1950 Census: Instructions to Enumerators

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[We include only those portions relevant to the population schedule, from which the entire 1950 PUMS was drawn.]

POPULATION ENUMERATION FORMS

The Population Schedule

61. Population on front, Housing on back.-The front of the Population and Housing Schedule (Form P1) contains spaces for information about people; a line is to be filled for each person living in your ED. The front of the schedule may be called separately the Population Schedule. The back contains spaces for information about the places in which they live; a line is to be filled for each dwelling unit or nondwelling-unit quarters. The back may be called separately the Housing Schedule.

62. Arrangement of items.-On the Population Schedule, questions 1 to 6 are to be answered for every household head, 7 to 14 for all persons, and questions 15 to 20c for persons 14 years of age and ever. The questions at the bottom of the schedule are asked only for persons on the sample lines. Some of the sample questions are for all persons, some for persons 14 years of age and over.

Make entries first in items 1 to 6 for the head of the household. You will probably find it convenient to complete entries in items 7 to 14 for all members of the household before starting items 15 to 20c. Items 15 to 20c (the employment items) are related and must all be asked of one person before going to the next person. Before leaving the Population side of the schedule, be sure that you have asked the appropriate sample questions for persons on the sample lines.

63. Wording of questions.-Ask the questions printed in heavy type in each item heading exactly as they appear on the schedule. The only exception is that the name or relationship of the person may be substituted for "this person" or "he." For example, "How old was Mr. Stone on his last birthday?" "Did your son do any work at all last week, not counting work around the house?"

64. Space for notes.-Space for notes has been provided on the schedule. On some schedules, this space is on the upper part, on others on the lower part, and on others in both places. Enter there the footnotes needed to explain unusual entries. Remarks explaining any irregular situation should be entered there.

Other forms

65. Individual Census Report.-This report is used for (1) certain classes of persons, who are not to be enumerated on the regular Population Schedule because they are nonresidents and (2) residents who should be enumerated on the regular Population Schedule, but whom you cannot interview personally. (See pars. 76, 77, and 264 to 272. )

66. Infant Card.-This card is to be filled out for each infant enumerated who was born in January, February, or March, 1950. (See pars. 273 to 275.)

67. Special Agriculture Questionnaire.-This questionnaire is to be filled by urban enumerators when they find one of the following in their ED's: a farm, a place of 3 or more acres, or a place having certain specialized agricultural operations. (See pars. 276 to 282.)

PERSONS TO ENUMERATE IN CENSUS OF POPULATION

Coverage

68. Census date.-The Census must count all persons living in the United States on April 1, 1950, and must count them where they usually live. All persons who were living on that date should be included and babies born after that date should be excluded.

69. Usual place of residence.-Enumerate every person at his "usual place of residence." This means, ordinarily, the place that he would name in reply to the question, "Where do you live?" or the place that he regards as his home. As a rule it will be the place where the person usually sleeps.

70. Persons with no usual place of residence.-Enumerate as part of the population of your -ED persons with no usual place of residence, if they are in your ED at the time of enumeration.

71. Nonresidents.-Nonresidents are persons who are temporarily staying in your ED but who have a usual place of residence elsewhere. Nonresidents are not to be enumerated on the regular Population Schedule. Fill ICR's for certain (but not all) nonresidents who are in your ED. (See par. 76.)

Enumerate on regular Population Schedule

72. Usual residents; persons with no usual place of residence. Enumerate on the regular Population Schedule all men, women, and children (including infants) whose usual place of residence is in your ED or who, if temporarily in your ED, have no usual place of residence elsewhere. Persons who move into your ED after April 1, 1950, for permanent residence should be enumerated by you, unless you find that they have already been enumerated in the ED from which they came. See the last page and inside back cover of this manual for an outline of persons to be enumerated or not to be enumerated on the Population Schedule.

Usual residents of the ED and persons temporarily in the ED with no usual place of residence elsewhere will always be enumerated on the Population Schedule. However, when such a person is not at home when you call and you cannot get reliable information about him, you may leave an ICR for him to fill. The information from the ICR can then be transferred to the Population Schedule. (See pars. 77 and 267 to 272.)

73. Residents absent at time of enumeration.-Some persons whose usual place of residence is in your ED may be temporarily absent from the household at the time of the enumeration. You must enumerate them with the other members of the household, obtaining the information about them from their relatives or from other persons able to give it. However, do not include with the household a son or daughter permanently located elsewhere, or regularly employed or attending college elsewhere and not sleeping at home most of the week. For procedure in enumerating a household when all members are absent, see paragraphs 30 to 34.

74. Persons to enumerate in each household.-Count as members of the household (see par. 104) the following:

  1. Members of the household living at home at the time of the enumeration.
  2. Members of the household temporarily absent at the time of the enumeration, on vacation, visiting, or on business.
  3. Members of the household who are in a hospital but who are expected to return in a short period of time. (See par. 80h.)
  4. New-born babies who have not yet left the hospital.
  5. Members of the household attending a school below the college level and residing in other ED's. (Student nurses and students at the college level will be enumerated in the ED in which they are living while attending school.) (See pars. 78c,d and 80d,e.)
  6. Domestic or other employees who live with the household, sleeping in the same dwelling unit. (See par. 80b.)
  7. Boarders or lodgers who regularly sleep in the dwelling unit. (See par. 80c.)

75. Persons to enumerate in nondwelling-unit quarters.-Nondwelling-unit quarters are living quarters which are not dwelling units (see pars. 287 to 303). In general, the basic rules (pars. 68 to 71 ) for enumerating persons apply to those living in nondwelling-unit quarters as well as to those living in dwelling units. Special cases of persons living in nondwelling-unit quarters are:

  1. Inmates of prisons, asylums, and institutions other than general hospitals.-Your ED may include a prison, reformatory, or jail; a home for orphans, for aged or needy persons, or for blind, deaf, or incurable persons; a soldiers' home; an asylum or hospital for the insane or feeble-minded; or a similar institution in which the inmates usually remain for long periods. Enumerate inmates of such institutions as residents of the institution. In jails you must enumerate all prisoners, however short their stay. Special instructions on institutions are in a supplement to this Manual.
  2. Persons in construction and other camps.-Enumerate on the Population Schedule, as residents of the place where found, persons in railroad, highway, or other construction camps, lumber camps, convict camps, or places that have shifting populations composed mainly of persons with no fixed places of residence.

