1910 Census: Instructions to Enumerators

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[We include only those portions relevant to the population schedule, from which the entire 1910 PUMS was drawn.]

SUBDIVISIONS OF DISTRICTS

74. Separate enumeration of subdivisions of your district.-Your enumeration district may comprise two or more different parts or subdivisions, such as:

(a) Two or more townships, districts, precincts, beats, wards, hundreds, or other divisions of a county, or parts of such divisions.
(b) The whole or part of an incorporated city, town, village, or borough, and territory outside such
incorporated place.
(c) Two or more wards of a city, town, village, or borough, or parts thereof.
(d) Two or more incorporated cities, towns, villages, or boroughs, or parts thereof.

75. In all such cases you should complete the enumeration of one such subdivision of your district before beginning the enumeration of another. You should begin the entries for each subdivision at the top of a new page of the population schedule A or B side of the sheet, as the case may be), and at the end of the entries of the population for that subdivision you should write, "Here ends the enumeration of -" giving the name of the township, city, borough, village, ward, precinct, or other subdivision, as the case may be, and leave the remainder of the lines on that page blank.

76. Incorporated cities, towns, villages, or boroughs.-In particular, the law specifically requires that the inhabitants of any incorporated city, town, village, or borough shall be separately enumerated, so as to distinguish them from the inhabitants of the territory not included in such incorporated place. Therefore, if your enumeration district contains the whole or a part of an incorporated city, town, village, or borough, complete the enumeration of such incorporated place before beginning the enumeration of the remainder of your district.

77. In the same way, of two or more incorporated places (cities, villages, etc.) or parts of them are included in your enumeration district, the enumeration of one should be wholly completed before work in another is commenced.

78. Unincorporated places.-The population of an unincorporated place should not be separated or distinguished from that of the township or other division in which it is located.

THE HEADING OF THE SCHEDULE

79. Fill out the spaces at the top of each page above the heavy black line in accordance with the following explanations. Do this on each page before entering any names on that page.

80. Numbering sheets.-Number the sheets of the population schedule in the exact order in which you fill them as you progress with the enumeration. Each sheet must be numbered the same on each side, as sheet No. 1A, 1B, 2A, 2B, etc.

81. Enumeration district.-Enter at the head of each sheet, and on both sides, the number of your enumeration district and the number of the supervisor's district in which your district is located.

82. State and county.-Enter at the head of each sheet, and on both sides, the name of the state and of the county (or parish in Louisiana).

83. Township or other division of county.-Write not only the name or number by which the division of the county is known, but also the name of the class (as township, town, precinct, district, ward, beat, hundred, etc.) to which it belongs. For example: Center township (Center alone is not enough): Washington town; Austin precinct; Precinct 10, etc.

84. In case, however, you are enumerating an incorporated city, town, village, or borough which is not included in or is not a part of any township or other division of a county, write no name. In this space, but make an X mark in it to indicate that the omission of the name is not accidental. (See paragraph 86.)

85. Name of incorporated place.-give both the proper name of the incorporated place and the name of the class by which it is known (as city, town, village, or borough). For example: Mount Pleasant city, Newton borough, etc.

86. Relation of incorporated place to township in which located.-If any incorporated place forms a part of the township in which it is located, the name of the township as well as that of the incorporated place must be entered on the head of the sheet, each in the space indicated for it. If, on the other hand, the incorporated place is independent of the township, precinct, or other division of a county, that fact should be indicated by inserting an X mark in the space for the name of the township or other division of county, as explained in paragraph 84.

87. You can usually determine whether both the name of the township or other civil division of the county and the name of the incorporated place-a village, for example-are to be entered upon the heading of the schedule, by the answer to the following question: Do the inhabitants of this village vote at both village and township elections, or at village elections only? In the former case, they are inhabitants both of the township and of the village, and both names are to be entered. In the latter case they are inhabitants of the village but not of the township, and the name of the township must be omitted. Nonobservance of this distinction will lead to the inclusion, with the population of a township or other subdivision of a county, of inhabitants who do not form a part of it, and for that reason special attention should be given to this instruction.

