1940 Census: Instructions to Enumerators

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[We include only those portions relevant to the population schedule, from which the entire 1940 PUMS was drawn.]

THE HEADING OF THE SCHEDULE

400. The heading of each population schedule must be completely filled out before any persons are enumerated on it. Always begin with the "A" side of the schedule. Note that if both sides of the Population schedule are used, the heading on both sides must be completely filled out.

401. Numbering Sheets.-Number the sheets of the Population schedules used for persons enumerated in regular order serially beginning with 1. Number the sheets of the Population schedules used for persons enumerated out of regular order serially beginning with 61, and those used for persons as of the night of April 8, beginning with 81. Each sheet must be numbered on the A side and the B side thus, 1A and 1B, 2A and 2B, etc.

402. S. D. No. and E. D. No.-Enter at the head of each sheet the numbers of the Supervisor's district in the space after "S. D. No." and the number of the enumeration district in the space after "E. D. No."

403. State and County.-Enter at the head of each sheet the name of the State and county.

404. Name of Incorporated Place.-Write the name of the incorporated place, and indicate whether it is a city, town, village, or borough, in the heading of each sheet in the space provided.

405. Relation of Incorporated Place to Township in Which Located.-If any incorporated place forms a part of the township in which it is located, enter the name of the township as well as that of the incorporated place at the head of the sheet, each in the indicated space. If, on the other hand, the incorporated place is independent of any township, precinct, or other division of a county, enter a dash (-) in the space for the name of the township or other division of the county.

406. Township or Other Division of County.-Write not only the name or number by which the division of the county is know, but also the name of the class (as township, town, precinct, district, ward, beat, etc.) to which it belongs. For example: "Center township ("Center" alone is not enough); "Washington town;" "Austin precinct;" "Precinct 10;" etc. In this matter you should, in general, follow the description of your enumeration district as given on the inside cover of the portfolio.

407. Ward of City.-If the city or town is divided into wards, enter the number or name of the ward in the space provided at the head of each sheet.

408. Block Numbers.-If your city is one that has been divided into numbered blocks, in which case a number is shown in each block on the map on the inside of your portfolio, each of the blocks will constitute a subdivision of your district that must be identified on the Population schedule in accordance with instructions in paragraphs 389 and 390.

409. Unincorporated Place.-For an unincorporated place with 100 or more inhabitants (see par. 392), enter the name of the place in the space provided therefor in the heading of the schedule. The name of the township in which the unincorporated place is located should also be entered in every case.

410. Name of Institution. -If you are enumerating the population of an institution, no matter how small, such as a prison, jail, almshouse, or asylum, enter the full name of the institution in the place indicated at the head of the schedule. If the name of the institution does not indicate its type, enter also the type of institution as, "John Smith Home (Home for the Aged). In case only a portion of a sheet of the Population schedule is used for inmates of the institution, indicate the lines on which the names of the inmates appear, as "Marshall County Jail, lines 25 to 69."

411. Date.-Enter in the space following the words "Enumerated by me on" the date on which you begin to enumerate population on this sheet.

412. If a page of the Population schedule is not completely filled at the end of a day's work, draw a line in the left-hand margin of the schedule just under the number of the line for the last person enumerated on that day. On the following day enter the date in the margin under this line and opposite the name of the first person you enumerate. For instance, if at the close of April 4 you had enumerated 30 persons on a schedule, draw a heavy line in the left-hand margin just under the line number 30, and on the next morning write "April 5" in the margin opposite line number 31, showing that you began work at that number.

Location

413. Column 1. Street, Avenue, Road, Etc.-This column applies to cities and all other localities where the streets or roads are known by names or numbers or letters. Write lengthwise in col. 1 the name of the street, avenue, court, place, alley, or road on which the dwelling house or structure faces, as shown in the illustrative example (Form P-2). Do not abbreviate the street name. Where there is no street name, give the name of the road or any other local name which will help to identify the structure.

414. The point at which you turn off any street into another one in the same block is to be marked by a heavy line in ink (-) across the first and second columns. (See illustrative example, Form P-2, line 23.)

415. Column 2. House Number (in Cities and Towns).-Write the house number, if there is one, on the first line used for enumerating the first household in the structure. do not repeat the house number of other households having the same house number and living in the same structure. If a house at the rear of another has no number of its own, give it the same number as the house in front and add the word "rear," thus, "26 rear."

Household Data

416. Entries are to be made in the four columns in this section only on the line for the head of the household, who should always be the first person enumerated.

417. Column 3. Number of Household in Order of Visitation.-In this column, number the households in your district in the order in which they are enumerated. Enter the number on the line for the head of the household and leave this column blank for other persons in the household as shown on the illustrative example (Form P-2). The first household enumerated should be numbered "1," the second household, "2," etc.

418. The household visitation number should be assigned to all households at the time of the first visit, even if it is necessary to call back to obtain the information. Every household in your district is to receive a household visitation number, except: (a) An "Absent Household," fro which a Report Card for Absent Household is filled out (see par. 372); (b) the special classes of persons, enumerated as of April 8, including households or persons residing in hotels, tourist camps, trailer camps, missions, cheap one-night rooming houses (flophouses), etc.; and (c) households enumerated on the Nonresident schedule.

419. The entry "T" is to be entered in col. 3 for all households or persons enumerated as of April 8 in accordance with the special procedure outlined in paragraphs 332 to 352.

420. Household Defined.-A household, as the term is used for census purposes, is a family or any other group of persons living together, with common housekeeping arrangements, in the same living quarters. Although ordinarily a household will consist of a head, his wife, and their children, the persons in a household may or may not be related by block or marriage. Include a servant, hired hand, or other employee who sleeps in the house as a member of the household for which he or she works. Consider a boarder or lodger a member of the household with which he lodges, if that is his usual place of residence.

421. The decision as to what constitutes a household is to be made on the basis of the housekeeping arrangements and not the relationships of the persons making up the household. For example, a couple with married children (with or without children of their own) living with them in one house, apartment, etc., with only one set of cooking facilities or housekeeping arrangements, comprise a single household. On the other hand, if a married son or daughter or any other person lives in a separate portion of the house that has its own cooking or housekeeping facilities, such persons constitute a household separate from that of the persons occupying other portions of the house, even though the house may have been originally built for only one household.

422. Note that the household may occupy an entire house, or a part of the house, such as apartment, flat, tenement, or "rent," or a room or section of a building devoted primarily to nonresidential purposes. Likewise, a household may live in a tourist camp, a trailer, a boat, a tent, a freight car, etc.

423. Persons Living Alone.-For census purposes, a person living entirely alone constitutes a household, except as indicated in paragraph 425.

424. Apartment Houses.-In an apartment or tenement house there are as many households as there are separately occupied apartments or dwelling units, even though use may be made of a common cafe or restaurant.

425. Hotels and Boarding and Lodging Houses.-All the occupants and employees of a hotel, boarding house, or lodging house, if that is their usual place of residence, make up a single household and are to be returned as such. Transient guests are to be included as members of this household only if they have no other usual place of residence at which they will be reported in the census.

426. Apartment Hotels.-In an apartment hotel there are as many households as there are separately occupied apartments or dwelling unites, even though use may be made of common cafe, restaurant, lobby, or recreational facilities. Households living in a section of a hotel (such as a floor or a wing or other section of the building) which is entirely devoted to apartment, rather than to transient, use are to be enumerated as separate households rather than as part of the transient hotel household.

427. Institutional Households.-The officials, employees, and inmates of an institution who live in the institution building or buildings make up one household. But if any officer or employee and his family, if any, live in separate quarters (a detached house or structure containing no inmates), they should be returned as a separate household. Note the instructions to identify institutions (par. 410).

428. Column 4. Home Owned or Rented (Tenure).-If the home in which the household lives is owned by the head of the household or by some related member of his family living with the household, enter "O" (for owned) on the line for the head of the household, regardless of whether it is still being paid for or is subject to a mortgage.

429. If the home or dwelling unit is not owned, either wholly or in part, as indicated above, write "R" (for rented) on the line for the head of the household, even though no rent is actually paid.

430. A home which is owned by a person whose position in the household is that of a lodger should be returned as rented.

431. Column 5. Value of Home, if Owned, or Monthly Rental, if Rented.-If the home is owned, as indicated by the entry "0" in col. 4, enter in col. 5, on the line for the head of the household, the current market value of the home, as nearly as it can be ascertained. Unless the home has been recently purchased, it will be necessary to estimate its value. The estimate should represent the amount for which the home, include (except on a farm) such land as belongs to it, would sell under ordinary conditions not at forced sale. The assessor's valuation, on which taxation is based, is usually not a safe guide.

432. Where a person owns a house with living accommodations for more than one household and his household occupies only a portion of the house, as where the owner of a two-family house rents part to another household, estimate the value of the portion of the house occupied by the owner's household (which for a two-family house may be about one-half the total value), and enter this amount in col. 5 for the owner's household. The entry in col. 5 for the household or households renting a portion of the structure will be the amount paid in monthly rental. Where any considerable portion of the house is used for business purposes, such as a store, deduct the value of this portion - except that the value of one or two rooms used as an office by a dentist, lawyer, or contractor, etc., need not be deducted.

433. For the home of a farm operator who owns, and lives on, his farm (or who owns that part of the farm on which the dwelling stands), obtain an estimate of the value of the dwelling in which he lives, excluding the land on which it is built. (This figure should represent a reasonable fraction of the value of all farm buildings reported on the farm schedule.)

434. Make it clear to your informant that the values returned on the census schedule are not to be used in any way in connection with taxation and are not open to public inspection.

435. If the home or dwelling unit is rented, as indicated by "R" in col. 4, enter in col. 4, enter in col. 5 to the nearest dollar the actual amount paid each month as rent, or enter one-twelfth of the annual rental, in case payment is not made monthly. Do not enter fractions of a dollar.

436. If no money rent is paid, as where a workman receives the use of a house as part of his wages, enter in col. 5 the estimated monthly value based on the monthly rental paid for similar dwelling units in the neighborhood.

437. In the case of a tenement farm operator, that is, one who pays rent in some form for the farm, including his dwelling (rather than for the dwelling alone), estimate the monthly rental value of the dwelling house in which he lives. this estimate should be based, if possible, on the rent actually paid for similar dwellings nearby, making allowance for the fact that rents are usually lower in the open country than in town.

438. If there is no other basis for estimating the rental value of the home of a farm tenant (or in some instances a nonfarm tenant), you may consider that 1 percent of the total value of the dwelling is a fair monthly rental. For example, if $1,000 seems to be a reasonable estimate of the total value of the dwelling, enter $10 as the monthly rental value.

439. Whenever the value reported to you for a dwelling seems a great deal higher or lower than the value for similar structures in the same neighborhood, question your informant further to make sure that he has properly understood the question and that the value is the current market value of the living quarters.