Enumerate on ICR's

76. Nonresidents.-Ordinarily, you are not to get census information about people who are in your ED when you call, but who usually live some place else. However, there are some cases (see pars. a and b below) where you do have to enumerate such nonresidents of your ED on a special form, the Individual Census Report (ICR), to-make absolutely sure that the Census does not miss them in the ED where they usually live.

Note that nonresidents who are to be enumerated on ICR's are also supposed to be enumerated at their usual places of residence as persons temporarily absent. This may mean that some people will be enumerated twice-once by one enumerator on an ICR and once by another enumerator on a Population Schedule. However, they will be counted only once in the Census statistics. The Census Bureau will use the ICR to supply or complete the information given for that person on the Population Schedule of the ED where he usually lives. Thus, a woman in a general hospital who is enumerated on an ICR at the hospital should also be enumerated on a regular Population Schedule at her usual place of residence. If the Census Bureau finds that she was not enumerated at home, the information for her will be available on the ICR.

  1. Nonresidents staying in places where guests pay for quarters.-Enumerate on an ICR any person who does not ordinarily live in your ED but who has a usual place of residence elsewhere, if that person is staying at a place in your ED where guests normally pay for their quarters. Such places include hotels, lodging houses, and tourist homes. Decide without asking questions whether or not guests in each place normally pay for quarters.

    You will also enumerate on ICR's all nonresident patients in general hospitals, whether or not a charge is made for staying there. See paragraph 80h for patients with no other place of residence.

    Some of the places in which guests normally pay for quarters have large numbers of transients and will be enumerated on "T-Night" by special enumerators. The regular enumerator will be given a list of those places in his ED and will be told not to enumerate them.

  2. Other nonresidents.-Enumerate on an ICR any person with a usual place of residence elsewhere if you find that he may not be enumerated at the place from which he is absent. For example, if an entire household is away from home and is temporarily staying in your ED, there will be nobody at their home to report for them. You will enumerate these people on ICR's.

77. Residents whom you cannot enumerate by direct interview.-The ICR may also be used to enumerate a resident. When you cannot obtain information for a resident by personal interview or from a reliable respondent after at least 2 calls, leave an ICR for him to fill. The information from the ICR can then be transferred to the Population Schedule. (See pars. 267 to 272.) However, if it appears that you can arrange for an interview with the person by use of the "Request for Appointment" card, it is preferable to leave the card and not to use the ICR until it is clear that you cannot get an appointment.

Do not enumerate

78. Persons not to be enumerated.-Do not enumerate the following persons. They will either be enumerated in another ED or will be enumerated under special procedures.

  1. Do not enumerate persons temporarily visiting with the household, if they have a usual place of residence where they will be enumerated (If they do not have a usual place of residence, enumerate them with the household. If they have a usual place of residence but indicate that no one will report for them there, fill ICR's for them. See par. 76b.)
  2. Do not enumerate citizens of foreign countries temporarily visiting or traveling in the United States or living on the premises of an Embassy, Ministry, Legation, Chancellory, or Consulate. However, enumerate as residents of your ED citizens of foreign countries who are students or who are employed here (but not living at the Embassy, etc.) even if they do not expect to remain here permanently. Enumerate the members of their families if they are in this country with them.
  3. Do not enumerate students or children living or boarding with a household in your ED while attending some regular school below the college level in the locality, and having a usual place of residence elsewhere from which they will be reported.
  4. Do not enumerate members of the household who are living elsewhere while attending college, even though they may be at home in your ED on vacation. (Such persons will be enumerated in the ED in which they are living while attending college.)
  5. Do not enumerate persons who take their meals with the household but usually lodge or sleep elsewhere.
  6. Do not enumerate domestic employees or other persons employed by the household but not sleeping in the same dwelling unit. They will be enumerated where they live.
  7. Do not enumerate persons who were formerly members of the household but have since become inmates of correctional or penal institutions (including jails-no matter how short the stay), mental institutions, homes for the aged or needy, homes or hospitals for the chronically ill or handicapped, nurses' homes, convents or monasteries, or other places in which residents may remain for long periods of time. They will be enumerated at the institution.
  8. Do not enumerate officers and crews of ships and persons living in lighthouses. Special provision is made for the enumeration of the officers and crews of United States Navy and Coast Guard vessels and merchant vessels in foreign, coastwise, or intercoastal trade (and on the Great Lakes) and of crews of seagoing private vessels of all kinds, except yachts, under the American flag, even though these men have homes on shore. Omit such men from your enumeration, therefore, when they are reported as absent members by their families. Include, and report in the regular way, men employed on vessels on the inland waters (rivers, canals, etc.) of the United States, other than the Great Lakes.
  9. Do not enumerate persons working abroad for the United States Government if their regular place of duty is abroad. Such persons will be enumerated under special procedures.

    However, you must enumerate as a resident of your ED any person who usually lives there if he is temporarily abroad on a vacation or in connection with his work. A United States Government employee temporarily abroad in connection with his work should be enumerated at his usual place of residence in your ED unless his regular place of duty is abroad.

  10. Do not enumerate soldiers, sailors, marines, and airmen not now living in your ED. Household members who are absent on military service should not be enumerated. If, however, servicemen are stationed in your vicinity and ive and sleep off post in your ED, enumerate them as residents.

Special classes of persons

79. General rules apply.-Some classes of persons move from one ED to another and may have living quarters in more than one place. The ED in which they are considered residents must therefore be determined so that they will not be enumerated on the Population Schedule (and counted in the census) in more than one place.

The general enumeration rules apply to these persons. That is, enumerate them on the Population Schedule if they are residents of your ED or are living there temporarily and have no usual place of residence; enumerate them on ICR's if they are living temporarily in your ED, have a usual place of residence elsewhere, and satisfy the conditions specified in paragraph 76.

80. Interpretation of rules for special classes.

  1. Persons who work away from home.-Some persons sleep most of the week in one locality to be near their place of work and spend weekends or other nonwork periods in another locality. Enumerate such persons as residents of the ED in which they sleep most of the week (four nights or more). For example, a person who works and sleeps in Chicago during the week should be enumerated as a resident of Chicago, even if he stays with his wife and children in Milwaukee each weekend. However, enumerate persons with no fixed place of work, such as traveling salesmen, railroad trainmen, porters, crews on canal barges or river vessels, etc. (see par. 80i, below), as residents of the ED in which their families live, even -though most of the time they sleep away from the family residence. Enumerate on the Population Schedule, at the place where they-are found, persons with no fixed place of work who do not have a usual place of residence.
  2. Domestic employees.-Enumerate with the household any maids, laborers, or other employees who live with the household and sleep in the same dwelling unit. However, enumerate domestic employees who sleep in separate houses or cabins as separate households, even though the House is on land owned by the household in which they are employed. See paragraph 80a, above, for persons who stay part of the week at home and part of the week at their places of work.
  3. Boarders and lodgers.-Enumerate boarders or lodgers as residents where they are rooming or lodging, if that is their usual place of residence. The place where they are boarding or lodging is their usual place of residence if they stay there-at least four nights a week even if they spend weekends at home. (See par. 80a above.)