88. Ward of city.-If the city, or other incorporated place, is divided into wards, enter the number or name of the ward in the space provided at the head of each sheet.

89. Name of institution.-If you are enumerating the population of an institution, such as a prison, jail, almshouse, or asylum, enter the full name of the institution in the place indicated at the head of the schedule. In case only a portion of the total number of persons enumerated on that sheet of the schedule are in the institution, indicate the line on which the names of the inmates of the institution appear, as "Jefferson County Almshouse, lines 25 to 69, inclusive."

LOCATION

90. Street and house number.-The first column applies to cities and all other localities where the streets or roads are known by names or numbers or letters. The second column applies to cities or other places where the houses are numbered. Write the name of the street, avenue, court, place, alley, or road in the first column lengthwise, in the manner shown on the illustrative example. Write the house number, if there is one, in the second column opposite the name of the first person enumerated in that house. If a house is in the rear of another one fronting on a street and has no number of its own, give it the same number as the front house and add the word "rear."

91. The places at which you begin and end work on any street are to be marked by heavy lines in ink (-) across the first and second columns. (See illustrative example, line 8.)

92. Column 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation.-In this column the first dwelling house you should be numbered as "1," the second as "2," and son on until the enumeration of your district is completed. The number should always be entered opposite the name of the first person enumerated in EACH dwelling house, and should not be repeated for other persons or other families living in the same house. (See illustrative example, line 9, and omission of number at line 13 for second family in the same house.)

93. Dwelling house defined.-A dwelling house, for census purposes, is a place in which, at the time of the census, one or more persons regularly sleep. It need not be a house in the usual sense of the word, but may be a room in a factory, store, or office building, a loft over a stable, a boat, a tent, a freight car, or the like. A building like a tenement or apartment house counts as only one dwelling house, no matter how many persons or families live in it. A building with a partition wall through it and a front door for each of the two parts, however, counts as two dwelling houses. But a two-apartment house with one apartment over the other and a separate front door for each apartment counts as only one dwelling house.

94. Column 2. Number of family in order of visitation.-In this column number the families in your district in the order in which they are enumerated, entering the number opposite the name of the head of EACH family, as shown on the illustrative example. Thus the first family you visit should be numbered as "1," the second "2," and son on, until the enumeration of your district is completed.

95. Family defined.-The word "family," for census purposes, has a somewhat different application from what it has in popular usage. It means a group of persons living together in the same dwelling place. The persons constituting this group may or may not be related by ties of kinship, but if they live together forming one household they should be considered as one family. Thus a servant who sleeps in the house or on the premises should be included with the members of the family for which he or she works. Again, a boarder or lodger should be included with the members of the family with which he lodges, but a persons who boards in one place and lodges or rooms at another should be returned as a member of the family at the place where he lodges or rooms.

96. It should be noted, however, that two or more families may occupy the same dwelling house without living together. If they occupy separate portions of the dwelling house and their housekeeping is entirely separate, they should be returned as separate families.

97. Boarding-house families.-All the occupants and employees of a hotel, boarding house, or lodging house, if that is their usual place of abode, make up, for census, purposes, a single family. But in an apartment or tenement house, there will be as many families as there are separate occupied apartments or tenements, even though use may be made of a common cafe or restaurant.

98. Institutional families.-The officials and inmates of an institution who live in the institution building or buildings form one family. But any officers or employees who sleep in detached houses or separate dwellings containing no inmates should be returned as separate families.

99. Persons living alone.-The census family may likewise consist of a single person. Thus a clerk in a store who regularly sleeps there is to be returned as a family and the store as his dwelling place.

NAME AND RELATION

100. Column 3. Name of each person enumerated.-Enter the name of every person whose usual place of abode on April 15, 1910, was with the family or in the dwelling place for which the enumeration is being made. In determining who is to be included with the family, follow instructions in paragraphs 95 to 99. (See also paragraphs 47, 48, and 49.)

101. Order of entering names.-Enter the members of each family in the following order, namely: Head first, wife second, then children (whether sons or daughters) in the order of their ages, and lastly, all other persons living with the family, whether relatives, boarders, lodgers, or servants.