440. Column 6. Does This Household Live on a Farm?-This question is to be answered "Yes" or "No" for every household, except that in a thickly settled city district a statement may be made in the space just above and to the right of the heading "Household Data" of the first schedule to the effect that there are no farms in the enumerator's district, and the column may then be left blank. If the household lives on a farm the answer should be "Yes," even though no member of the household actually works on the farm. On the other hand, where a farmer and his family do not live on the farm, the entry for this household should be "No." This question pertains to residence not occupation.

NAME AND RELATION

441. Column 7. Name of Each Person Enumerated.-Enter in col. 7 the name of each person whose usual place of residence is with the household. Be sure to include persons temporarily absent and all children, even the very youngest. Do not include persons visiting the family, whose usual place of residence is elsewhere, unless they will not be reported in another enumeration district. For a new-born infant who does not have a given name, write "Infant." Write "Ab" after the name of a person temporarily absent at the time of enumeration, such as a traveling salesman, a student, etc., who has sleeping quarters elsewhere, but whom you enumerate as a resident of hour district in accordance with the instructions in paragraphs 305 to 307.

442. Order of Entering Names.-Some households will contain, in addition to the head of the family and his wife and children, other relatives, lodgers, servants, etc. Enter the names of the members of each household in the following order:

  1. The head of the household (generally the husband).
  2. His wife.
  3. Their children in the order of their ages, beginning with the oldest; except that if any of these children are married and living with their parents, they (husband first and wife and their families should be grouped after the names of the other children. (See illustrative example, Form P-2).
  4. Other relatives, then lodgers, then servants, etc. If there are among these any married couples or persons otherwise related, they should be grouped in the same manner as indicated for the families of married children.

443. How Names Are To Be Written.-Enter the last name or surname, then the given name in full, and the initial of the middle name, if any; except that where a person usually writes his first initial and his middle name thus, "P. Robert Brown," you should write "Brown, P. Robert," rather than "Brown, Peter R." Make certain that you have spelled each name correctly.

444. Where the surname is the same as that of a member of the same household entered on the preceding line, do not repeat the name, but indicate it is the same as the one above by a long dash (-), as shown in the illustrative example (Form P-2).

445. In some instances there will not be enough lines left at the bottom of a page of the Population schedule to enumerated all members of the household. In such a case, fill in completed the lines on the side of the schedule on which you are enumerating (but do not crowd additional names between the lines and continue the household on the "B" side of the schedule or, if you are enumerating on that side, on the "A" side of a new schedule. Make a check in the box designated "Check if household cont'd on next page," on or below line 40 (line 80 if your are enumerating on the "B" side of a schedule); and write "cont'd" (for continued) across cols. 1 and 2 on line 41 (or line 1, of the new schedule) and leave cols. 3 to 6 blank. Do not leave any lines vacant at the bottom of either side "A" or side "B," except at the completion of the enumeration of your district.

446. Identification of Persons Furnishing Information.-Write an X with a circle around it in col. 7 after the name of the person who furnishes you with the you with the information concerning the members of the household. (See illustrative example.) If you find it necessary to obtain the information from a person who is not a member of the household, write the name of this person in the left-hand margin, opposite the entries for the household, thus: "Information from John Brown, neighbor."

447. Column 8. Relationship of This Person to the Head of the Household.-For the head of the household, that is, the person who is regarded as the head by the members of the house, whether husband or father, wife, widow, or unmarried person of either sex, write the word "Head" in this column. For other members of the household write wife, son, daughter, father, mother, grandson, daughter-in-law, aunt, nephew, lodger, boarder, servant, hired hand, etc., according to the particular relationship that the person bears to the head of the household. (See illustrative example.)

448. For lodgers, and for servants, hired hands, chauffeurs, etc., who may have relatives living with them in their employer's home, enter the relationship of the relatives to the lodger, servant, or hired hand. As examples, a lodger and his wife should be listed in col. 8 as "lodger" and "lodger's wife"; and a servant and her daughter, living in the home of the servant's employer, should be listed as "servant" and "servant's daughter."

449. Occupants of an institution, prison, school, etc., living in the institutional building or buildings, should be designated as officer, inmate, patient, pupil, etc.; and in the case of the chief officer, his title should be used, as superintendent, warden ,principal, etc., instead of the word "Head." Enter the prisoner's number in col. 8 for an inmate of a penal institution that identifies its prisoners by number; enter "prisoner" for a prisoner not identified by number.

450. For hotel households (see par. 425), enter the term that describes the relation of the person to the hotel, as manager, cashier, bellboy, housekeeper, guest, etc.

451. If two or more persons who are not related by blood or marriage share a common dwelling unit as partners, write head for one and partner for the other or others.

PERSONAL DESCRIPTION

452. Column 9. Sex.-Write "M" for male, and "F" for female.

453. Column 10. Color or Race.-Write "W" for white; "Neg" for Negro; "In" for Indian; "Chi" for Chinese; "Jp" for Japanese; "Fil" for Filipino; "Hi" for Hindu; and "Kor" for Korean. For a person of any other race, write the race in full.

454. Mexicans.-Mexicans are to be regarded as white unless definitely of Indian or other nonwhite race.

455. Negroes.-A person of mixed white and Negro blood should be returned as Negro, no matter how small a percentage of Negro blood. Both black and mulatto persons are to be returned as Negroes, without distinction. A person of mixed Indian and Negro blood should be returned as a Negro, unless the Indian blood very definitely predominates and he is universally accepted in the community as an Indian.

456. Indians.-A person of mixed white and Indian blood should be returned as an Indian, if enrolled on an Indian agency or reservation roll, or if not so enrolled, if the proportion of Indian blood is one-fourth or more, or if the person is regarded as an Indian in the community where he lives.

457. Mixed Races.-Any mixture of white and nonwhite should be reported according to the nonwhite parent. Mixtures of nonwhite races should be reported according to the race of the father, except that Negro-Indian should be reported as Negro.

458. Column 11. Age at Last Birthday.-Enter the age of the person at his last birthday before 12:01 a.m., April 1, 1940. Thus, a person whose 18th birthday occurred on April 8, 1940, should be reported as 17 years of age because that was his age on his last birthday before April 1, 1940. For persons 1 year old and over, this question calls for the age in completed years at last birthday.

459. Ages of Infants.-The entry in col. 11 for children less than a year old should indicate age in completed months, expressed as twelfths of a year. Ask the following question in each household: "Are there any children in this household who were born on or after April 1, 1939?" For each child born after April 1, 1939, ascertain the actual birth date and determine the proper entry for col. 11 by referring to the table showing ages by birth dates at the foot of the schedule. Thus the age of a child born on May 2, 1939, should be entered as 10/12. Note that a child born after 12:01 a.m., April 1, 1940, is not to be enumerated.

460. Infant Card.-You must fill out an Infant Card (Form P-4), in addition to the line of entries on the Population schedules, for each child born during the 4 months from 12:01 a.m. December 1, 1939, to 12:01 a.m., April 1, 1940. That is, fill out an Infant Card for each child for whom the entry in col. 11 is 0/12, 1/12, 2/12, or 3/12.

461. Note that questions 1 to 10 on this form are to be filled out at the time the enumerator is obtaining information for the Population schedule. The answers to questions 11 to 23 may be copied from the Population schedule at the end of each day of canvassing. The numbers in parentheses at the end of questions 11 to 23 refer to the column numbers on the Population schedule from which the information is to be transcribed.

462. If the infant's father is not a member of the household in which the infant resides, enter "Not a member of household" in answer to question 14 and leave questions 15 to 19 blank. If the mother is not a member of the household, enter "Not a member of household" in answer to question 20 and leave questions 21, 22, and 23 blank.

463. The completed Infant Cards must be turned in with your portfolio to your Supervisor upon the completion of the enumeration of your district.

464. Ages in Round Numbers.-The age of the person will sometimes be reported in a round number, like 30 or 45, or "about 50" when that is not the exact age. If an age ending in "0" or "5" is reported, you should inquire whether that is really the exact age. If, however, the exact age is not know, enter the approximate age, rather than "Unknown."

465. Column 12. Marital Status.-Write "S" for a single person (one who has never been married), "M" for a married person (this includes "separated" persons), "Wd" for a widow or widower, and "D" for a divorced person.

EDUCATION

466. Column 13. Attended school or college any time since March 1, 1940.-Write "Yes" for a person who at any time since March 1, 1940, has attended, or been enrolled in, any school, college, university, or educational institution. Enter "No" for all others. Include attendance at a night school, extension school, or vocational school only if it is a part of the regular school system. Do not include correspondence school work of any kind.

467. Column 14. Highest grade of school completed.-Enter here, for each persons, the last full grade of school completed, that, is, the highest full grade that the person has successfully finished or from which he has graduated. Do not include half years or grades that were not finished.

468. This question refers only to the education obtained in public, private, or parochial schools, colleges, or universities. Education obtained at vocational schools is not to be considered, unless such school or college was a part of the regular school system. For a person still in school, the last grade completed will be the grade preceding the one in which he is now enrolled. For a persons who completed his formal education in an ungraded school or a foreign country, enter the approximate equivalent grade in the American school system, or, in this cannot readily be determined, the number of years the persons attended school. For a person who obtained his entire education in night school, enter the approximate equivalent grade completed.

469. Enter C-1 to C-5, for a person who completed 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 or more years at a college or university or a professional school (law school, medical school, dental school, normal school, engineering school, or theological school), whether or not the person was graduated from high school.

470. For persons whose highest grade completed was in a junior high school, it will be necessary to ascertain the equivalent in terms of elementary-school or regular high-school grades.

471. For children under school age, and for persons who have had no formal schooling, that is, who never attended school, enter "O."

PLACE OF BIRTH AND CITIZENSHIP

472. Column 15. Place of Birth.-For persons born in the United States, write in full the name of the State or Territory or possession. For a person born in Washington, D.C., write D.C.

473. For persons born in a foreign country, enter the name of the country only as Belgium, Spain, Italy, Japan, Sweden, etc., except as noted in the following paragraphs. Spell out the name of the country in full. For a persons born in any of those central European areas where there have been recent changes in boundaries, enter in col. 15 as country of birth that country in which his birthplace was situated on January 1, 1937. Note that the list of countries in Europe on that date included Austria, Czechoslovakia, and Poland. If you cannot find out with certainty the country in which the person's birthplace was located on January 1, 1937, enter the name of the province, state, or city in which the persons was born, such as Bohemia, Slovakia, Croatia, etc., or Prague, Bratislava, Vienna, etc.

474. Do not return persons as born in Great Britain, but write the name of the particular country, as England, Scotland, Wales, etc. Distinction must be made between Northern Ireland and Irish Free State (Eire); it is not sufficient to report that a person was born in Ireland.

