Avoid in all cases the use of the word "mechanic," and state whether a carpenter, mason, house painter, machinist, plumber, etc.

Do not say "finisher," "molder," "polisher," etc., but state the article finished, molded, or polished, as brass finisher, iron, molder, steel polisher, etc.

Distinguish between clockmakers, dressmakers, seamstresses, tailoresses, etc. In the case of sewing-machine operators, specify the work done.

OTHER OCCUPATIONS.-When a lawyer, merchant, manufacturer, etc., has retired from practice or business, say retired lawyer, retired merchant, etc.

The distinction to be made between housewives, housekeepers and those assisting in housework has already been stated under "Domestic and Personal Service." For the large body of persons, particularly young women, who live at home and do nothing, make the return as "No occupation." With respect to infants and children too young to take part in production or to be engaged in any stated occupation, distinguish between those at home and those attending school. For those too young to go to school, or who for some reason did not attend school during the census year, write the words "At home," and for those who attended school during some part of the school year write the words, "At school-public," or "At school-private," according to the kind of school. If taught by a governess or tutor, it should be so stated. The student at college or engaged in special studies should be reported separately from scholars in public or private schools.

The doing of domestic errands or family chores out of school hours, where a child regularly attends school, should not be considered an occupation. But if a boy or girl, whatever the age, is earning money regularly by labor, contributing to the family support, or appreciably assisting in mechanical or agricultural industry, the kind of work performed should be stated.

17. Months unemployed during the census year (June 1, 1889, to May 31, 1890).-If a person having a gainful occupation was unemployed during any part of the census year it should be so stated in months and parts of months. If, as may often happen, a person was unemployed at his usual occupation for some time during the census year and yet found other temporary employment for some part or the whole of the time, this act should be clearly state. For instance, a person's occupation may be that of "farm laborer," at which he may have had no employment for three months during the census year. During two of these three months, however, he may have worked in a shoe shop, so that, so far as actual idleness is concerned, he was only out of work one month. In all such cases, where the nonemployment returned in answer to inquiry 17 does not represent actual idleness as regards the person's usual actual occupation given in answer to inquiry 16, indicate the number of months unemployed at occupation by inserting the figures, in parenthesis, after the name of the occupation itself. In the case just cited, and as shown in the "illustrative example," the answer to inquiry 16 would appear as "Farm laborer (3)" and the answer to inquiry 17 as "1." For all persons not engaged in gainful occupation the symbol "X" should be used.

SCHOOL ATTENDANCE, ILLITERACY, AND LANGUAGE SPOKEN

18. Attendance at school (in months) during the census year (June 1, 1889, to May 31, 1890).-For all persons between the ages of 5 and 17, inclusive, the attendance at school during the census year should be in all cases stated in months and parts of months. Where a person within the above ages did not attend school at all during the census year write "0," and for all other persons to whom the inquiry is not applicable use the symbol "X."

Inquiries number 19 and 20 relate to illiteracy, and are to be made only of or concerning persons 10 years of age or over.

19. Able to read.-Write "Yes" or "No," as the case may be.

20. Able to write.-Write "Yes" or "No," as the case may be.

A person may not be able to read or write the English language, and yet may be able to read or write (or both) their native language, as French, Spanish Italian, etc. If in such cases a person can read or write (or both) some language, the answer to Inquiry 19 and Inquiry 20 should be "Yes," according to the fact. If not able to so read or write the answer should be "No." For all persons under 10 years of age use the symbol "X."

21. Able to speak English. If not, the language or dialect spoken.-This inquiry should also be made of or concerning every person 10 years of age or over.- If the person is able to speak English so as to be understood in ordinary conversation, write "English;" otherwise, write the name of the language or dialect in which he usually expresses himself, as "German," "Portuguese," "Canadian French," "Pennsylvania Dutch," etc. For all persons under 10 years of age use the symbol "X."

MENTAL AND PHYSICAL DEFECTS, ETC

22. Whether suffering from acute or chronic disease, with name of disease and length of time afflicted.-If a person is suffering from acute or chronic disease so as to be unable to attend to ordinary business or duties, give the name of the disease and the length of time that it has lasted.