102. How names are to be written.-Enter first the last name or surname, then the given name in full, and the initial of the middle name, if any. Where the surname is the same as that of the person in the preceding line do not repeat the name, but draw a horizontal line (-) under the name above, as shown in the illustrative example.

103. Column 4. Relationship to head of family.-Designate the head of the family, whether husband or father, widow, or unmarried person of either sex, by the word "Head;" for other members of a family write wife, father, mother, son, daughter, grandson, daughter-in-law, uncle, aunt, nephew, niece, boarder, lodger, servant, etc., according to the particular relationship which the person bears to the head of the family.

104. Occupants of an institution or school, living under a common roof, should be designated as officer, inmate, pupil, patient, prisoner, etc.; and in the case of the chief officer his title should be used, as warden, principal, superintendent, etc., instead of the word "Head."

105. If two or more persons share a common abode as partners, write head for one and partner for the other or others.

106. In the case of a hotel or boarding or lodging house family (see paragraph 97), the head of the family is the manager or the person who keeps the hotel or boarding or lodging house.

PERSONAL DESCRIPTION

107. Column 5. Sex.-Write "M" for male and "F" for female.

108. Column 6. Color or race.-Write "W" for white; "B" for black; "Mu" for mulatto; "Ch" for Chinese; "Jp" for Japanese; "In" for Indian. For all persons not falling within one of these classes, write "Ot" (for other), and write on the left-hand margin of the schedule the race of the person so indicated.

109. For census purposes, the term "black" (B) includes all persons who are evidently full-blooded negroes, while the term "mulatto" (Mu) includes all other persons having some proportion or perceptible trace of negro blood.

110. Column 7. Age at last birthday.-This question calls for the age in completed years at last birthday. Remember, however, that the age question, like all other questions on the schedule, relates to April 15, 1910. Thus a person whose exact age on April 15, the census day, is 17 years, 11 months, and 25 days should be returned simply as 17, because that is his age at last birthday prior to April 15, although at the time of your visit he may have completed 18 years.

111. Age in round numbers.-In many cases persons will report the age in round numbers, like 30 or 45, or "about 30" or "about 45," when that is not the exact age. Therefore, when an age ending in 0 or 5 is reported, your should ascertain whether that is the exact age. If, however, it is impossible to get the exact age, enter the approximate age rather than return the age as unknown.

112. Ages of children.-Take particular pains to get the exact ages of children. In the case of a child not 2 years old, the age should be given in completed months, expressed as twelfths of a year. Thus the age of a child 3 months old should be entered as 3/12, a child 7 months old as 7/12, a child 1 year and 3 months as 1 3/12, etc. If a child is not yet a month old, enter the age as 0/12. But note again that this question should be answered with reference to April 15. For instance, a child who is just a year old on the 17th of April, 1910, should nevertheless be returned as 11/12, because that is the age in completed months on April 15.

113. Column 8. Whether single, married, widowed, or divorced.-Write "S" for single or unmarried persons; "Wd" for widowed (man or woman); "D" for divorced; for married persons, inquire whether they have been married before, and if this is the first marriage, write "M1," but if this is the second or subsequent marriage, write "M2" (meaning married more than once).

114. Persons who were single on April 15 should be so reported, even though they may have married between that date and the day of your visit; and, similarly, persons who become widowed or divorced after April 15 should be returned as married if that was their condition on that date.

115. Column 9. Number of years of present marriage.-This question applies only to persons reported as married, and the answer should give the number of years married to the present husband or wife. thus a woman who may have been married for 10 to a former husband, but has been married only 3 years to her present husband, should be returned as married 3 years. The number of years entered should be the number of completed years. For instance, a person who on April 15, the census day, has been married 3 years and 11 months should be returned as married 3 years. For a person married less than 1 year, write "0" (meaning less than 1 year).

116. Column 10. Number of children born.-This question applies to women who are now married, or who are widowed, or divorced. The answer should give the total number of children that each such woman has had during her lifetime. It should include, therefore, the children by any former marriage as well as by her present marriage. It should not include the children which her present husband may have had by a former wife, even though they are members of her present family. Stillborn children should not be included. If the woman has never had any children, write "0" in this column and also in column 11.