475. French Canadians, i.e., Canadians of French mother tongue, should be distinguished from other Canadians and reported as Canada-French. For all other persons born in Canada, enter Canada, English, even though they may not actually speak English.

476. If a person was born in Cuba or Puerto Rico, enter the name of the island, and not "West Indies."

477. If a person was born at sea, write "At sea."

PLACE OF BIRTH AND CITIZENSHIP

478. Column 16. Citizenship of the Foreign Born.-An entry is to be made in this column for all foreign-born persons and for persons born at sea, male and female, of whatever age, as follows:

"Na"
(for naturalized) if the persons has become an American citizen, either by taking out second or final naturalization papers or through the naturalization of either parent.
"Pa"
(for first papers) if the person has declared intention to become an American citizen and has taken out "first papers."
"Al"
(for alien) if the person has neither become naturalized nor taken out first papers.
"Am Cit"
(for American citizen born abroad) if the foreign-born person or person born at sea was an American citizen at birth.


479. Prior to September 22, 1922, a foreign-born woman became a naturalized American citizen when her husband was naturalized, or if she married an American citizen. Since that date she must take out papers in her own name; otherwise she remains an alien. Note that a person must be at least 18 years old to take out "first papers." Children under 18 years old should not be returned "Pa" (first papers) merely because their parents have taken out first papers, but should be returned as "Al" (alien).

480. A foreign-born person or a person born at sea was an American citizen at birth (a) if his father was an American citizen who had resided in the United States before the time of the child's birth, or (b) if the person was born after May 24, 1934, if either parent was an American citizen who had resided in the United States before the time of the child's birth.

RESIDENCE APRIL 1, 1935

481. Columns 17 to 20. In What Place did This Person Live on April 1, 1935?-In this section, which is designed to show the movement of population from one place to another between 1935 and 1940, there should be an entry for each person 5 years old or over indicating his place of residence in 1935 as outlined below. this question does not, of course, apply to persons under 5 years old, that is, to persons born after April 1, 1935. For such persons, enter a dash (-) in col. 17, and leave cols. 18, 19, and 20 blank.

482. Persons Living in the Same House as in 1935.-For all persons who on April 1, 1935, were living in the same house or structure as at present, enter in col. 17, "Same house," and leave cols. 18, 19, and 20 blank.

483. Persons Living in the Same Place but different House in 1935.-For persons who, on April 1, 1935, were living in a different house but in the same city, town, or village as at present, enter in col. 17 "Same place," and leave cols., 18, 19, 20 blank.

484. Persons Who Have Moved From One place to Another in the United States Since 1935.-for persons who have moved from one place in the United States to another since April 1, 1935, record the place of residence on that date as follows: If the place of residence on April 1, 1935, was a city, town, or village of 2,500 or more, enter the name of the place in col. 17, the county in col. 18, and the State in col. 19, except that for cities of 10,000 or more, the county may be omitted.

485. If the residence on April 1, 1935, was in the open country or in a village of less than 2,500, enter "R" (for rural) in col. 17; the county in which that residence was located, in col. 18; and the State in col. 19.

486. In case of doubt as to whether a place had a population of 2,500 or more, enter the name of the place, with county and State, as if it were definitely known to have more than 2,500 inhabitants.

487. For persons who, on April 1, 1935, had their usual place of residence in one of the outlying Territories or possessions of the United States, or in a foreign country, enter dashes in cols. 17 and 18, and write the name of the Territory or possession, or of the foreign country, in col. 19.

488. Column 20. On a Farm (Yes or No).-For all person who have moved from one place to another since April 1, 1935, enter in col. 20 the answer, "Yes" or "No," to the question "did this person live on a farm on April 1, 1935?" No entry is required in col. 20 for those for whom "Same house" or "Same place" is entered in col. 17.

489. Where the entry in cols. 17, 18, 19, or 20 is the same as that for a member of the same household entered on the preceding line, as it often will be, repeat the entry. Do not use ditto marks.

FOR PERSONS 14 YEARS OLD AND OVER-EMPLOYMENT STATUS WEEK OF MARCH 24-30, 1940

490. Entries are to be made in cols. 21 to 33 only for persons 14 years old and over. Leave these columns blank for all persons under 14 years of age.

491. Columns 21 to 25.-these questions are designed to give an accurate classification of the work status during the week of March 24-30, 1940, of all persons 14 years old and over. The answers to these questions will permit the classification of such person into two large groups: (a) Workers in the labor force, and (b) persons not in the labor force.

492. The labor force will be further subdivided on the basis of the information collected, as follows:

  1. Persons at work during the week of March 24-30, 1940, in private work or nonemergency Federal, State, or local Government work-Government work other than WPA, NYA, CCC, local work relief, etc. ("Yes" in col. 21).
  2. Persons at work on, or assigned to, public emergency project work-WPA, NYA, CCC, local work relief, etc. ("Yes" in col. 22).
  3. Person who are seeking work, and are not in either of the classes above ("Yes" in col. 23).
  4. Persons who have jobs, businesses, or professional enterprises from which they were temporarily absent during the week of March 24-30, 1940 ("Yes" in col. 24).

493. The sum of all the persons in these four groups will be the total number of persons in the national labor force during the week of March 24-30, 1940.

494. Persons not in the labor force March 24-30 will include all other persons 14 years old or over, that is those not working , not assigned to public emergency work, not seeking work, and without a job, business, or professional enterprise. This group will be subdivided into (a) persons who devote most of their time to the care of the home and doing housework for their families ("H" in col. 25); (b) persons in school ("S" in col. 25); (c) persons physically unable to work because of permanent disability, old age, or chronic illness ("U" in col. 25); (d) other person, including retired persons, persons who choose not to work, etc. ("Ot" in col. 25).

495. The question in col. 21 is to be asked with regard to all persons 14 years old and over; and each of the questions in cols. 22 to 25 is to be asked only if the answer to the preceding question is "No." Thus, as soon as a "Yes" is received in reply to one of the questions in cols. 21 to 24, enter a dash in each of the other columns in this group, and also in col. 25 for that person; and do not ask the questions in this block (cols. 21 to 25) that follow the column to which the answer of "Yes" is received.

496. The questions relating to employment status are arranged on the schedule in the order in which they must be asked. Do not ask them in any other order. Instructions for each of these questions are given in the following paragraphs.

497. Column 21. Was This Person AT WORK for Pay or Profit in Private or Nonemergency Government Work During Week of March 24-30? (Yes or No).-There must be an entry of either "Yes" or "No" in col. 21 for every person 14 years old and over, except that "Inst." is to be entered for inmates of the institutions specified in paragraph 504.

498. Enter "Yes" for any person who did any work, full-time or part-time, during the week of March 24-30, 1940, for pay or for profit (a) in any private job, business, or profession; or (b) in any Federal, State, or local nonemergency Government work. Enter "Yes" also for any person who worked during the week at unpaid family work as defined below.

499. Private jobs, businesses, and professions include all positions except those where the person is paid directly by a Government agency. Nonemergency government work includes all Federal, State, and local Government jobs or elective offices except project jobs provided on public emergency programs, such as WPA, NYA, CCC, or local work relief programs. Work for pay includes any work done for salaries, wages, piece rates, fees, commissions, tips, supplies, board and room, etc., and work for profit includes any work done in one's own profession, business, or store, or on a farm which is owned or rented. Unpaid family workis that done by a wife, son, daughter, or other relative living in the household who actually assisted without money wages or salary on work which contributed to the family income (such as in the operation of the family farm or family business enterprise) at any time during the week. However, housework, incidental work or chores, not directly connected with a family business enterprise, and unpaid work done in the household by persons who are not relatives, are not to be regarded as unpaid family work for purposes of this census.

500. Enter "No" for each person who did not do any work in any private or nonemergency Government employment during the week of March 24-30. This will include persons who were working on, or assigned to, public emergency work (WPA, NYA, CCC, etc.) during the week.

501. Some of the important special classes for which the answer of "Yes" is required are as follows:

  1. Enter "Yes" for a professional person, such as a doctor or lawyer, whose professional services were available at any time during the week, although he may not have actually performed any such services or received any fees.
  2. Enter "Yes" for a person with a business of his own (such as a store owner, a radio repairman, a contractor, or a peddler), who operated his business, that is who attempted to sell his wares or to obtain orders, even though he may not have made any sales or performed any services during the week.
  3. Enter "Yes" for a farmer who usually operates a farm, even though because of bad weather conditions, temporary illness, etc., he did not actually work on the farm during the week. Enter "Yes" for the wife of the farmer, or other members of the farmer's family, only if they actually worked during the week on tasks contributing to the income of the farm and other than home housework, occasional work, or incidental chores. (Enter "No" for a farmer's wife, or other members of the farmer's family, if they were engaged only on occasional tasks, home housework, or incidental chores.)
  4. Enter "Yes" for each person who worked for pay or profit in his or her own home at any time during the week, as for example, a woman who took in laundry, or who made artificial flowers that she intended to sell, or did sewing at home for a clothing factory.
  5. Enter "Yes" for a person, generally the housewife, keeping five or more boarders or lodgers.
  6. Enter "Yes" for a person who is working on a job involving training for more advanced work. Thus, student nurses and workers in company training schools and programs are to be regarded as working if they receive compensation in money or in kind (that is, living quarters, food, etc.).
  7. Enter "Yes" for the administrative employees of public emergency programs who were employed in Federal, regional, State, district, or other local offices charged with the responsibility of administering any of the public emergency programs set up to provide jobs for the unemployed (WPA, NYA, CCC, State and local work relief, etc.). Enter "No" for all persons working on, or assigned to, specific projects, regardless of whether such persons were in supervisory or nonsupervisory positions, and regardless of whether the project is located in offices occupied by administrative employees of the same programs.

502. For persons reporting both (a) private or nonemergency Government work, and (b) public emergency project work during the week, enter "Yes" in col. 21 if the person worked more hours in the nonemergency work than in the public emergency project work; or if he left the emergency project work during the week to take private or nonemergency Government work. For all other persons with both types of work, enter "No" in col. 21 and "Yes" in col. 22. Never enter "Yes" in both cols. 21 and 22.

503. The entry of "No" is required not only for totally unemployed workers and for persons at work on, or assigned to, public emergency programs, but also for such persons 14 years old and over as: Housewives and other unpaid persons engaged in home housework only; students not also at work for pay or profit; retired and permanently disabled persons; persons other than those specified above with jobs, businesses, or professional enterprises who for any reasons did not actually work during the week of March 24-30, 1940.