    If a lodger has no usual place of residence, enumerate him on the Population Schedule at the place where he is lodging.

  4. College students.-A student who is away from home attending a school at college level is considered a resident of the ED in which he lives while attending. college and not of the ED in which his home is located. Enumerate him on the Population Schedule at the place where he lives while attending college, even if he is home on vacation at the time of enumeration.
  5. Students below college level.-A student who is away from home attending a regular school below college level is considered a resident of the ED in which his home is located and not where he lives while attending school.
  6. School teachers.-Enumerate teachers in a school or college as residents of the ED in which they live while engaged in teaching even though they may spend the summer vacation or weekends at their parents' home or elsewhere.
  7. Student nurses.-Enumerate student nurses as residents of the hospital, nurses' home, or other place in which they live while they are receiving their training.
  8. Patients in general hospitals.-Most patients in general hospitals are there temporarily and have some other usual place of residence. Enumerate patients as residents of the hospital only if they have no other place of residence from which they will be reported. This often can be done most easily by leaving ICR's to be filled and then transferring the information to the Population Schedule. A list of persons having no permanent homes can usually be obtained from the institution records. Enumerate patients who have a usual place of residence elsewhere on ICR's. (See par. 76a and supplement to this Manual.)
  9. Persons engaged in transportation services or traveling.-Railroad men, bus drivers, canal or river vessel crewmen, expressmen, railway mail clerks, traveling salesmen, etc., usually have homes to which they return at intervals and which constitute their usual place of residence. Therefore, do not enumerate on a Population Schedule any such persons temporarily in your ED unless they have no usual place of residence. But if any persons engaged in transportation services or traveling have their homes in your ED, enumerate them as residents, even though they are absent at the time.
  10. Soldiers, sailors, marines, and airmen.-If soldiers, sailors, marines, and airmen in the service of the United States usually sleep off post in the area where they are stationed, enumerate them as residents of the place where they usually sleep. If, however, any household in your ED reports that one of its members is a soldier, sailor, marine, or airman stationed elsewhere, do not report him in that household. Members of the armed forces who reside on military installations (including Coast Guard installations which are separate ED's) or on United States Navy or Coast Guard vessels will be enumerated by special procedures.
  11. Persons abroad at the time of enumeration.-Enumerate as a resident of your ED a person who usually lives there if he is temporarily abroad on a vacation or in connection with his work. Do not enumerate persons working abroad for the United States Government if their regular place of duty is abroad.

POPULATION SCHEDULE

Heading Items

Location

81. Items a and b-State and county.-Enter the name of the State and county in which you are enumerating. If the place is an independent city not in a county, enter the name of the city in item b and write "city" after it. For example, "Baltimore city."

82. Item c-Incorporated place or township.-Write the name of the incorporated place or township. In cases where the name of a place is the same as the name of a township, write the appropriate term (such as "city" or "township") after the name.

83. Item d-ED number.-Enter the number of the enumeration district in the space marked "ED number."

Special types of living quarters

84. Item e-Hotel, large rooming house, institution, military installation, etc.-If you are enumerating the population of a hotel, a large rooming house, an institution, a military installation, etc., enter the full name of the place in the space provided.

In the space provided for "Type," enter the kind of place, such as "Hotel," "YMCA," "Army camp." If it is an institution, indicate the kind of person cared for and the kind of agency which operates the institution. For example: "State mental hospital," "Private home for the aged," "County poor farm," "Private nursing home," "State prison."

For each place, enter also the numbers of the lines which you use on that schedule for persons enumerated at the place.

Paragraph 89 shows a list of the kinds of places for which entries should be made in item e.

Date and signatures

85. Item f-Date sheet started.-Enter in the space marked "Date sheet started" the date on which you begin to enumerate on this sheet.

86. Item g-Enumerator's signature.-The enumerator must sign his name in the space provided in the heading when he fills the heading of the schedule

87. Item h-Checked by.-The enumerator does not make an entry in the space following the words "Checked by." The Crew Leader will sign his name here on completed schedules that he has reviewed.

Sheet number

88. Sheet Number-Number the sheets of the Population and Housing Schedule serially throughout an ED beginning with "1." Number the sheets for persons enumerated out of order beginning with "71."

List of special types of living quarters

89. Special types of living quarters to be described in item e.-Following is a list of the types of places for which entries must be made under "Hotel, large rooming house, institution, military installation, etc.," in the heading of the schedule:

a. Institutions:

  1. Correctional and penal institutions:
    Federal prisons.-
    Include: Penitentiaries, reformatories, correctional institutions, prison farms and camps, and detention headquarters operated by the Federal Government.
    State prisons.-
    Include: Prisons, penitentiaries, reformatories, prison farms and camps operated by State governments.
    Jails.-
    Include: Jails, workhouses, penitentiaries, prison farms and camps, and police station detention cells or lockups operated by county and city governments.
    Public schools for juvenile delinquents.-
    Include: Training, parental, or industrial schools operated by Federal, State, county, or city governments.
    Private schools for juvenile delinquents.-
    Include: Private schools for delinquents such as, "House of the Good Shepherd," "Boys Town," etc.
    Detention homes.-
    Include: State, local, and private detention and receiving homes.
  2. Mental institutions:
    Federal mental hospitals.-
    Include: Hospitals for mental diseases (including Veterans' Administration neuropsychiatric hospitals) and hospitals for the treatment of alcoholics and drug addicts operated by the Federal Government.
    State and local mental hospitals.-
    Include: Hospitals for mental diseases, and hospitals for the treatment of alcoholics and drug addicts operated by State, county, and city governments.
    Private mental hospitals.-
    Include: Private hospitals and sanatoriums for mental diseases and private hospitals for the treatment of alcoholics and drug addicts.
    Public homes and schools for mentally handicapped.-
    Include: Homes and training schools for mental defectives, and homes, training schools, colonies, and villages for epileptics, operated by Federal, State, county, and city governments.
    Private homes and schools for mentally handicapped.-
    Include: Private homes and training schools for mental defectives. Also include homes, training schools, colonies, and villages for epileptics.
  3. Homes for the aged and needy:
    Federal and State homes f or the aged and needy.
    Local homes for the aged and needy.-
    Include: Homes for the aged and needy, almshouses, poor farms, soldiers' and sailors' homes, etc., operated by county and city governments. Include homes providing care for both adults and children.
    Nonprofit private homes for the aged and needy.-
    Include: fraternal or religious homes for the aged and needy and those operated by nonprofit associations. Include homes providing care for both adults and children.
    Commercial homes f or the aged.-
    Include: Commercial boarding homes for the aged and needy. Include homes providing care for both adults and children.
    Public homes for neglected and dependent children.-
    Include: Orphan homes or asylums and children's homes operated by State, county, and city governments. Exclude foster-family homes.
    Private homes for neglected and dependent children.-
    Include: Private orphan homes or asylums and children's homes. Exclude foster-family homes.
    Maternity homes for unmarried mothers.-
    Include: Private maternity homes for unmarried mothers, such as "Florence Crittenton Homes," "Phyllis Wheatley Homes," and Salvation Army Homes. Also include any maternity homes of this type operated by State, county, or city governments.
  4. Homes and hospitals for the chronically ill or handicapped:
    Federal tuberculosis hospitals.-
    Include: Tuberculosis hospitals, including Veterans' Administration tuberculosis hospitals, operated by the Federal Government.
    State and local tuberculosis hospitals.-
    Include: Tuberculosis hospitals and sanatoriums operated by State, county, and city governments.
    Private tuberculosis hospitals.-
    Include: Private tuberculosis hospitals and sanatoriums.
    Chronic hospitals.-
    Include: Chronic hospitals, cancer hospitals, and homes for incurables.
    Public homes and schools for physically handicapped.-
    Include: Homes and schools for the blind, for the deaf, and for the crippled, operated by Federal, State, county, and city governments.
    Private homes and schools for physically handicapped.-
    Include: Private homes and schools for the blind, for the deaf, and for the crippled.
    Nursing, convalescent, and rest homes.-
    Include: All nursing, convalescent, and rest homes. The homes are usually small (frequently fewer than 10 or 15 beds) and provide bed, board, and nursing care. In some cases such places may actually provide convalescent care, in others care is provided for elderly chronic patients.

b. Other special types of living quarters:

  1. Nurses' homes.
  2. Convents and monasteries.
  3. Dormitories for workers.
  4. Crew quarters on inland vessels.
  5. Military installations.
  6. College dormitories fraternity houses, and lodging houses devoted to students.
  7. General hospitals.
  8. Hotels, missions, "flophouses," etc.
  9. Large lodging houses, residential clubs.
  10. MCA YWCA, YMHA, YWHA.
  11. Summer camps, tent camps, trailer camps, tourist courts, and motels.
  12. School dormitories in schools below college level.

Household Identification

Item 1. Street, avenue, or road

90. Item 1. Entering the street, avenue, or road.-In a city, write lengthwise in item 1 the name of the street, avenue, court, place, alley, or road on which the structure faces. Where there is no street name, describe fully in the "Notes" section the location of the house in such a way that someone else will be able to find it.

In a town with street names but not numbers, write the name of the street and give location by direction from intersection with another street. For example: Douglas Avenue, west of Sherman.

In a rural area, write the name of the road and give location by direction from intersection with another road. For example: Jones Road, north of U.S. Route 213.

When you go from one street or road to another, draw a horizontal line across the first column. This will show which houses are located on each street or road.

Item 2. House (and apartment) number

91. Item 2. Entering the house (and apartment) number.-Enter the house number, if there is one, on the first line used for the dwelling unit, i. e.. the same line on which you list the head of the household. If you are in a house with more than one dwelling unit, enter (in addition to the house number) the apartment number or location. For example: "Apt. 1" or "3rd floor rear." If a house at the rear of another has no number of its own, give it the same number as the house in front and add the words "rear of," thus, "rear of 211." If there is no house number describe its location in such a way that someone else will be able to find the house. For example: "1st house on right after fire house."

92. One entry for each household.- Entries are to be made in items 2 to 6 only on the first line used for the dwelling unit (usually the line for the head of the household).

Item 3. Serial number

93. Item 3. Assignment of serial number.-In this item, number the dwelling units in your ED in the order in which you first visit them. Enter the number on the line for the head of the household and leave this column blank for the other persons in the household. The first dwelling unit visited should be numbered "1," the second dwelling unit "2," etc. The serial number should be assigned to each dwelling unit at the time of the first visit, even if it is necessary to call back to obtain further information. (For households for which no information can be-obtained on the first visit, see pars. 30 to 34.) Serial numbers are to be assigned in order to all living quarters visited, including not only occupied dwelling units, but also vacant units, units "occupied by nonresidents," and nondwelling-unit quarters.

94. Serial numbers in lodging houses, etc.-In some lodging houses, hotels, and similar places? some groups of persons may be living as separate households; others may not. Each group occupying separate living quarters that meet the definition of a dwelling unit should be assigned a separate serial number. All remaining persons, such as roomers who rent sleeping quarters only, should be listed with the members of the landlord's family (see par. 294). However, if some of the-roomers are not enumerated until after entries have been made for other households in the structure, list the roomers on the next unused lines; repeat on the line for the first of these roomers the serial number already assigned to the landlord's living quarters.

Example: On lines 3 to 26 you enumerate the residents of a lodging house which has a mixture of dwelling units and sleeping rooms. Enter "Line nos. 3 to 26, inclusive" in item e in the heading.

Line Number Item 3-Serial Number Item 7-Persons enumerated
3 42 Landlady.
4-16 -- Roomers A-M.
17-18 43 Household X.
19 44 Household Y.
20-22 45 Household Z.
23-26 42 Cont. Roomers N-Z.

Item 4. Is house on a farm?

95. Item 4. Rural and urban areas.- In rural areas, in general, let the respondent decide whether his house is on a farm. In urban areas you may usually obtain the answer to this question by observation. In urban areas there will occasionally be a tract of land called a farm. In such areas, ask only if you are in doubt-as to whether the place might be considered a farm.

96. Two or more houses on a place.- In rural areas more than one house may be on a place requiring an Agriculture Questionnaire. Let the respondent at each dwelling unit decide whether his house is on a farm, except as noted in paragraphs 97 to 99 below. In a few cases you may have different answers from the separate households as to whether a given place is a farm. Do not change the entry in item 4 because of different answers given by respondents at different dwelling units or because of answers to later questions.