117. Column 11. Number of children now living.-This refers again only to the children which the woman herself has had. Include all of these children that are living, no matter whether they are living in your district or somewhere else. If all the children are dead, write "0."

NATIVITY AND MOTHER TONGUE

118. Column 12. Place of birth of this person.-If the person was born in the United States, give the state or territory (not county, city, or town) in which born. The words "United States" are not sufficiently definite. A person born in what is now West Virginia, North Dakota, South Dakota, or Oklahoma should be reported as so born, although at the time of his birth the particular region may have had a different name. Do not abbreviate the names of states and territories.

119. If the person was born outside the United States, enter the country (not city or district) in which born.

120. Instead of Great Britain, write Ireland, England, Scotland, or Wales.

121. For persons born in the double Kingdom of Austria-Hungry, be sure to distinguish Austria from Hungary. For persons born in Finland, write Finland, and not "Russia." For persons born in Turkey, be sure to distinguish Turkey in Europe from Turkey in Asia.

122. Do not rely upon the language spoken to determine birthplace.-This is especially true of German, for over one-third of the Austrians and nearly three-fourths of the Swiss speak German. In the case of persons speaking German, therefore, inquire carefully whether the birthplace was German, Switzerland, Austria, or elsewhere.

123. If the person was born abroad, but of American parents, write in column 12 both the birthplace and Am. cit.-that is, American citizen. If the person was born at sea, write At sea.

124. Mother tongue.-The question "What is your mother tongue of native language?" should be asked of all persons who were born in any foreign country, and the answer should be written in column 12, after the name of the country of birth. In order to save space, the abbreviations (indicated on separate "List of foreign countries") should be sued for the country of birth, but the language given as the mother tongue should be written out in full. In returning the mother tongue observe the rules laid down in paragraphs 134 through 143 (see page 32).

125. For example, if a person reports that he was born in Russia and that his mother tongue is Lithuanian, write in column 12 Russ.-Lithuanian; or if a person reports that he was born in Switzerland and that his mother tongue is German, write Switz.-German.

126. Note that the name of the mother tongue must be given even when it is the same as the language of the country in which the person was born. Thus, if a person reports that he was born in England and that his mother tongue is English, write Eng.-English; or if a person reports that he was born in Germany and that his mother tongue is German, write Ger.-German. This is necessary to distinguish such persons from others born in the same country but having a different mother tongue.

127. The question of mother tongue should not be asked of any person born in the United States.

128. Column 13 and 14. Place of birth of father and mother.-Enter in columns 13 and 14 the birthplace of the father and of the mother of the person whose own birthplace was entered in column 12. In designating the birthplace of the father and mother, follow the same instructions as for the person himself. In case, however, a person does not know the state or territory of birth of his father or mother, but knows that he or she was born in the United States, write United States rather than "unknown."

129. Mother tongue of father and mother.-Ask for the mother tongue of any parent born abroad and write down the answer in columns 13 and 14, following the instructions given for reporting the mother tongue of persons enumerated in column 12.

130. In short, whenever a person gives a foreign country as the birthplace of himself or either of his parents, before writing down that country ask for the mother tongue and write the answer to both questions in columns 12, 13, or 14, as the case may be, in the manner herein indicated.

CITIZENSHIP

131. Column 15. Year of immigration to the United States.-This question applies to all foreign-born persons, male and female, of whatever age. It should be answered, therefore, for every person whose birthplace as reported in column 12 was in a foreign country. Enter the year in which the person came to the United States. If he has been in the United States more than once, give the year of his first arrival.

132. Column 16. Whether naturalized or alien.-This question applies only to foreign-born males 21 years of age and over. It does not apply to females, to foreign-born minors, or to any male born in the United States. If the person was born abroad, but has become a full citizen, either by taking out second or final papers of naturalization or through the naturalization of his parents while he was under the age of 21 years, write "Na" (for naturalized). If he has declared his intention to become an American citizen and has taken out his "first papers," write "Pa" (for papers). If he has taken no steps toward becoming an American citizen, write "Al" (for alien).