504. Entry for Inmates of Specified Institutions.-In enumerating persons resident in institutions of type specified below which may be located in your district, enter "Inst." in col. 21 for each inmate and leave cols. 22-34 blank. This instructions is to apply to public or private institutions as follows: Prisons, reformatories, jails, penal farms or camps; institutions for the mentally diseased, mentally defective or epileptic; and homes for the aged, infirm, or needy. Enter "Inst." in col. 21 for such a person even though he may have performed some work during the week for which he received an allowance, salary, or credit on the books of the institution. The entry "Inst." is never an acceptable entry for a person living in a noninstitutional household or an institution other than one of the types specified above.

505. Note that if "Yes" is entered in col. 21, you must indicate in col. 26 the number of hours the person worked during the week. (See paragraph 521.)

506. Column 22. If Not, Was He at Work on, or Assigned to, Public EMERGENCY WORK (WPA, NYA, CCC, Etc.) During Week of March 24-30? (Yes or No).-There must be an answer of either "Yes" or "No" in col. 22 for each person with the entry "No" in col. 21. For those for whom "Yes" has been entered in cols. 21, there should be a dash in col. 22.

507. Enter "Yes" for each person who, during the week of March 24-30, was at work on, or who, although not actually working, was assigned to work on a WPA project; on an NYA project, on NYA Student Aid work; in a CCC (Civilian Conservation Corps) camp; on local work relief; or on other public emergency employment provided by Federal, State, and local Governments to furnish employment to unemployed workers. Do not enter "Yes" for workers employed by private employers even though such employers are engaged in Government construction on a contract basis, as in the case of workers employed on Public Works Administration projects (PWA). For a person with both public emergency work and private or nonemergency Government work, follow the instructions in paragraph 502.

508. Enter "No" in col. 22 for a person with "No" in col. 21 who was neither at work on, nor assigned to, public emergency work. (Note that for administrative employees of the public emergency programs "Yes" will have been entered in col. 21 and a dash (-) in col. 22.)

509. Note that if "Yes" is entered in col. 22, you must indicate in col. 27 the number of weeks since the persons last had a job of 1 month or more in private or nonemergency Government work, or if he never had such a job the number of weeks since he last began to look for work. (See par. 525).

510. Column 23. If Neither at Work nor Assigned to Public Emergency Work: Was This Person SEEKING WORK? (Yes or No).-There must be an answer of either "Yes" or "No" in col. 23 for each person with an entry of "No" in cols. 21 and 22. Enter a dash in cols. 23 for all persons with an entry of "Yes" in either cols. 21 or 22.

511. Enter "Yes" in col. 23 for each person with an entry "No" in both cols. 21 and 22, who was seeking work. A person is to be regarded as "seeking work" if he was making an active effort to secure a job, or a business or professional opening. For example, registration in a public or private employment office, contacts with prospective employers, placing or answering advertisements, and efforts to start a business or the practice of a profession are to be regarded as evidences of seeking work.

512. Enter "Yes" for each person who was actively seeking work as indicated above, and for each person who would have been actively seeking work except for circumstances such as those indicated below:

  1. Enter "Yes" for a worker in a community in which there are only a few dominant industries (or only one industry ) who was not actively seeking work because the plants or establishments in the community were shut down. for example, enter "Yes" for a miner (or a new worker) in a mining town who would have been actively seeking work except that the mines were closed.
  2. Enter "Yes" for a person without a job who would have been actively seeking work except for a temporary illness such as a cold.
  3. Enter "Yes" for a person who would have been actively seeking work except for the fact that there was no work to be had, or no work to be had at his occupation. Note, however, that if such a person was on layoff with specific instructions to return to work within four weeks from the date of layoff, the entry in col. 23 should be "No" and the entry in col. 24 should be "Yes." (See par. 516b).

513. Enter "No" in col. 23 for each person with an entry of "No" in cols. 21 and 22 who was not seeking work as defined above. Enter "No" if the person was merely looking for a better or different job (unless he was on strike and seeking work, in which case enter "Yes"). For a detailed listing of some of the classes for which "No" is to be entered in col. 23 see the instructions for cols. 24 and 25.

514. Note that if "Yes" is entered in col. 23, you must indicate in col. 27 the number of weeks since the person last had a job of one month or more in private or nonemergency Government work, or if he never had such a job the number of weeks since he last began to look for work. (See par. 525.)

515. Column 24. If Not Seeking Work, Did This Person Have a Job, Business, Etc.? (Yes or No).-An entry of "Yes" or "No" is to be made in col. 24 only for persons for whom there is an entry of "No" in cols. 21, 22, and 23. For persons with "Yes" in cols. 21, 22, or 23, enter a dash.

516. Enter "yes" in col. 24 for the types of persons listed below who were not seeking work ("No" in col. 23) and who had a job (other than at public emergency project work-WPA, NYA, CCC, etc.) or a business or professional enterprise, at which they did not actually work at any time during the week of March 24-30, 1940.

  1. A person on a paid or unpaid vacation. The week of March 24-30, will be spring vacation week for schools in some communities. Enter "Yes" in col. 24 for school teachers and other employees who were on vacation during this week.
  2. A person with a job who was not at work because he was on a short lay-off not exceeding 4 weeks and with definite instructions to return to work on a specific date.
  3. A person who was temporarily ill but who had a job, business, or a professional enterprise to which he was going to return upon his recovery.
  4. A person not at work because of an industrial dispute (strike or lock-out) but who expected to return to his job upon the settlement of the dispute.

517. Enter "No" in col. 24 for each person who was not seeking work for pay or profit and who did not have job, business, or professional enterprise during the week of March 24-30, 1940. "No" should be entered for persons such as housewives and other unpaid persons engaged in home housework only; students not also employed for pay or profit; retired and permanently disabled person; persons who choose no to work and persons not working during the week of March 24-30, will work or seek work only in limited seasons of the year, such as a professional football player who does no other work, and a housewife who may work as a saleswoman for pay only during the Christmas season.

518. Column 25. For Persons Answering "No" to Questions 21, 22, 23, and 24: Indicate Whether Engaged in Home Housework (H), in School (S), Unable to Work (U), or Other (Ot).-There must be one and only one entry in col. 25 as indicated below for each person 14 years old or over with an entry of "No" in cols. 21, 22, 23, and 24. Enter a dash in col. 25 for all persons with the entry "Yes" in any one of cols. 21, 22, 23, or 24.

519. For each person with an entry of "No" in cols. 21, 22, 23, and 24:

  1. Enter "H" if the person with primarily occupied during March 24-30 with own home housework, even though she (or he) may work for pay or profit a short time during the year as for example, during the canning season, or Christmas season.
  2. Enter "S" if the person was enrolled in school.
  3. Enter "U" if the person was unable to work because of permanent disability, chronic illness, or old age.
  4. Enter "Ot" for all others not at work, not seeking work and without a job. These will include: (a) persons who work only during a short season of the year, such as professional football players,, and who were neither working nor seeking work during the week of March 24-30, 1940; (b) retired persons still able to work; (c) persons who choose not to work; and (d) persons able to work who for any other reason were not working, not seeking work, and without a job.

520. Summary of Entries-Cols. 21 to 25.-In summary it should be noted that there are only 6 possible combinations of responses to questions 21 to 25 for any person 14 years old or over.

At work in private or non-emergency Government work Public emergency work Seeking work With a job, business, etc. Others
Col. 21 Col. 22 Col. 23 Col. 24 Col. 25
For persons at work in private work or non-emergency Government work Yes ---- ---- ---- ----
For inmates of specified institutions Inst.
For public emergency workers No Yes - - -
For persons seeking work No No Yes - -
For persons who have jobs, businesses, or professional enterprises, but who did not work during the week for specified reasons No No No Yes -
For other persons 14 years old and over No No No No H, S, U, or Ot

One of these combinations of entries must appear in cols. 21 to 25 for each person 14 years old and over, and no other combination is correct.

521. Column 26. If at Private or Nonemergency Government Work ("Yes" in col. 21): Number of Hours Worked During Week of March 24-30, 1940.-Enter in col. 26 for each person who was at work in private or nonemergency Government work ("Yes" in col. 21) the total number of hours worked during the week for pay or profit (including unpaid family work other than home housework or incidental chores but private or nonemergency Government work ("Yes" in col. 21) the total number of hours worked during the week for pay or profit (including unpaid family work other than home housework or incidental chores but excluding any time spent on emergency work, as WPA, NYA, and CCC.

522. Note that you must make an entry in col. 26 when the entry in col. 21 is "Yes" and only when it is "Yes." Cols. 26 must be left blank for persons for whom the entry in col. 21 is "No," "Inst.," or blank.

523. For a professional person, a business man, a farmer, or any other person maintaining his own office, or operating a business or farm, enter the number of hours he spent in his office, or in his place of business, or in any work on his farm; include also the number of hours he may have elsewhere devoted to his professional, business, or farm affairs. If the exact number of hours is not known, enter the best obtainable estimate.

524. This entry should be in terms of the nearest whole number of hours. A fractional period of 30 minutes or more should be counted as a whole hour.

525. Column 27. If Seeking Work or Assigned to Public Emergency Work ("Yes" in Col. 22 or 23): Duration of Unemployment up to March 30, 1940-In Weeks.-There must be an entry in col. 27 indicating the duration of unemployment in weeks up to March 30, 1940, for each person who is seeking work ("Yes" in col. 23) and each person on public emergency work ("Yes" in col. 22). Col. 27 must be left blank unless "Yes" is entered in col. 22 or 23. Not that all entries are to be made in weeks even if the person has been unemployed for several years. (See table in par. 529).

526. Persons with previous work experience.-For each person seeking work or assigned to public emergency work who has had previous work experience on a private job or a nonemergency Government job lasting one month or more full time, enter the number of weeks since the end of his last private or nonemergency government work of 1 month or more. However the following exceptions must be observed:

  1. For a person who does not usually work at one job for one month or more, such as a private-duty nurse, a stevedore, etc., enter the number of weeks since the person last worked at his occupation, regardless of the duration of the work.
  2. For a person who, at any time since his last private or nonemergency government job of one month or more, has had a period during which he did not desire work for pay or profit, enter the number of weeks since he last began seeking work.

527. Persons without previous work experience.-For each person who has never worked in a private or nonemergency job for one month or more (including persons who have worked only on public emergency projects), enter the number of weeks since the person last began to seek work. In most cases this will be the number of weeks since the persons left school.

528. Note that, both for persons seeking work and for those on public emergency work, time spent on public emergency work projects (WPA, CCC, NYA, etc.) and time spent on jobs lasting less than 1 month (except as provided in par. 526a) are to be counted as weeks unemployed for the purpose of this question. Make the entries in whole numbers, counting fractions of half a week or more as whole weeks.