97. House rented separately from farm.-Enter "No" in item 4 for a house on a farm which is occupied by persons who pay cash rent for the house and yard only. For example: Mr. B, who works in the city, lives in a house on Mr. A's farm, and pays $40 a month cash rent for the house and yard only. Mr. A says he lives on a farm. Report "No" in item 4 for Mr. B's house and "Yes" in item 4 for Mr. A's house.

98. Institutions.-Enter "No" for an institution even if agricultural operations are conducted on the place.

99. Summer camp or tourist cabin.-Enter "No" for summer camps, motels, and tourist cabins.

Item 5. On place of 3 or more acres?

100. Item 5. When to ask.-If you enter "No" in item 4, ask item 5. If "Yes" in item 4, skip item 5. In urban areas, sometimes there will be places of 3 or more acres which are not thought of as farms. Agriculture Questionnaires are required for such places as well as for farms. When enumerating in urban areas, you may obtain the answer to item 4 by observation; ask item 5 only in case you are not sure whether the place is less than 3 acres.

101. House rented separately from tract of 3 or more acres.-If you find a house on a tract of 3 or more acres, which is occupied by persons who pay cash rent for the house and yard only, consider only the land rented with the house (not the entire tract) in determining whether the place has 3 or more acres.

Item 6. Agriculture Questionnaire Number

102. Item 6. How to determine number.- If there is an entry of "Yes" in either item 4 or 5, or the household engages in certain specialized agricultural operations, an Agriculture Questionnaire must be obtained in the name of the person in charge. The number is determined from the Agriculture Questionnaires and transcribed to item 6 as explained below.

a. Rural enumerators.-Start with " 1 " and number each Agriculture Questionnaire as you visit the place. Enter the Agriculture Questionnaire number in item 6 of the Population Schedule after you have finished getting the information on the Population and Housing Schedule and are starting the Agriculture Questionnaire. If some other enumerator is required to fill the Agriculture Questionnaire, enter "Other ED" in item 6 of the Population Schedule. See paragraph 526b in the Agriculture section of Reference Manual.

If there are two or more dwelling units on a place which requires an Agriculture Questionnaire, enter for each one the same Agriculture Questionnaire number in item 6 of the Population Schedule. However, if any of the dwelling units are rented separately from the place (see pars. 97 and 101)-, item 6 should be left blank.

b. Urban enumerators.-Paragraphs 276 to 282 give instructions on filling the Special Agriculture Questionnaire. Enter the Special Agriculture Questionnaire number in item 6 of the Population Schedule after you have finished the Population and Housing Schedule and are starting the Special Agriculture Questionnaire.

Name and Relationship

Item 7. Name

103. Item 7. List all members of household.-Enter in this column the name of each person whose usual place of residence is with the household. Be sure to include persons temporarily absent, and all children, even the very youngest. l)o not include persons visiting the family who have a usual place of residence elsewhere. See instructions on persons to be enumerated (pars. 68 to 80).

104. Definition of household.-A household is the entire group of persons who live in one dwelling unit. It may be several persons living together or one person living alone. It includes the household head and all his relatives living in the dwelling unit and also any lodgers, maids, and other persons not related to the head, who live there.

When you start to enumerate at each address, you will have to find out how many dwelling units there are so you will know how many different households you must list. Usually you will have no trouble in determining what is a separate dwelling unit; for example, a house or regular apartment occupied by a~ single family or by a person living alone is easily recognized as a separate dwelling unit. However, in a house converted to light housekeeping rooms or sleeping rooms, it may not be easy to determine what rooms, or groups of rooms, constitute one dwelling unit. Generally, a sleeping room is not a separate dwelling unit, but a room or group of rooms is a separate dwelling unit if it has separate cooking equipment. (See also "Dwelling unit," pars. 287 to 302.)

105. Order of entering names.-Some households will contain, in addition to the head of the household and his wife and children, other relatives, lodgers, employees, etc. Enter the names of each member of the household in the order specified on the schedule. If the husband is present in the household he will usually be listed ahead of his wife; but list as head the person regarded as the head by other members of the household. Unmarried children of the head should be listed ahead of the married (or widowed, divorced, or separated) children, the oldest unmarried child being listed first. When you are listing a married couple other than the head and his wife, always enter the name of the husband first.

106. How names are to be written.- Enter the last name, then the given name in full, and the initial of the middle name, if any. In those cases where a person usually writes his first initial and his middle name thus, ';P. Robert Brown," you should write "Brown, P. Robert," rather than "Brown, Peter R." Make certain that you have spelled each name correctly. Where the last name of the person being enumerated is the same as that of a member of the same household entered on the preceding line, do not repeat the name, but indicate it is the same as the one above by a long dash ---. For a new-born infant who does not have a given name, write "---, Infant."

107. What to enter for units which are vacant or occupied by nonresidents.- For units which are vacant or occupied entirely by nonresidents, fill items l to 6; in place of entries for the remaining items on the Population Schedule, write across those items "Vacant" or "Occupied by nonresidents."

108. What to enter when no one is at home.-For units which will be enumerated later because no one is at home, fill items l to 3. Write under item 7 "No one at home. See sheet ---, lines ---." (See pars. 30 to 34.)

Item 8. Relationship to head

109. Item 8. Relationship to household head.-For the head of the household, that is, the person who is regarded as head by the members of the household, enter the word "Head." For other members of the household write "Wife," "Son-in-law," "Grandson," "Cousin," etc., according to the particular relationship that the person bears to the head of the household.

110. Nonrelative of head.-For persons not related to the household head) enter a term such as "Lodger," "Partner," "Chauffeur," "Maid," "Hired man," "Employee," "Ward," "Foster child," etc. If you cannot find a specific term, enter "Lodger."

For lodgers, and for maids, hired hands, chauffeurs, etc., who may have relatives living with them in their employer's home, enter the relationship of the relatives to the lodger, maid, or hired hand. As examples, a lodger and his wife should be listed as "Lodger" and "Lodger's wife"; and a maid and her daughter, living in the home of the maid's employer, should be listed as "Maid" and "Maid's daughter."

111. Partners.-If two or more persons who are not related by blood,, marriage, or adoption share one dwelling unit as partners, write "Head" for one and "Partner" for the other(s).

112. Occupants of an institution.-Occupants of an institution such as a prison, tuberculosis sanatorium, orphanage, home for the aged, etc., living in the institutional building or buildings, should be designated as "Patient," "Orphan," "Prisoner," etc. If you cannot find a more specific term, enter "Inmate." In the case of the chief officer living in the institutional building, his title should be used, as "Superintendent" or "Warden."