ABILITY TO SPEAK ENGLISH

133. Column 17. Whether able to speak English; or, if not, give language spoken.-This question applies to all person 10 years of age and over. If such a person is able to speak English, write English. If he is not able to speak English-and in such cases only-write the names of the language which he does speak, as French, German, Italian. If he speaks more than one language, but does not speak English, write the name of that language which is his native language or mother tongue. For persons under 10 years of age, leave the column blank.

134. The following is a list of principal foreign languages spoken in the United States. Avoid giving other names when one in this list can be applied to the language spoken. With the exception of certain languages of eastern Russian, the list gives a name for ever European language in the proper sense of the word.

Albanian
Armenian
Basque
Bohemian
Briton
Bulgarian
Chinese
Danish
Dutch
Finnish
Flemish
French
German
Greek
Gypsy
Irish
Italian
Japanese
Lappish
Lettish
Little Russian
Lithuanian
Magyar
Moravian
Norwegian
Polish
Portuguese
Rhaeto-Romansh
Roumanian
Russian
Ruthenian
Scotch
Servian or Croatian (Including Russian, Dalmatian, Herzegovinian, and Montenegrin)
Slovak
Slovenian
Spanish
Swedish
Syrian
Turkish
Welsh
Wendish
Yiddish

135. Do not write "Austrian," but write German, Bohemian, Ruthenian, Roumanian, Slovenian, Slovak, or such other term as correctly defines the language spoken.

136. Do not write "Slavic" or "Slavonian," but write Slovak, Slovenian, Russian, etc., as the case may be.

137. Do not write "Macedonian," but write Bulgarian, Turkish, Greek, Servian, or Roumanian, as the case may be.

138. Do not write "Czech," but write Bohemian, Moravian,or Slovak, as the case may be.

139. Write Magyar instead of "Hungarian."

140. Write Croatian instead of "Hervat."

141. Write Little Russian instead of "Ukrainian."

142. Write Ruthenian instead of "Rosniak" or "Russine."

143. Write Roumanian instead of "Moldavian," "Wallachian," "Tsintsar," or "Kutzo-Vlach."

OCCUPATION

144. Column 18. Trade or profession.-An entry should be made in this column for every person enumerated. The occupation, if any, followed by a child, of any age, or by a woman is just as important, for census purposes, as the occupation followed by a man. Therefore if must never be taken for granted, without inquiry, that a woman, or child, has no occupation.

145. The entry in column 18 should be either (1) the occupation pursued-that is, the word or words which most accurately indicate the particular kind of work done by which the person enumerated earns money or a money equivalent, as physician, carpenter, dressmaker, night watchman, laborer, newsboy; or (2) own income; or (3) none (that is, no occupation).

146. The entry own income should be made in the case of all persons who follow no specific occupation but have an independent income upon which they are living.

147. The entry none should be made in the case of all persons who follow no occupation and who do not fall within the class to be reported as own income.

148. Persons retired or temporarily unemployed.-Care should be taken in making the return for persons who on account of old age, permanent invalidism, or otherwise are no longer following an occupation. Such persons may desire to return the occupations formerly followed, which would be incorrect. If living on their own income the return should be own income. If they are supported by other persons or institutions, the return should be none. On the other hand, persons out of employment when visited by the enumerator may state that they have no occupation, when the fact is that they usually have an occupation but merely happen to be idle or unemployed at the time of the visit. In such cases the return should be the occupation followed when the person is employed.

149. Persons having two occupations.-If a person has two occupations, return only the more important one-that is, the one from which he gets the more money. If you can not learn that, return the one at which he spends the more time. For example: Return a man as farmer if he gets most of his income from farming, although he may also follow the occupation of a clergyman or preacher; but return him as clergyman if he gets more of his income from that occupation.

150. Column 19. Industry.-An entry should be made in this column in all cases where the entry in column 18 has been that of an occupation. But where the entry in column 18 is own income or none, leave this column blank. The entry, when made, should consist of the word or words which most accurately describe the branch of industry, kind of business or establishment, line or work, or place in which this person works, as cotton mill, general farm, dry-goods store, insurance office, bank. (See also illustrative examples on page 36.)