529. The following table will assist you in calculating duration of unemployment:

Date last job ended or date person began seeking work Weeks unemployed Date last job ended or date person began seeking work Weeks unemployed
March 15, 1940 2 June 1, 1939 43
March 1, 1940 4 May 1, 1939 48
February 15, 1940 6 April 1, 1939 52
February 1, 1940 8 January 1, 1939 65
January 15, 1940 11 October 1, 1938 78
January 1, 1940 13 July 1, 1938 91
December 15, 1939 15 April 1, 1938 104
December 1, 1939 17 January 1, 1938 117
November 1, 1939 22 July 1, 1937 143
October 1, 1939 26 January 1, 1937 169
September 1, 1939 30 July 1, 1936 195
August 1, 1939 35 January 1, 1936 221
July 1, 1939 39

OCCUPATION, INDUSTRY, AND CLASS OF WORKER

530. Columns 28 to 30. Occupation, Industry, and Class of Worker.-For each person for whom "Yes" was entered in questions 21, 22, 23, or 24 (that is, each person who was classified as at work; as at work on, or assigned to public emergency work; as seeking work; or as with a job), there must be entries in cols. 28 to 30 showing his occupation, industry, and class of work (except for "new workers" see par. 535). For persons not in the labor force, that is those persons classified as home houseworkers, attending school, unable to work, or other ("H," "S," "U," or "Ot," in col. 25) leave cols. 28 to 30 blank. Also leave cols. 28 to 30 blank for inmates of the institutions specified in par. 504, that is, for those persons for whom "Inst." has been entered in col. 21.

531. These three questions are designed to show as much as possible about each worker's present job, or, if he is not working at present, about his last full-time job of a month or more. In accordance with the detailed instructions that follow, use the Occupation column, col. 28, to record, in as much detail as possible, the exact nature of the duties that this person performs in his job; use the Industry column, col. 29 to show as fully as possible, the kind of industry or establishment, that is, the kind of factory, store, or other place of business in which he performs these duties. Indicate the Class of Worker for the person in col. 30. (See par. 569.)

532. For a Person in Private or Nonemergency Government Work, Assigned to Public Emergency Work, or With a Job.-For a person for whom you entered a "Yes" in col. 21, 22, or 24, the entries in cols. 28 to 30 are to describe the job at which the person was employed during the week of March 24-30, 1940.

533. For Persons Having Two Occupations.-For a person employed during the week of March 24-30, 1940, in more than one occupation in private or nonemergency Government work, return the one at which he spent the more time. For persons in both (a) private or nonemergency work and (b) public emergency work, enter the occupation consistent with the entries for such a person in cols. 21 and 22.

534. For a Person Seeking Work Who Has Previous Work Experience.-For a person seeking work, that is, one for whom "Yes" has been entered in col. 23, describe in these three columns the job on which he last worked for 1 month or more, full time (including public emergency employment, WPA, NYA, CCC, etc.); however, for a person who does not usually work at one job for an entire month, such as a private-duty nurse, a laborer at odd jobs, or a stevedore, describe the last job, regardless of how long he worked at it.

535. New Worker-A Person Seeking Work Who Has no Previous Work Experience.-For a person seeking work ("Yes" in col. 23) who has never worked on a private or nonemergency Government job or at public emergency work (WPA, NYA, CCC, etc.) for 1 month or more, full time, enter "New worker" in cols. 28 and leave cols. 29 and 30 blank.

536. Column 28. Occupation.-Enter in col. 28 an occupation or the term "New worker" for each person who has an entry of any one of cols. 21 to 24. Leave col. 28 blank for all other persons. The occupation entry in col. 28 should be the word or words which most accurately indicate the particular kind of work done, as lawyer, ship carpenter, music teacher, traveling salesman, steamfitter, file clerk, etc.

537. Farm Workers.-Return a person who was in charge of a farm as a farmer, whether he owned the farm or operated it as a tenant or renter; but a person who managed a farm for someone else for wages or salary should be reported as a farm manager. A man who directed farm labor under the supervision of the owner, tenant, or manager should be reported as a farm foreman or a farm overseer; and a person who worked on a farm for someone else but not as a manager or foreman should be reported as a farm laborer.

538. A woman who operated a farm or plantation should be reported as a farmer; a woman who worked regularly for wages at outdoor farm or garden work, in the dairy, or in caring for livestock or poultry, should be returned as a farm laborer.

539. Unpaid Family Workers.-Enter in col. 28 the occupation, such as farm laborer, delivery boy, salesman, etc., of a member of a family who worked regularly without wages or salary in the family's farm, in a shop or store from which the family obtained its support, or on other work that contributed to the family income (not including home housework or incidental chores).

540. A person who worked regularly as an unpaid family worker on a farm should ordinarily be returned as a farm laborer.

541. Builders and Contractors.-Only persons who were engaged principally in obtaining building or other construction contracts and supervising their execution should be returned as builders or contractors. Craftsmen who work with their own tools should be returned as carpenters, plasterers, etc., and not as contractors.

542. Engineers.-Distinguish carefully the different kinds of engineers by stating the full descriptive titles, as civil engineer, electrical engineer, locomotive engineer, mechanical engineer, mining engineer, stationary engineer, etc.

543. Foremen and Proprietors.-In the case of a foreman or proprietor, always include in col. 28, with the entry foreman or proprietor, the specific craft or trade, if any, that the person pursues, as foreman-carpenter, foreman-electrician, proprietor-pharmacist, proprietor-tailor, etc.

544. The term "laborer" should be avoided if any more precise statement of the occupation can be secured. Employees in factories and mills, for example, usually have some definite designation, as weaver, roller, etc. Where the term "Laborer" is used, be especially careful to state accurately the industry or business in col. 29.

545. Avoid the use of the word "mechanic" whenever a more specific occupation can be given, such as carpenter, painter, electrician, etc. Automobile mechanic, however, is a satisfactory return.

546. Avoid the use of the word "clerk" wherever a more definite occupation can be named. Thus, an employee in a store who is wholly or principally engaged in selling goods should be called a salesman and not a "clerk." A typist, accountant, bookkeeper, cashier, etc., should be reported as such, and not as a "clerk." Do not return a stenographer as a "secretary." distinguish a traveling salesman from a salesman in a store.

547. Nurses.-In the case of a nurse, always specify whether she is a trained nurse, a practical nurse, or a child's nurse.

548. Column 29. Industry.-There must be an entry in col. 29 indicating the industry, or kind of business or establishment, for each person for whom an occupation is entered in col. 28. Leave col. 29 blank for all other persons.

549. Enter in col. 29 the term or terms describing the kind of industry or establishment, that is, the kind of factory, store, or other place of business in which the person followed the occupation described in col. 28. In most cases there will be little difficulty in determining the industry, since most persons are clearly engaged in one distinct industry. difficulties will sometimes arise, however, in connection with persons whose occupation is connected with more than one industry. In such cases the person should be definitely reported in the principal industry in which he or his concern is engaged. The manager of a plantation, for example, should be returned as the manager of a farm, in spite of the fact that he also runs a store that supplies groceries, etc., to the laborers on the plantation.

550. For an employee who works for a concern that carries on different activities, the return should be the industry in which he directly works, provided that represents a major subdivision of the enterprise and is carried on in a separate building or in place physically distinct from other activities of the concern. Thus a miner working in a coal mine, owned and operated by a steel mill, should be returned as engaged in the coal mining industry (that is, in his immediate place of work) and not as working for a steel mill. On the other hand, persons working in a department or other unit incidental to the main work of an establishment should be returned in the Industry column (col. 29) as engaged in the major activity of the establishment. For example, the industry return for workers in the power plant of a steel rolling mill should be steel rolling mill; that for workers in the box making department of an electrical machinery factory should be electrical machinery factory; that for workers in the garage or the warehouse of a department store should be department store; and that for workers in the foundry of an agricultural implement factory should be agricultural implement factory.

551. Whenever possible, avoid the use of the work "company" in col. 29. An "oil company" for example, may operate oil wells, or a pipe line, or an oil refinery, or a cottonseed oil mill, or it may be engaged in selling oil. Likewise, never enter a firm name in col. 29, as "Jones & Co.," but state the industry or business in which the person follows his occupation, as building construction, retail hardware, etc.

552. Avoid General or Indefinite Terms.-Give the occupation and industry precisely. For example, return a worker in a textile mill as a spinner, cotton mill; weigher, woolen mill; spooler, silk mill; etc. Do not report industry in such indefinite terms as refinery, transportation, electrical, etc., but specify petroleum refinery, sugar refinery, or copper refinery; steam railroad, or but line; electrical power company or electrical appliance factory, etc. Never enter in col. 29 such indefinite terms as "factory," "mill," "shop," "store," or "office," without stating the kind of factory, etc., as soap factory, cotton mill, auto repair shop, grocery store, real estate office.

553. Manufacturing and Trade.-It is important to distinguish in col. 29 between manufacturing establishments, wholesale establishments, and retail establishments, particularly in entering the industry for workers whose occupations are common to all three classes of establishments, as are, for example, the occupations of salesman and bookkeeper. The entry salesman, for occupation, and soap, for industry, or the entry bookkeeper, for occupation, and radio, for industry, would not indicate whether the person worked in a factory, a wholesale store, or a retail store. Salesman, soap factory, and bookkeeper, retail radio store would be satisfactory entries.

554. Wholesale or Retail Trade.-Be careful in making the entry in col. 29 for industry, to distinguish between wholesale and retail trade. Specify in each entry for a person employed at any occupation in a sales establishment both the kind of business and whether the establishment is engaged in retail or wholesale trade. If the establishment is engaged in both retail and wholesale trade, specify the more important branch of the firm's activity, retail or wholesale trade. If that cannot be ascertained, abbreviate "wholesale-retail," as in the following example: Traveling salesman, W-R plumbing supplies.

555. Examples of correct entries for persons employed in sales establishments follow: Porter, retail men's clothing; saleslady, retail millinery; bookkeeper, wholesale drugs; elevator operator, wholesale plumbing supplies; salesman, W-R ladies' dresses.

556. In some cases, especially for professional persons, you may use in col. 29 the expression private practice or independent; or, for some laborers odd jobs.

557. Railroad Repair Shops and Car Factories.-Distinguish carefully in col. 29 between railroad repair shops and railroad car factories; and distinguish between a steam railroad repair shop and a street railway repair shop.

558. Agents.-Distinguish carefully the different kinds of "agents" be stating in col. 29 the line of business followed, as real estate, life insurance, etc.

OCCUPATION AND INDUSTRY FOR SPECIAL CLASSES OF PERSONS

559. Doctors and Physicians.-In the case of a doctor or physician, specify in col. 28 the class to which he belongs, as medical doctor, osteopathic doctor, chiropractic doctor, etc. If a doctor is engaged on his own account in private practice for fees, enter private practice in col. 29. If, however, he practices his profession on a salary basis, enter in col. 29 the kind of establishments in which he practices, as hospital, railroad, steel mill, life insurance, etc.