113. Hotels.-In hotels, persons living in quarters which are to be enumerated as separate dwelling units (as explained in par. 306) should be designated "Head," "Wife," etc. For persons living in quarters which are to be combined and enumerated as nondwelling-unit quarters, enter the term that describes the position of the person in the hotel, as "Manager," "Cashier," "Housekeeper," "Employee," "Guest," etc.

Personal Characteristics

Item 9. Race

114. Item 9. Determining and entering race.-Write "W" for white; "Neg" for Negro; "Ind" for American Indian; "Chi" for Chinese; "Jap" for Japanese; "Fil" for Filipino. For a person of any other race, write the race in full. Assume that the race of related persons living in the household is the same as the race of your respondent, unless you learn otherwise. For unrelated persons (employees, hired hands, lodgers, etc.) you must ask the race, because knowledge of the housewife's race (for example) tells nothing f the maid's race.

115. Mexicans.-Report "white" (W) for Mexicans unless they are definitely of Indian or other nonwhite race.

116. Negroes.-Report "Negro" (Neg) for Negroes and for persons of mixed white and Negro parentage. A person of mixed Indian and Negro blood should be returned as a Negro, unless the Indian blood very definitely predominates and he is accepted in the community as an Indian. (Note, however, the exceptions described in par. l18 below.)

117. American Indians.-Report "American Indian" (Ind) for persons of mixed white and Indian blood if enrolled on an Indian Agency or Reservation roll; if not so enrolled, they should still be reported as Indian if the proportion of Indian blood is one-fourth or more, or if they are regarded as Indians in the community where they live. (See par. 116 for persons of mixed Indian and Negro blood and also exceptions noted in par. 118.) In those counties where there are many Indians living outside of reservations, special care should be taken to obtain accurate answers to item 9.

118. Special communities.-Report persons of mixed white, Negro, and Indian ancestry living in certain communities in the Eastern United States in terms of the name by which they are locally known.

The communities in question are of long standing and are locally recognized by special names, such as '"Croatian," "Jackson White," "We-sort," etc. Persons of mixed Indian and Negro ancestry and mulattoes not living in such communities should be returned as "Negro" (see par. 116). When in doubt, describe the situation in a footnote.

119. Mixed parentage.-Report race of nonwhite parent for persons of mixed white and nonwhite races. Mixtures of nonwhite races should be reported according to the race of the father. (Note, however, exceptions detailed in pars. 116 and 118 above.)

120. India.-Persons originating in India should be reported as "Asiatic Indians."

Item 10. Sex

121. Item 10. Entries for sex.-Enter "M" for male, and "F" for female. Use the information on name and relationship to determine the correct entry for sex of persons not present at the interview. In some cases, however, the name may be common to both sexes. For example: Leslie, Jean, Francis (Frances). If you have any doubts, ask a question.

Item 11. Age last birthday

122. Item l l. Age at last birthday.-Enter the age of the person at his last birthday as of the date of your call. For persons 1 year old and over, this question calls for the age in completed years at last birthday.

123. Ages of infants.-The entry for children less than a year old should indicate the month of birth. For example, the entry for a child born in March, 1950, should be "March." It is permissible to abbreviate where necessary in entering the name of the month, for example "Dec." for December.

124. Estimate of age.-If a respondent gives an off-hand estimate, such as "around 60," try to find out whether the person is nearer 58 or 59 or possibly 61 or 62. Try to get it as accurate as possible. If age is not known, enter an estimate as the last resort, and footnote it as an estimate. An entry of "21 plus" is not acceptable.

Item 12. Is this person married, widowed, etc.?

125. Item 12. Codes for marital status.-Enter "Mar" for a married person, "Wd" for a widow or widower, "D" for a divorced person, "Sep" for a person who is separated from his spouse and has not obtained a divorce, and "Nev" for a person who has never married. Report children under 14 years of age as never married. In many cases, marital status can be determined from relationship.

126. Annulment, separation, common-law marriage.-Enter "Nev" for a person whose only marriage has been annulled. Accept a respondent's statement that a person is separated. If, however, the respondent raises a question as to the meaning of "separated," explain that the term refers only to those married persons who have a legal separation or who have parted because of marital discord. Those who have parted temporarily because of employment of a spouse elsewhere or because the husband is in the armed forces or for similar reasons other than marital discord, should be reported as married. Consider persons who state they have a common-law marriage as married.

Item 13. Place of birth

127. Item 13. Persons born in United States.-For persons born in Continental United States, report the full name of the State. (If State is unknown) enter "U. S.") For persons born in Washington, D. C., enter "District of Columbia." For a person who was born in a hospital or elsewhere outside of the State in which his family was living at the time he was born, enter the State in which his family was living-not the State in which the hospital was located. The name of the State in which you are enumerating may be abbreviated; other State names should be spelled out.

128. Persons born outside Continental United States.-For persons born outside Continental United States, report the full name of the Territory or possession or the full name of the foreign country according to present international boundaries. Report the name of the province, city, town, or village for persons whose country of birth is not definitely known.

Report "At sea" for persons born at sea.

  1. Distinguish between:
    1. "Northern Ireland" and "Ireland" (previously known as Irish Free State or Eire). "Northern Ireland" contains the following counties: Londonderry, Antrim, Down, Armagh, Tyrone, Fermanagh. All other counties are in "Ireland."
    2. "Canada-French" and "Canada-Other." A Canadian-born person who spoke French before his entry into the United States should be reported "Canada-French." All other persons born in Canada should be classified as "Canada-Other."
  2. Specify:
    1. "England," "Scotland," "Wales," etc., for persons born in Great Britain. Do not report as Great Britain.
    2. Country or island for persons born in West Indies.

Item 14. Naturalized?

129. Item 14. Ask for foreign-born persons.-Ask this question immediately after you have an answer of a foreign country for item 13. An entry is to be made in this column for all foreign-born persons and for persons born at sea, male or female, of whatever age, as follows:

  1. "Yes" if the person has become an American citizen, either by taking out final naturalization papers or through the naturalization of either parent.
  2. "No" if the person has neither become naturalized through naturalization of a parent nor taken out final papers. Enter "No" if the person has taken out first papers only.
  3. "AP" if the person was born of American parents abroad or at sea.

130. Husband naturalized.-Prior to September 22, 1922, a foreign-born woman became a naturalized American citizen when her husband was naturalized, or if she married an American citizen. Since that date she has had to take out papers in her own name to become naturalized.

131. Parent naturalized.-A foreign-born child -under 18 years old should be reported "No," unless-the parents are citizens or are naturalized.