151. The purpose of columns 18 and 19 is thus to bring out, on the one hand, in column 18, the specific occupation or work performed, if any, by each person enumerated, and on the other hand, in column 19, the character of the industry or place in which such work is performed.

152.Farm workers.-Return a person in charge of a farm as a farmer, whether he own it or operates it as a tenant, renter, or cropper; but a person who manages a farm for some one else for wages or a salary should be reported as a farm overseer; and a person who works on a farm for some one else, but not a manager, tenant, or cropper, should be reported as a farm laborer.

153. Women doing housework.-In the case of a woman doing housework in her own home, without salary or wages, and having no other employment, the entry in column 18 should be none. But a woman working at housework for wages should be returned in column 18 as housekeeper, servant, cook, or chambermaid, as the case may be; and the entry in column 19 should state the kind of place where she works, as private family, hotel, or boarding house. Or, if a woman, in addition to doing housework in her own home, regularly earns money by some other occupation, whether pursued in her own home or outside, that occupation should be returned in columns 18 and 19. For instance, a woman who regularly takes in washing should be reported as laundress or washerwoman, followed in column 19 by at home.

154. Women doing farm work.-A woman working regularly at outdoor farm work, even though she works on the home farm for her husband, son, or other relative and does not receive money wages, should be returned in column 18 as a farm laborer. Distinguish, however, such women who work on the home farm from those who work away from home, by writing in column 19 either home farm or working out, as the case may require. Of course, a woman who herself operates or runs a farm should be reported as a farmer, and not as a "farm laborer."

155. Children on farms.-In the case of children who work for their own parents on a farm, the entry in column 18 should be farm laborer and in column 19 home farm; but for children who work as farm laborers for others, the entry in column 19 should be working out.

156. Children working for parents.-Children who work for their parents at home merely on general household work, on chores, or at odd times on other work, should be reported as having no occupation. Those, however, who materially assist their parent in the performance of work other than household work should be reported as having an occupation.

157. Keeping boarders.-Keeping boarders or lodgers should be returned as an occupation if the person engaged in it relies upon it as his (or her) principal means of support or principal source of income. In that case the return should be keeper-boarding house or keeper-lodging house. If, however, a family keeps a few boarders or roomers merely as a means of supplementing or eking out the earning or income obtained from other occupation or from other sources, no one in the family should be returned as a boarding or lodging house keeper.

158. Officers, employees, and inmates of institutions or homes.-For an officer or regular employee of an institution or home, such as an asylum, penitentiary, jail, reform school, convict camp, state farm worked by convicts, etc., return the occupation followed in the institution. For an inmate of such institution, if regularly employed, return the occupation pursued in the institution, whether the employment be at productive labor or at other duties, such as cooking, scrubbing, laundry work, etc.; but if an inmate is not regularly employed-that is, has no specific duties or work to perform, write none in column 18.

159. Avoid general or indefinite terms.-Give the occupation and industry precisely. For example, return a worker in a coal mine as a miner-coal mine, laborer-coal mine, driver-coal mine, etc., as the case may be.

160. The term "laborer" should be avoided if any more precise definition of the occupation can be secured. Employees in factories and mills, for example, usually have some definite designation, as weaver, roller, puddler, etc. Where the term "laborer" is used, be careful to define accurately the industry in column 19.

161. Avoid in all cases the use of the word "mechanic," but give the exact occupation, as carpenter, painter, machinist, etc.

162. Distinguish carefully the different kinds of "agents" by stating in column 19 the line of business followed.

163. Distinguish carefully between retail and wholesale merchants, as retail merchant-dry goods, wholesale merchant-dry goods.

164. Avoid the use of the word "clerk" wherever a more definite occupation can be named. Thus a person in a store, often called a clerk, who is wholly or principally engaged in selling goods should be called a salesman. A stenographer, typewriter, accountant, bookkeeper, or cashier, etc., should be reported as such, and not as a clerk.

165. Distinguish a traveling salesman from a salesman in a store; the former preferably should be reported as a commercial traveler.