560. Unusual Occupations for Young Persons.-It is very unusual for a person under 18 years old to be a farmer or a proprietor of any kind; or to be an official, a manager, or a foreman; or to follow a professional pursuit; or to pursue any of the skilled trades, such as that of a plumber, carpenter, or machinist. If, therefore, you are told that a person under 18 follows an occupation usually followed only by older persons, ask whether he is not a helper or an apprentice in the occupation, and if so, make the entry accordingly, as blacksmith's helper or blacksmith's apprentice.

561. Unusual Occupations for Women.-There are many occupations, such as carpenter or blacksmith, which women do not usually follow. therefore, if you are told that woman follows such an occupation, verify the statement. For example, if a woman says she is a blacksmith, inquire whether she works at the anvil or merely owns the shop; if the latter, enter proprietor in col. 28 and blacksmith shop in col. 29.

562. Women Doing Housework for Wages.-A woman who did housework for wages should be returned in col. 28 as housekeeper, servant, cook, or chambermaid; And the entry in col. 29 should state the kind of place where she performed these duties, as private family, hotel, boarding house, etc. A woman who did housework in her own home and neither had nor sought employment for pay or profit, nor assisted on work contributing to the family income, should have been returned as a housewife ("H" in col. 25) and cols. 28 to 30 should be left blank.

563. Cooks.-Distinguish carefully between cooks and general houseworkers. Return a person who does general housework as a servant and not as a cook. In each case, state in col. 29 whether the person worked for a private family, a hotel, a restaurant, etc.

564. Industrial Homework and Other Work at Home.-For a person regularly employed at home by an outside employer (person or factory) on needlework, sewing clothes, making artificial flowers, etc., enter in col. 28, for occupation, a concise description of the work actually done, followed by the words "at home," such as seamstress at home, flower-maker at home, beadworker at home, lacemaker at home. Enter in col. 29 the kind of business or factory by which the person was employed, such as ladies' clothing factory, necktie factory, artificial flower factory, etc.

565. The appropriate entry in col. 29 for a woman who worked at home but was not engaged by a commercial employer is at home. Thus, for a woman who made dresses for individual, customers in her own home, enter dressmaker in col. 28 and at home in col. 29. For a woman who took in washing in her own home, enter laundress or washerwoman in col. 28 and at home in col. 29.

566. Persons Employed on Nonemergency Government Work (Federal, State, or Local).-For a person employed by a Government agency, enter in col. 28, for occupation, a description of the work performed, and in col. 29 the kind of activity in which the Governmental agency is engaged, as: Teacher, public school; bricklayer, sewer construction; structural engineer, bridge construction; caretaker, city park; doctor-medical, county hospital. When the activity in which the Governmental agency is engaged is peculiar to Government, an entry in col. 29 indicating the specific department or branch of Government will be acceptable. For example: File clerk, tax assessor's office; bailiff, county court; fireman, fire department; information clerk, election commission; auditor, internal revenue; statistical clerk, Census Bureau; machinist, U.S. Army; gunner, U.S. Navy. Never enter "Government" in col. 29.

567. Persons Assigned to Public Emergency Projects (WPA, NYA, CCC, etc.).-For a person employed on a public emergency project (WPA, NYA, CCC, etc.), enter in col. 28 the occupation at which he is working on the work program, and in col. 29 the nature of the project or enterprise in which he is engaged, as asphalt raker, road construction; laborer, reforestation ; typist, tax records survey; seamstress, sewing project.

568. Illustrations of Occupation and Industry Returns.-The following examples, in addition to those given above, will indicate the method of returning some of the common occupations and industries. They will also suggest distinctions that you should make in other cases:

Column 28 Column 29 Column 28 Column 29
Locomotive engineer Steam railroad Superintendent Steel works
Stationary engineer Lumber mill Contractor Building construction
Locomotive fireman Steel mill Foreman-electrician Building construction
Stationary fireman Lumber mill Foreman-weaver Cotton mill
Civil engineer Private practice Weaver Cotton mill
Electrical engineer Street railway Judge County court
Carpenter Saw mill Medical doctor Board of health
Carpenter Building construction Clergyman Church
Proprietor Retail grocery store Music teacher Public school
Proprietor Wholesale leather Author Independent
Proprietor-pharmacist Retail drug store Lawyer Private practice
Traveling salesman Wholesale ladies' hats Chemist Rayon factory
Salesman Department store Trained nurse Hospital
Salesman W-R plumbing supplies Life insurance agent Insurance
Bookkeeper Wholesale drugs Stenographer Election Commission
Deliveryman Retail grocery store File clerk City clerk's office
Florist Retail flower shop Cashier Department store
Farmer Farm Cashier Bank
Farm laborer Farm Machinist Steel mill
Manager Farm Driller Oil well
Overseer Farm Quarryman Marble quarry
Conductor Steam railroad Miner Coal mine
Brakeman Steam railway Laborer Coal mine
Chauffeur Taxicab company Radio operator Broadcasting station
Chauffeur Private family Printer's helper Printing shop
Truck driver Reforestation Seamstress at home Ladies' dress factory
Teamster Log camp Dressmaker At home
Proprietor Tourist camp Housekeeper Private family
President Bank Servant Private family
Plant manager Petroleum refinery Cook Hotel
Janitor Apartment house

569. Column 30. Class of Worker.-For each persons for whom an occupation is entered in col. 28, enter in col. 30 a symbol for class of worker applying to that occupation as indicated below:

For a wage or salary worker in private work-PW
For a wage or salary worker in Government work (including public emergency work)-GW
For an employer, that is, a persons who employed one or more workers other than unpaid family workers (or domestic servants) in conducting his own business-E
For a person who worked in his own account-OA
For an unpaid family worker, that is, a related member of the family who was employed without wages or salary on work (other than housework or incidental chores) that contributed to the family income-NP

570. For a person who followed more than one class of work in his occupation, enter the symbol for that class of work at which he worked the longest during the week of March 24-30. For example, for a carpenter who worked as an employee two days of the week and on his own account without employees for three days of the week, enter "OA" for "own account."

571. Wage or Salary Worker in Private Work.-Enter "PW" in col. 30 for a person who worked for a private (non-government) employer for wages or salary, at piece rates, on commission, or for tips, and was subject to the control and direction of an employer. This classification will include the salaried president of a bank or the salaried manager of a factory as well as the clerks and laborers employed. Among the persons for whom "PW" should be entered are: salesmen who work on commission; laborers (other than unpaid family workers) on farms or in small businesses who receive only board and lodging or remuneration in kind; waitress who work for tips. Salesmen who work on commission under the direction of an employer, including agents or canvassers who may receive little supervision, but still devote their time to selling the products of one or two concerns, should be returned as wage or salaried workers in private work; commission merchants, on the other hand, who solicit business from large numbers of sellers, or from the general public, should be returned as own-account workers, or if they hire assistants, as employers.

572. Wage or Salary Worker in Government Work.-Enter "GW" for all persons of whatever rank who were employed by a Federal, State, or local Government agency, whether on nonemergency or on public emergency project work (WPA, NYA, CCC, etc.). Note that "GW" must be entered in col. 30 for part of the group answering "Yes" in col. 21 and for every one answering "Yes" in col. 22.

573. Employer.-Enter "E" in col. 30 for a person who employed helpers or workers (other than unpaid family workers or domestic servants), in conducting his farm or his own business. The term "employer" does not include the superintendent, agent, manager, or foreman, or other person employed to manage an establishment or business, or the boss of a gang. All such persons should be returned as wage or salary workers, for, while any one of these may hire or employs persons, none of them does so in transacting his own business. No individual who worked for a corporation either as an officer or otherwise should be considered to be an employer. In short, no person who himself worked for wages, salary, or commission is to be returned as an employer. Neither does the term "employer" include one who was assisted in his own business only by unpaid family workers. Examples of employers are: The farmer who hires a man to help on his farm for money wages or for room, board, or pay in kind, or who pays money wages to his son or other relative for work on the farm; the independent carpenter or plumber who hires one or more helpers; and the owner of a business enterprise who employes any persons (other than unpaid family workers) in his business.

574. Working on Own Account.-Enter "OA" in col. 30 for each person who worked on his own account, that is, in his own business or profession, and who did not employ any workers in his business other than unpaid family workers. Do not classify a person as "OA" if he pays any salaries or wages either in cash or kind, or receives pay from an employer. Examples of persons working on own account are: Farmers who hire no farm hands or workers; owners of small business establishments who hire no workers; doctors, lawyers, and other professional men who work for fees and hire no workers; boarding-house keepers, hucksters, peddlers, newsboys, etc., who neither employ wage or salary workers, nor are themselves employed by another person.

575. Unpaid Family Worker.-Enter "NP" in col. 30 for a wife, son, daughter, or other relative of the head of the family who worked without money wages or salary on the family's farm, or in a shop or store or other family enterprise on work that contributed to the family income (not including housework or incidental chores). Unpaid family workers will be found mainly in farm households, in households with a member engaged in a small business enterprise, and in households in which one or more members work at home on their own account or for wages. Examples of unpaid family workers are: A son who worked without wages on his father's farm; a wife who worked without wages in her husband's store or office; and a daughter who assisted her mother without wages on sewing done in the home for a clothing factory. Do not enter "NP" for persons other than relatives, such as hired hands who work for board and lodging or for pay in kind. For such persons the proper entry is "PW."

576. Column 31. Number of Weeks Worked in 1939 (Equivalent Full-Time Weeks). There must be an entry in col. 31 for every person 14 years old and over, except inmates of the specified institutions (see par. 504), even though during the week of March 24-30, the person was neither at work, with a job, nor seeking work. Col. 31 is to be left blank only for the inmates of the specified institutions ("Inst." in col. 21) and for persons under 14 years of age.

577. Enter in col. 31, in terms of full-time work weeks, the amount of time each person worked for pay or profit (including unpaid family work as defined in par. 499) during 1939. Such public emergency work is to be counted as time unemployed in col. 27, "Duration of unemployment." This apparent inconsistency arises from the fact that a major purpose of this question "Number of weeks worked in 1939" is to afford a comparison with the amount of money wages and salary received which is to be entered in col. 32. Because money wages or salary received from public emergency work are included in the answer to col. 32, the number of weeks spent on such work is included in col. 31.

578. A full-time work week is the number of hours locally regarded as a full-time week for the given occupation and industry. If it is not known how many hours should be regarded as a full-time weeks worked by assuming that there are 40 hours in a full-time week.

579. Vacations with pay and other absences during which the person was paid by an employer are to be counted as weeks worked. However, summer vacations of school teachers who did no other work during the summer are not to be counted as time worked. Vacations of employers, own account workers, and unpaid family workers are to be counted as time worked. However, for employers and own account workers who operate their business only during certain seasons of the year, as in the case of certain contractors, hucksters, peddlers, etc., enter for the number of weeks worked in such a business only t he number of weeks in which they actually operated their enterprise during the year.