132. Born at sea.-A foreign-born person or a person born at sea was an American citizen at birth (a) if his father was an American citizen who had resided in the United States before the time of the child's birth, or (b) if the person was born after May 24, 1934, and if either parent was an American citizen who had resided in the United States before the time of the child's birth.

Employment and Unemployment

133. Items 15 to 20c. Ask only for persons 14 and over.-Entries are limited to persons 14 years of age and over in items 15 to 20c For persons under 14 years of age, leave these items blank

134. Enter "Inmate" for persons in certain institutions.-Write "Inmate" in item 15 and make no entries in items 16 to 20c for persons in correctional or mental institutions, homes for the aged or infirm, or hospitals for the chronically ill or handicapped. See paragraph 89a for a list of such institutions.

No entry other than the word "Inmate" is required in items 15 to 20c, but these are the only items in which the regular entries are not made for persons in institutions. In all other items (including sample items if the inmate falls on a sample line) make the entries for inmates in the same way as for other persons.

135. Ask items consecutively for each person.-Ask items 15 to 20c in order across the schedule before going to the next person.

Item 15. What was this person doing most of last week?

136. Item 15. Codes for activity last week.-Enter "Wk" for working, "H" for keeping house, "U" for unable to work, "Ot" for other, or "Inmate" (see par. 134), in item 15. An entry must be made for each person 14 years of age and over.

137. Time period covered by item 15.-"Last week" the calendar week (Sunday through Saturday) before the week during which you are enumerating.

138. Definition of working (Wk).-For the census, working includes all kinds of work that people do to earn a living for themselves and their families or to earn spending money.

  1. Count as work:
    1. Paid work as an employee for someone else. This includes work for pay "in kind" (meals, living quarters, or supplies received in place of cash wages), work at piece rates, on commission, or for tips. Persons in the armed forces are working for pay.
    2. Working for yourself in your business or professional practice or in farming.
    3. Unpaid work, including chores, that contribute to the operation of a farm or business or profession run by a member of the same household who is a relative either by blood, marriage, or adoption (for example, keeping books in father's store without pay). Unpaid work on the family farm includes feeding chickens, cattle, or other livestock, milking cows, and any other chores done in connection with the cultivation, harvesting, threshing, preparation for market, or delivery to market of any agricultural product.
  2. Do not count as work:
    1. Work around the house, such as home housework, odd jobs of upkeep or repair on your house (cutting grass, painting porch, etc.).
    2. Volunteer and unpaid work for church, Red Cross, etc.
    3. Unpaid work for member of the family who is a person working for wages or salary, such as typing for husband who is a lawyer for a corporation.
    4. Unpaid work for a person who is not related, such as work in the retail store of a lodger.

      Unpaid work for a relative not a household member, for example, unpaid work in the beauty shop of a sister who lives in another household.

139. Definition of keeping house (H).-Count as keeping house: own housework, taking care of own children, cooking for own family, management of one's home, responsibility for care of one's home. A housewife on a short vacation or temporarily ill all last week is still considered as "keeping house" as long as she is responsible for the care of her home. More than one person in a household may be engaged in keeping house. Do not count as keeping house paid housework in someone else's home, which is considered work. (See par. 138a.)

140. Definition of unable to work (U).-Count as unable to work a person who, because of his own long-term physical or mental illness or disability, is unable to do any kind of "work" as defined under "working." Long-term physical or mental illness includes such conditions as blindness loss of limbs, serious heart trouble, tuberculosis, mental disorders.

Note that this code is not confined to older persons. It is applicable to both young and old persons of both sexes. It should not be used, however, for an elderly person who is able to work but believes he is too old to find work. Do not count an elderly person as unable to work unless he is suffering from a definite illness or disability of long duration.

Do not count as unable to work a person who is only temporarily ill or disabled and who expects to be able to work within 6 months from the time of enumeration.

141. Examples of "something else" (Ot).-Count as "something else" activities other than the above, such as: attending school, being temporarily ill, or taking a vacation from a job (except housewives-see par. 139), retired, etc.

142. More than one activity. If a person had more than one activity last week, report the one he considers most important. If he cannot decide, report the one at which he spent the most time last week.

Item 16. Did this person do any work at all last week?

143. Item 16. Make entry if "H" or "Ot" in item 15.-You must enter ;'Yes" or "No" for every person for whom you entered "H" or "Ot" in item 15. Enter ;'Yes" if he spent at least one hour last week in any of the activities counted as work. (See par. 138.)

144. Ask about unpaid work.-Remember that work includes not only work for pay (including pay in kind) and work in own business, profession or farm, but also work without pay in the family business or on the farm. Be sure to ask about unpaid family work for persons in farm households and for persons who are related to another household member who operates a business or has a profession.

145. Time period covered by item 16.-"Last week"-Definition same as for item 15. (See par. 137.)

Item 17. Was this person looking for work?

146. Item 17. Make entry if "No" in item 16.-You must enter ;'Yes" or "No" for every person for whom you entered "No" in item 16. These persons spent most of last week either keeping house or doing "something else," and they did not work at all last week.

147. Time period covered by item 17.-"Last week"-Definition same as for item 15. (See par. 137.)

148. Definition of "looking for work."-Looking for work includes any effort to get a job or to establish a business or profession. You should also report a person as looking for work if last week he was waiting to hear the results of attempts made within the last 60 days to find a job.

Examples of "looking for work" are:

  1. Registration at a public or private employment office.
  2. Being on call at a personnel office, at a union hiring hall, or from a nurses' register or other similar professional register.
  3. Meeting with or telephoning prospective employers.
  4. Placing or answering advertisements.
  5. Writing letters of application.
  6. Working without pay in order to get experience or training.

149. Special cases for item 17.-Enter "Yes" for a person who would have been looking for work except for one of the following factors:

  1. He was on indefinite lay-off. That is, he was laid off from his job and was not instructed to return to work within 30 days of the date of lay-off.
  2. He was temporarily ill or temporarily disabled.
  3. He believed that no work was available in the community or in his line of work.

Item 18. Even though he didn't work, does he hove a job?

150. Item 18. Make entry if "No" in item l7.-You must enter "Yes" or "No" for every person for whom you entered "No" in item 17. These persons reported that they were keeping house or doing "something else" most of last week and did not work at all or look for work last week. Enter "Yes" if the person had a job or business (as defined in pars. 152 and 153) from which he was absent all week.

151. Time period covered by item 18.-"Last week"-Definition same as for item 15. (See par. 137.)

152. Definition of job.-A person has a job when he has an arrangement for regular work for pay, full- or part-time, every week or every month.