166. If any person in answer to the occupation question says that he is "in business," you must find out what branch of business and what kind of work he does or what position he holds.

167.Illustrations of occupations.-The following examples, in addition to the occupations given in the illustrative schedule, will illustrate the method of returning some of the common occupations and industries; they will also suggest to you distinctions which you should make in other cases: [figure follows]

168. Column 20. Whether employer, employee, or working on own account.-For one employing persons, other than domestic servants, in transacting his own business, write "Emp" (for employer). For a person who works for wages or a salary, write "W" (for wage earner). For a gainful worker who is neither an employer nor an employee, write "OA" (for own account). For all persons returned as having no occupation, leave the column blank.-

169. Employer.-An employee is one who employs helpers, other than domestic servants, in transacting his own business. The term employer does not include the superintendent, agent, manager, or other person employed to manage an establishment or business, and it does not include the foreman of a room, the boss of a gang, or the coal miner who hires his helper. All such should be returned as employees, for, while any one of these may employ persons, none of them does so in transacting his own business. Thus no individual working for a corporation either as an officer or otherwise should be returned as an employer.

170. A person employing domestic servants in his own home but not employing any helpers in his business should not be returned as an employer. But, on the other hand, a persons who is the proprietor of a hotel or boarding or lodging house and employs servants in running that hotel or boarding or lodging house should be returned as an employer, because he employs these servants in his business.

171. Employee.-Any person who works for wages or a salary and is subject to the control and direction of an employer, is an employee, whether he be president of a large corporation or only a day laborer, whether he be paid in money or in kind, and whether he be employed by his own parent or by another. The term employee does not include lawyers, doctors, and others who render professional service for fees, and who, in their work, are not subject to the control and direction of those whom they serve. It does include actors, professors, and others who are engaged to render professional service for wages or salaries. A domestic servant should always be returned as an employee even though, as previously explained, the person employing a domestic servant is not always returned as an employer.

172. Working on own account.-Persons who have a gainful occupation and are neither employers are considered to be working on their own account. They are the independent workers. They neither pay nor receive salaries or regular wages. Examples of this class are: Farmers and the owners of small establishments who do not employ helpers; professional men who work for fees and employ no helpers; and, generally speaking, hucksters, peddlers, newsboys, bootblacks, etc., although it not infrequently happens that persons in these pursuits are employed by others and are working for wages, and in such case should, of course, be returned as employees.

173.Illustrative examples.-In many occupations a man may be either an employer, an employee, or working on own account. For example, a physician is working on his own account if, as explained above, he works for fees solely and employs no helpers; if, however, he employs an assistant in his office he become an employer; but if he works for a salary, say in a hospital or institution, he is an employee. It may happen, however, that he receives a salary and also works for fees, in which case he should be classed with respect to his principal source of income.

174. A dressmaker who works out by the day for day wages should be returned as an employee; but a dressmaker who works at home or in her own shop should be returned as working on own account, unless she employs helpers, in which case he becomes an employer.

175. Similarly, a washerwoman or laundress who works out by the day is an employee, but a washerwoman or laundress who takes in washing is either working on own account, or, it may be, is an employer.

176. Case of wife working for husband or child working for parents.-When, in accordance with the preceding instructions, a wife working for her husband or a child working for its parents is returned as having an occupation, the wife or child should be returned as an employee, even though not receiving wages. The husband or parent in such case should be returned as an employer, unless, as may happen, he is working for wages, in which case he, as well as the wife or child, should be classed as an employee.

177. What is meant by "out of work."-The purpose of inquiries 21 and 22 is to ascertain the amount of enforced unemployment-the extent to which persons want work and can not find it. Do not , therefore, include those with those "out of work" those who are on a strike, those who are voluntarily idle, those who are incapacitated for any work, or those who are on sick leave or on a vacation. School-teachers, artists, and music teachers are often unemployed during a portion of the year, but should not be considered as "out of work," in the sense in which the term is used for the purposes of the census.

178.Column 21. If an employee, whether out of work on April 15, 1910.-If a person reported as an employee (W) in column 20 was out of work on April 15, 1910, write "Yes," but if such person had work on that date, write "No." For persons other than employees, leave the column blank.