580. In the case of workers who are ordinarily employed only on a part-time, or a short-job basis, such as certain newsboys and delivery boys, and stevedores, estimate the number of equivalent full-time weeks worked by assuming that there are 40 hours in a full-time week. For example, for a newsboy who was employed throughout the year for an average of 10 hours a week, enter the number "13" for the number of full-time weeks worked (10 hours is one-fourth of 40 hours per week, and therefore the number of full-time weeks for the year is one-fourth of 52 weeks, or 13). In making estimates of this type, a good approximation of the equivalent full-time weeks worked will be satisfactory.

581. For a person who worked part time during all or part of the year estimate the number of full-time weeks worked by adding: The number of weeks, if any, during which he worked full time or was absent with pay; and full-time week equivalent of the number of weeks during which he worked part time. For example: A spinner states that he worked full time for 20 weeks, was on paid vacation for 2 weeks and worked part time for 30 weeks. He states that he regards the part-time weeks as equivalent to about one-half of full time, or 15 full-time weeks. The number of equivalent full-time weeks worked is 20, plus 2, plus 15, or 37 weeks.

582. Make the entry in whole numbers of weeks counting a fraction of one-half or more as a whole week. Thus, a total of 26 weeks and 4 days of work during the year should be entered as 27 weeks.

583. Enter "0" in col. 31 for every person 14 years old or over who did not work for pay or profit, or at unpaid family work for the equivalent of one full-time week or more during 1939, except for inmates of the institutions specified in paragraph 504 (for whom the entry "Inst." appears in col. 21).

584. Column 32. Amount of Money Wages or Salary Received.-This question must be answered for all persons 14 years and over except inmates of the institutions specified in paragraph 504. Enter an amount or a zero (0) in col. 32 for each person for whom the entry in col. 31 is one week or more. Enter "0" in col. 32 if the entry in col. 31 is "0" and for the cases specified in paragraph 590. Note that for persons who have worked for business profits, etc., rather than for money wages or salary during the year it is possible to have an entry of number of weeks worked in col. 31 and a "0" in col. 32.

585. Enter in col. 32 the total amount of money wages or salary (including commissions, tips, piece-rate payments, bonuses, etc.) paid in cash, or by check or draft, to each person for work done as an employee, including public emergency project work, in 1939. Do not include the earning of businessmen, farmers, or professional persons derived from business profits, sale of corps, or fees. Do not include as money wages or salary, income received from any of the sources listed in paragraphs 587 and 593. Enter the total amount of money wages or salary in terms of whole dollars, regarding sums of 50 to 99 cents as one dollar. For amounts above $5,000, enter "5,000+." This means that you are not to report the actual amount of money wages and salary for persons who have received more than $5,000. Keep this in mind in enumerating any household which seems likely to have an income above this amount. Some persons who might otherwise be reluctant to report wages or salary would be quite willing to do so if they learn that the amount above $5,000 need not be specified.

586. Include in total money wages or salary any amounts which have been deducted for Social Security purposes (e.g., Old Age Insurance, Railroad Retirement, or Unemployment Compensation). Include also all wages or salaries earned by administrative or project employees on any public emergency program (WPA, NYA, CCC, etc.) regardless of whether such wages or salaries were earned in the administrative offices of these programs or on projects.

587. Exclude from total money wages or salary the following:

  1. Sums received as unemployment compensation, direct relief, or charity.
  2. Income received in kind, such as living quarters, meals, supplies, etc., even though received as payment for work performed.
  3. Sums received for travel and expenses incurred in travel.

588. In some instances, you will find that the housewife, or other member of the household who is furnishing you with the information, will not know the amount of money wages or salary on an annual basis. In such cases, obtain an approximation of the money wages or salary for the year by multiplying the number of weeks worked by the average salary per week. For example, a housewife may not know her husband's total money wages or salary for the year but may know that he worked 47 weeks during the year and that he earned $22.50 per week. In such a case, obtain the proper answer to this question, $1,058 in this case, by multiplying 47 (total weeks worked-the entry in col. 31) by $22.50 (average amount earned per week).

589. Even in community property States (Arizona, California, Idaho, Louisiana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, and Washington) money wage or salary is to be entered for the person who earns it and is not to be divided between husband and wife for purposes of the census.

590. Enter "0" in col. 32 for each person who worked one week or more in 1939, but who did not receive any wages or salary as an employee during that year. A zero (0) should be entered for persons who worked only as unpaid family workers; for persons whose total wages or salary were paid in "kind" (that is, in use of living quarters, food, etc.); and for persons who, during the year 1939, received income only from sources other than wages or salary, as specified in paragraph 593.

591. Column 33. Did This Person Receive Income of $50 or More From Sources Other Than Money Wages or Salary? (Yes or No.)-There must be an entry in col. 33 for every person 14 years old and over except the inmates of the institutions specified in paragraph 504. Leave col. 33 blank only for inmates of such institutions and for persons under 14 years of age.

592. The purpose of this question is to find out whether the person received $50 or more income during the year 1939 from sources other than money wages or salary, and not to ascertain the amount of such income. Do not ask the total amount of income received from such sources other than money wages or salary.

593. Enter "Yes" for each person who received $50 or more from any one or any combination of the following sources: Roomers or boarders; business profits; fees (obtained by a professional person); rents; interest; dividends; unemployment compensation; direct cash relief; old age assistance; pensions; annuities; royalties; regular (not occasional) contributions received from relatives other than the members of the immediate family in which this person lives or from other persons; income in "kind," that is, living quarters, food, supplies, etc., received during the year (from sources other than the immediate family) for work or services rendered, for the use of land or other property, or as direct relief or charity; products consumed from the person's farm (sales value); commodities consumed from the person' own business (sales values).

594. Note that income in "kind" is particularly important for certain groups of persons, such as farm laborers, household servants, and employees of restaurants and other eating establishments. In all such cases, find out whether or not the person has received the equivalent of $50 or more in meals and/or lodging.

595. Note that if any family rents a room for as much as $5 a month for 10 months of the year, some person in that family (usually the head or the wife of the head) should have received an income of $50 or more from this source, and the entry should therefore by "Yes" for that person. Note also that on almost any farm on which foodstuffs are grown or poultry is raised for home consumption the value of these products consumed n the course of a year will amount to more than $50 and some member of the family (usually the head) should be credited with this income.

596. Do not include: Lump-sum insurance settlements paid to a beneficiary; lump-sum compensation payments paid after an accident or for other damages; occasional gifts either of money or of goods; inheritances; receipts or profits from the sale of lands, farms, buildings, businesses, or securities (unless the person regularly earns his living by buying and selling such properties); or sums received for travel expenses.

597. Enter "No" in col. 33 for each person who did not have an income of $50 or more from sources other than money wages or salary during 1939.

FARM SCHEDULE NUMBER

598. Column 34. Number of Farm Schedule.-If the head or any member of the household operates a farm or any other place for which you fill out a farm schedule, enter in this column the number of the farm schedule filled out for that place. Make this entry opposite the name of the member of the household operating the farm. Note that while in general Farm schedule numbers will be entered in col. 34 of the Population schedule for households reported in col. 6 as living on a farm. Farm schedules will also be required for specialized agricultural operations (see page 80) irrespective of the answer in col. 6 (that is, even if the answer in col. 6 is "No"); and the Farm schedules for each such specialized agricultural operation must be filled out in a manner identical with other Farm schedules.

SUPPLEMENTARY QUESTIONS

599. At the bottom of each page of the Population schedule two lines are provided for certain supplementary information that is to be obtained for the two persons whose names fall on two designated lines of the Population schedule. These lines are easily identified by the heavy rules which extend into both left and right-hand margins of the schedule, by the notation "Suppl. Quest." (for supplementary questions) in the margins of the schedule, and by the bold-face line numbers. These bold-face line numbers are repeated at the bottom of the Population schedule in the block reserved from the supplementary questions.

600. Ask the supplementary questions only for the member of the household whose name is entered on one of the lines described above, whether this be the head, his wife, a son or daughter, an infant, a lodger, or any other member of the household.

601. Column 35. Name.-Enter in this column in full the name of the person form whom the supplementary information is required.

PLACE OF BIRTH OF FATHER AND MOTHER, AND MOTHER TONGUE

602. Columns 36 and 37. Place of Birth of Father and Mother.-In entering the place of birth of father and mother in cols. 36 and 37, follow the instructions for place of birth of persons in paragraphs 472 to 477 (column 15 Place of Birth). In case a person does not know the State or Territory of birth of his father or mother, but knows that he or she was born in the United States, write "United States" rather than "Unknown."

603. Column 38. Mother Tongue.-Enter here the principal foreign language spoken in the home of the person in his earliest childhood. Enter "English" if no foreign language was spoken.

604. For foreign-born persons the mother tongue will be that language spoken in the home before the person came to the United States. It should be noted that the mother tongue is not necessarily the same as the language of the country in which the persons was born. For example, the mother tongue of a person born in Russia may be German, Polish, Russian, or some other language.

605. For persons born in the United States, enter the principal foreign language, if any, such as French, Spanish, or Polish, spoken in the home in the persons' earliest childhood. Note that a foreign language may have been spoken in the home even if both the persons' parents were born in the United States.

606. For Indians, the mother tongue or native language is usually the tribal language.

VETERANS

607. Column 39. Is This Person a Veteran of the military Forces of the United States, or a Wife, Widow, or Under-18-Year-Old Child of a Veteran?-Enter "Yes" in col. 39 for a man who served in the military forces of the United States (Army, Navy, or Marine Corps) in time of war or peace. This will not include men who are now in the active forces of the United States or who performed all of their military service in the National Guard, the Army, Navy, or Marine Reserves, Reserve Officers' Training Corps, Citizens' Military Training Camp, or other branch not a part of the regular military establishment.

608. Enter "Yes" for a wife, widow, or under-18-year-old child of a man (even though he may now be dead) who served in the military forces of the United States in time of war or peace. Leave col. 39 and also cols. 40 and 41 blank for all other persons.

609. Column 40. If a Child, is the Father Dead? (Yes or No).-There must be an entry of "Yes" or "No" in col. 40 each under-18-year-old child for whom the entry "Yes" appears in col. 29. Leave col. 40 blank for all persons who are not under-18 year-old children of veterans.

610. Enter "Yes" for an under-18-year-old child of a veteran, whose veteran father is dead. Enter "No" for an under-18-year-old child of a living veteran.