23. Whether defective in mind, sight, hearing, or speech, or whether crippled, maimed, or deformed, with name of defect.-If a person is mentally or physically defective, state the nature of the defect.

24. Whether a prisoner, convict, homeless child, or pauper.-If the person is a prisoner, convict, homeless child, or pauper, be careful to so state, as "prisoner," "pauper," etc.

25. Supplemental schedule and page.-If answers are required to inquiries 22, 23, or 24, indicate in this space the number of the supplemental schedule and page of schedule on which the special inquiries relating to such person have been answered. (See instructions concerning supplemental schedules.)

OWNERSHIP OF HOMES AND FARMS

26. Is the home you live in hired, or is it owned by the head or by a member of the family?-If hired, say "Hired;" if owned, say "Owned," and indicate whether owned by head, wife, son, daughter, or other member of family, as "Owned-head;" "Owned-wife;" "Owned-son," etc. If there is more than one son or daughter in the family, and the home is owned by one of them, indicate which one by using the figure at the head of the column in which the name, etc., of the person is entered, as "Owned-son (4)."

27. If owned by head or member of family, is the home free from mortgage incumbrance?-If free from incumbrance, say "Free;" if mortgaged, say "Mortgaged."

28. If the head of family is a farmer, is the farm which he cultivates hired, or is it owned by him or by a member of his family?-To be answered in the same manner as for inquiry 26.

29. If owned by head or member of family, is the farm free from mortgage incumbrance?-To be answered in the same manner as for inquiry 27.

30. If the home or farm is owned by head or member of family, and mortgaged, give the post-office address of owner.-In answer to this inquiry the post-office address of the owner of a mortgaged home or farm must be correctly stated; that is, the post-office at which the owner (whether head of family, wife, son, daughter, etc.) usually receives his or her mail.

In all cases where it can not be definitely ascertained whether the home or farm is mortgaged or not return the post-office address of the owner, so that this office can communicate with such persons.

In connection with the definition of mortgage incumbrance it should be stated that judgment notes or confessions of judgment, as in Pennsylvania and Virginia, the deeds of trust of many States, deeds with vendor's lien clause, bonds or contracts for title that are virtually mortgages, crop liens, or mortgages upon crops, and all other legal instruments that partake of the nature of mortgages upon real estate, are to be regarded as such; but mechanics' liens are not to be regarded as mortgage incumbrances upon homes or farms.

The enumerator should be careful to use the local name for the mortgage incumbrance when making the inquiries, and should not confine himself to the word "mortgage" when it will be misunderstood.

Some of the difficulties which will arise in connection with the prosecution of the inquiries concerning homes and farms, and how they are to be treated, may be mentioned, as follows:

1. A house is not necessarily to be considered as identical with a home and to be counted only once as a home. If it is occupied as a home by one or more tenants, or by owner and one or more tenants, it is to be regarded as a home to each family.

2. If a person owns and cultivates what has been two or more farms and lives on one, they are not to be taken as more than one farm.

3. If a person owns and cultivates what has been two or more farms and all are not mortgaged, the several farms are to be counted as one farm and as mortgaged.

4. If a person hires both the farm he cultivates and the home he lives in, or owns both, the home is to be considered as a part of the farm.

5. If a person owns the home he lives in and hires the farm he cultivates, or owns the farm he cultivates and hires the home he lives in, both farm and home are to be entered upon the schedule, and separately.

6. If the tenant of a farm and its owner live upon it, either in the same house or in different houses, the owner is to be regarded as owning the home he lives in and the tenant as hiring the farm he cultivates. If the owner simply boards with the tenant, no account is to be made of the owner.

7. If the same person owns and cultivates one farm and hires and cultivates another farm, he is to be entered upon the schedule as owning the farm he cultivates.

8. The head of a family may own and cultivate a farm and his wife may own another farm which his let to tenant, perhaps to her husband. In such case only the farm which is owned by the head of the family is to be considered, but the rented farm is to be taken account of when its tenant's family is visited.

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