179. Column 22. If an employee, number of weeks out of work during year 1909.-If a person reported as an employee (W) in column 20 was out of work during any part of the year 1909, enter the number of weeks out of work; but if such person was not out of work at all during the year, do not leave the column blank, but write "0." For persons other than employees, leave the column blank.

180. A person not employed at his principal or usual occupation but engaged in some side or temporary work is not to be considered as unemployed, the intent of this question being to find out the number of weeks during which the person was unable to secure any employment.

EDUCATION

181. Column 23. Whether able to read.-Write "Yes" for all persons 10 years or age and over who can read any language, whether English or some other, and "No" for all such persons who can not read any language. For persons under 10 years of age, leave the column blank.

182. For a person reported as "blind" (column 31), write "Yes" if he could read any language before becoming blind or, if born blind, if he has been taught to read any language.

183. Column 24. Whether able to write.-Write "Yes" for all persons 10 years of age and over who can write any language, whether English or some other, and "No" for all such persons who can not write any language. For persons under 10 years of age, leave the column blank.

184. For a person reported as "blind" (column 31), write "Yes" if he could write any language before becoming blind or, if born blind, if he has been taught to write any language.

185. Column 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909.-Write "Yes" for any persons who attended school, college, or any educational institution at any time since September 1, 1909, and "No" for any persons of school age-5 to 21 years-who has no attended school since that date. For persons below or above school age, leave the column blank, unless they actually attended school.

OWNERSHIP OF HOME

186. Column 26. Home owned or rented.-This question is to be answered only opposite the name of the head of each family. If a dwelling is occupied by more than one family it is the home of each of them, and the question should be answered with reference to each family dwelling. If the home is owned, write opposite the name of the head of the family "O." If the home is rented, write "R." Make no entries in this column for the other members of the family.

187. Owned homes.-A home is to be classed as owned if it is owned wholly or in part by the head of the family living in the home, or by the wife of the head, or by a son, or a daughter, or other relative living in the same house with the head of the family. It is not necessary that full payment for the property should have been made or that the family should be the sole owner.

188. Rented homes.-Every home not owned, either wholly or in part, by the family living in it should be classes as rented, whether rent is actually paid or not.

189. Column 27. Home owned free or mortgaged.-This question applies only to those homes classed in column 26 as owned homes and not to rented homes. Write "M" for mortgaged and "F" for owned free. These entries should be made opposite the name of the head of the family. All owned homes which are not fully paid for, or upon which there is any incumbrance in the form either of a mortgage or of a lien upon which judgment has been had in a court, are to be reported as mortgaged.

190. Column 28. Farm or house.-This column is intended merely to distinguish farm homes from other homes. If the home is a farm home, write "F" (for farm) opposite the name of the head of the family. If it is not a farm home, write "H" (for house). A farm home is a home located on a farm, for which a farm schedule should be secured. (See paragraph 202). Any other home is to be reported simply as a house.

191. Column 29. Number of farm schedule.-This question applies only to farm homes. If the home is a farm home, enter in this column simply the number of the agricultural schedule filled out for this farm. Make this entry opposite the name of the member of the family operating the farm. Usually this will be the head of the family.

SURVIVORS OF THE CIVIL WAR

192. Column 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy.-This question should be asked as to all males over 50 years of age who were born in the United States and all foreign born males who immigrated to this country before 1865. Write "UA" if a survivor of the Union Army; "UN" if a survivor of the Union Navy; "CA" if a survivor of the Confederate Army; and "CN" if a survivor of the confederate Navy. For all other persons leave the column blank.

BLIND AND DEAF AND DUMB PERSONS

193. Column 31. Whether blind (both eyes).-If a person is either totally or partially blind, in both eyes, so as not to be able to read even with the help of glasses, write "Bl." For all other persons leave the column blank.

194. Column 32. Whether deaf and dumb.-If a person is both deaf and dumb, write "DD." For all other persons leave the column blank. Persons who are deaf but not dumb, or persons who are dumb but not deaf, are not to be reported.

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