611. Column 41. War or Military Service.-There must be an entry in col. 41 for each person for whom "Yes" is entered in col. 39. The following symbols are to be used in col. 41:

World War - W
Spanish-American War, Philippine Insurrection, or Boxer Rebellion - S
Both the Spanish-American War and the World War - SW
Regular Establishment (Army, Navy, or Marine Corps), peacetime service only - R
Any other war or expedition - Ot

612 For a person who is himself a veteran, the entry in col. 41 will refer to the war or military service in which he was engaged. For the wife or widow of a veteran, the entry in col. 41 will refer to the war or military service in which her veteran-husband was engaged. For an under-18-year-old child of a veteran, the entry in col. 41 will refer to the war or military service in which his (or her) veteran-father was engaged. Leave col. 41 blank for each person who is not a veteran, or who is not the wife, widow, or under-18-year-old child of a veteran.

SOCIAL SECURITY

613. Column 42. Does This Person Have a Federal Social Security Number?-There must be an entry in col. 42 of either "Yes" or "No" as indicated below, for each person 14 years old and over.

614. Enter "Yes" in col. 42 for a person who has been given a Federal Social Security number. It does not make any difference whether he knows the Social Security number; nor does it make any difference if he has lost his Social Security card. If a person ever had a Social Security number, enter "Yes" for him in col. 42.

615. Enter "No" in col. 42 for a person who has not been given a Federal Social Security number.

616. Column 43. Were Deductions for Federal Old-Age Insurance or Railroad Retirement Made From This Person's Wages or Salary in 1939? (Yes or No).-There must be an entry of either "Yes" or "No" in col. 43, as indicated below, for each person 14 years old and over.

617. Enter "Yes" if any deductions for Federal Old-Age Insurance or Railroad Retirement were made from the person's money wages or salary during the year 1930; enter "No" if no such deductions were made. Deductions for Federal Old-Age Insurance are made from money wages or salaries (up to $3,000) received in all kinds of private (nongovernment) employment except agriculture, railroads, charitable and other nonprofit organizations, employment as sailors and in domestic service at the home of the employer. Deductions for the Railroad Retirement system are made from compensation earned in the railroad industry for the first $300 earned each month. Remember that deductions are made from salaries for private pension schemes, health benefits, etc., and that these are not to be included.

618. Column 44. If so, Were Deductions Made From (1) All, (2) One-half or More, (3) Part, but Less Than Half of, Wages or Salary?-Enter in col. 44 the symbol showing the proportion of money wages or salary for which deductions were made for Federal Old-Age Insurance or Railroad Retirement during the 12 months ending December 31, 1939, as follows (leave col. 44 blank if the entry in col. 43 is "No":

  1. Enter "1" if deductions were made from all of the person's wages or salary; or, if the person received more than $3,000 in money wages or salary, if deductions were made from all of $3,000. (For Railroad Retirement, up to first $300 earned each month).
  2. Enter "2) if deductions were made from one-half or more, but not all of the person's money wages or salary (up to the limits mentioned in "a" above).
  3. Enter "3" if deductions were made from part, but less than one-half, of the person's money wages or salary (up to the limits mentioned in "a" above).

USUAL OCCUPATION, INDUSTRY, AND CLASS OF WORKER

619. Columns 45 to 47. Usual Occupation, Usual Industry, and Usual Class of Worker.-Inquiries 45 to 47 are to be answered for all persons 14 years old and over.

620. Column 45. Usual Occupation.-For the purposes of this census, the usual occupation is that occupation which the person regards as his usual occupation and at which he is physically able to work. If the persons is unable to determine this himself, consider as his usual occupation that occupation at which he has worked longest during the past ten years and at which he is still physically able to work.

621. Enter in col. 45 the word or words that most accurately describe the particular kind of work done by each person at his usual occupation as defined above in accordance with the instructions for entering occupation (see pars. 537 to 568). This occupation may or may not be the same as that entered in col. 28.

622. For a person who has never worked continuously for 1 month or more, enter "None" in col. 45 and leave cols. 46 and 47 blank.

623. Columns 46 and 47. Usual Industry and Usual Class of Worker.-Enter cols. 46 and 47 the appropriate entries to indicate the usual industry and usual class of worker, in accordance with the instructions for entering these items in cols. 29 and 30. (See pars. 548 to 575.) The usual industry and usual class of worker will be those, relating to his usual occupation, which the person regards as the usual ones. These entries may or may not be the same as the corresponding entries in cols. 29 and 30.

FOR ALL WOMEN WHO ARE OR HAVE BEEN MARRIED

624. There should be an entry in cols. 48, 49, and 50 for every woman who is married, widowed, or divorced ("M," "Wd," or "D" in col. 12). Leave blank for all other persons.

625. Column 48. Has This Woman Been Married More Than Once? (Yes or No).-Enter "No" for each woman who has been married only once, and "Yes" for each woman who has been married more than once.

626. Column 49. Age at First Marriage.-Enter the age at first marriage in col. 49. To facilitate obtaining the answer to this question, if the entry in col. 48 is "No" (a first marriage), ask the question, "What was the age of the woman at marriage?" For those women married more than once, ask the questions, "What was the age of the woman at first marriage?"

627. Column 50. Number of Children Ever Born.-Enter in this column the total number of children ever born alive to this woman during her lifetime. It should include, therefore, children by any former marriage as well as by her present marriage. It should not include children to a former wife of her present husband, even though they are members of her present household. Stillborn children should not be included. Children born alive who are now dead should be included. If the woman has never had any children born to her, write "0" in this column.

SUPPLEMENTARY INSTRUCTIONS TO ENUMERATORS FOR POPULATION

Columns 17-20. Residence April 1, 1935

Two slight changes have been made in the instructions for these columns. First, make an entry in column 20 (Farm residence) for all persons except those for whom the entry in column 17 is "Same house." Second, enter the name of the county of residence in 1935 in column 18 for all persons except those having in column 17 the entry "Same house" or "Same place." This means that the county is to be entered for large cities as well as small.

Where a person was living in 1935 in the same house as at present, be sure to enter "Same house" and not "Same place." "Same place" is to be used only for persons who have moved from one house to another in the same city, town, or village (including an unincorporated village) since 1935. Note that this entry should not be used for persons now living in the open country but only for those living in a city, town, or village. Note that these changes modify the instructions above columns 17 to 20 on the Population schedule and the instructions in paragraphs 483, 484, and 488 (Instructions to Enumerators-Population).

Column 21. Was this person at work for pay or profit in private or nonemergency Government work during week of March 24-30? (Yes or No)

Unpaid apprentices and volunteer workers. - For persons who worked during the week of March 24-30 for charity or in order to gain experience and training, but not for pay or profit, enter "No" in column 21. These, for example, would include apprentices and other learners who received no wages nor any other form of compensation, and persons who work voluntarily for charitable, religious, political, or other organizations and receive no compensation.

Column 22. If not, was he at work on, or assigned to, public EMERGENCY WORK (WPA, NYA, CCC, etc.) during week of March 24-30? (Yes or No)

Notices to workers on Federal emergency work. - Persons employed on projects of WPA, NYA, and CCC will receive forms through the mail, in advance of the enumeration, on which they are expected to provide some or all of the information required on the Population schedule. WPA workers, workers on the NYA Out-of-School Work Program, and students working on the NYA School Work Program will receive a form covering the items most likely to require explanations for such workers, that is, occupation and industry, duration of unemployment, weeks worked, and wage and salary income. Enrollees in CCC camps and persons working on NYA resident projects or working on the College and Graduate Work Program will be asked to fill out and mail to their homes a form similar to the Individual Census Form. In enumerating households including emergency workers you will probably be given these forms, in many cases, for transcription to the Population schedule. You should return them to the housewife or other household member when you have taken off the necessary information, since they will not form a part of the official records to be transmitted to your district supervisors.

Other public emergency workers on Federal programs. - A number of Federal agencies are performing public emergency work on projects which are financed by WPA funds, but which are not classified as projects operated by the WPA. Enter "Yes" in column 22 for workers on projects of this type. The agencies with the largest number of project workers of this type are: Entomology and Plant Quarantine, Forest Service and Soil Conservation Service in the Department of Agriculture; Biological Survey and National Park Service in the Department of the Interior; Yards and Docks in the Navy Department; and Quartermaster Corps in the War Department.

State and local work-relief programs. - Return "Yes" in column 22 for all persons on State and local work-relief programs or who work for relief, regardless of whether such work was performed on projects or elsewhere, as on local highway work, cutting wood, etc. Enumerators in the following States are likely to find a considerable number of persons reporting themselves at work on State or local relief programs:

CaliforniaOhio
ConnecticutPennsylvania
IllinoisRhode Island
Michigan (Detroit)Texas (occasional counties)
MinnesotaWashington
New JerseyVirginia (Richmond)
New York (Buffalo)Wisconsin

In the following States definite information concerning local programs is unavailable, but there is a possibility that some local work relief will be encountered:

ArkansasMontana
IdahoNebraska
IndianaNevada
IowaNorth Dakota
KansasOklahoma
MaineSouth Dakota
MassachusettsVermont
Missouri 

Note that public emergency work does not include work done on Goodwill Industries, Salvation Army, or other private work programs.

Column 24. If not seeking work, did he HAVE A JOB, business, etc.? (Yes or No) Enter "Yes" in this column for a person who had obtained a new job prior to or during the week of March 24-30, if he is actually scheduled to begin work before April 30. Enter "Yes" in column 24 for an own-account worker or employer, such as a professional man, storekeeper, etc., who had made business arrangements prior to or during the week of March 24-30 for opening up an office, store, or other place of business, if his place of business was expected to open before April 30.

Column 25. Indicate whether engaged in home housework (H), in school (S), unable to work (U), or other (Ot)
Temporary illness of housewife or student. - If a person is not a member of the labor force but is a housewife or a student, enter "H" or "S" in this column, even though the person may be temporarily ill during the census week.

Lines for the Supplementary Questions
Enumerators should treat the "Suppl. Quest." lines exactly like any other lines, except that they must obtain answers to the Supplementary Questions at the bottom of the schedule for the persons whose names fall on these lines. Explanatory remarks such as "Here ends block ___ and begins block ___" (paragraph 389) will occasionally fall on one of these "Suppl. Quest." lines. In such a case the corresponding line at the bottom of the schedule is, of course, to be left blank.

Correction in Illustrative Example--Population Schedule
On line 18 of the Illustrative Example, the figure "19" has been entered in column 26, Number of Hours Worked in Week. This number belongs in column 27, Duration of Unemployment, as a glance at the Narrative for the Illustrative Example will show.

Nonresident Schedule
Questions relating to household data on the Nonresident schedule (questions 1, 2 and 3) refer to the household's own home, that is, the usual place of residence of the household.

Special handling of Infant Cards
Enumerators, upon the completion of their enumeration, are to enclose all Infant Cards in a large manila envelope, Form C-115, with which they will be provided; to seal this envelope; and to enclose it in the enumerator's portfolio for shipment to Washington with the other materials. The use of a large envelope will protect Infant Cards from dropping out of the enumerator's portfolio in shipment.

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