A standing arrangement with a single employer to work on call, which may involve an irregular schedule during the month (for example, a trainman's arrangement to work each time his number is reached) is also considered a job.

Seasonal employment is considered a job only during the season and not during the off season.

153. Definition of a business.-A person has a business (including profession or farm operations) if he does one of the following:

  1. Maintains an office, store, or other place of business.
  2. Uses machinery or equipment in which he invested money.
  3. Advertises his business or profession in papers, magazines, classified section of telephone book, or other publications or by displaying a sign, distributing cards, etc.

Casual workers such as handyman and odd-job carpenter or plumber are not considered to have a business.

154. Reasons for absence.-Enter "Yes" in item 18 if the person had a job (full- or part-time) or business (including profession or farm), as defined in paragraphs 152 and 153, from which he was absent all of last week for such reasons as:

  1. Illness his own or in family.
  2. Vacation.
  3. Bad weather.
  4. Labor dispute.
  5. Shut down for repairs.
  6. Waiting to start new job or business within 30 days of the day of enumeration.
  7. On temporary lay-off with definite instructions to return to work within 30 days of date of lay-off.

Item 19. Hours worked last week

155. Item l9. Make entry for persons who worked last week.-Enter a number for each person for whom you entered "Wk" in item 15 or "Yes" in item 16.

156. Time period covered by item 19.-"Last week"-Definition same as for item 15. (See par. 137.)

157. Count actual number of hours worked.-Count the actual number of hours worked last week; this may not be the usual number. Include hours spent on duty on the job but do not include lunch periods or other time off. Round to whole numbers, counting 30 or more minutes as a whole hour.

Count hours spent in all types of work (see par. 138) including:

  1. Work without pay on family farm or business, such as the hours spent by a farm housewife in feeding chickens.
  2. Time spent outside of regular hours in connection with a job, such as the time spent by a teacher preparing lessons.
  3. Time spent at own business or profession, even though the person did not transact any business or render service to any client.
  4. Time spent at all jobs if a person had two or more jobs at which he worked last week. Add together the time spent at each and enter the total.

158. Help respondent estimate.-If the respondent does not know how many hours were worked during the week, find out how many hours were worked each day in the week and add them. Be sure to count only time spent at work.

Occupation, Industry, and Class of Worker

Special points on items 20a, 20b, and 20c

159. Item 20 consists of three parts: 20a. Occupation; 20b. Industry; and 20c. Class of worker.-There must be an entry in all three parts of this item for every person with an entry of "Wk" in item 15, or "Yes" in items 16, l7, or 18.

All three parts of the item (20a, 20b, and 20c) must refer to the same particular job or business.

160. The particular job to describe.-For each person for whom the item is asked, we want to know about one job or business, as follows:

  1. If the person worked last week ("Wk" in item 15 or "Yes" in item 16), describe the job or business at which he worked; if he worked at- two or more jobs, describe the job at which he worked the greatest number of hours last week;
  2. If the person was looking for work ("Yes" in item 17), describe the last job or business he had; if he has never had a job or business (for example, a boy looking for his first job), enter "Never worked" in item 20a and dashes in items 20b and 20c;
  3. If the person had a job or business from which he was absent last week ("Yes" in item 18) describe that job or business. If the job is one he is waiting to start (see par. 154f) describe his new job rather than his old job.

161. The three answers must be consistent.-Since the three parts of item 20 refer to a single job or business, the three answers must fit together to form a consistent description. For example, "Barber, Retail jewelry store, P" is obviously wrong; correct entries might be "Barber, Barber shop, P" or "Jewelry salesman, Retail jewelry store, P." (See par. l79 for class-of-worker codes.)

162. How to report members of the armed forces.-For persons now in the armed forces, enter "Armed forces" in item 20a and dashes in items 20b and 20c. Make this same entry for persons reported as looking for work whose last job was as a member of the armed forces.

The term "Armed forces" means persons on active duty with the United States Army, Air Force, Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard. It does not include members of the Merchant Marine or civilian employees of the Departments of Defense, Army, Air Force, and Navy. (See pars. 252 and 253.)

163. How to report farm workers.-

  1. The "farmer".- person responsible for the operation of a farm, either as an owner or tenant, should be reported as "Farmer" in occupation; "Sharecropper" is also an acceptable entry in occupation. His industry entry is "Farm." His class of worker is "O," regardless of whether he was an owner, tenant, or cropper.

    Correct entries:
    Farmer _____________Farm________O
    Sharecropper ________Farm________O

  2. The "farm hand".-A person who did general farm work for wages should be reported as "Farm hand" in occupation. His industry entry is "Farm." His class of worker is "P." (See par. g, below, on government farms.)

    Correct entry: Farm hand___Farm___P

  3. The "farm helper".- A relative of a farmer who did general farm work on the farm without pay should be reported as "Farm helper" in occupation. His industry entry is "Farm." His class of worker is "NP."

    Correct entry: Farm helper__Farm___ NP

  4. The "farm manager".- A person hired to manage a farm for someone else should be reported as "Farm manager" in occupation. His industry entry is "Farm." His class of worker is "P." (See par. g, below, on government farms.)

    Correct entry: Farm manager__Farm__P

  5. The "farm foreman".-A person hired to, supervise a group of farm hands should be reported as "Farm foreman" in occupation. His industry entry is "Farm." His class of worker is "P." (See par. g, below, on government farms.)

    Correct entry: Farm foreman__Farm__P

  6. Some farm workers, either paid or unpaid, do not do general farm work, but engage in only one type of work. The title of a particular farm job is a satisfactory entry for occupation. (See par. g below, on government farms.)

    Examples:
    Fruit picker_____Farm______P (or NP)
    Cotton chopper__Farm______P (or NP)

  7. Some farm hands, farm managers, and farm foremen work on government-operated farms. These farms may be part of a State agricultural experiment station, a county old folks' home, etc. Farm workers on the pay roll of such government-operated agencies or institutions should be reported in class of worker as "G."

    Examples:
    Farm hand__ State experimental farm _G
    Fruit picker_County farm____________G

  8. In the case of ranch workers, follow the same rules as you use for farm workers. In occupation, enter "Rancher" instead of "Farmer," "Ranch hand," instead of "Farm hand," etc. In industry, enter "Ranch" instead of "Farm." The class-of-worker codes, of course, remain the same. If you have any difficulty in deciding whether a place is a farm or a ranch, consider it to be a farm.

    Examples:
    Rancher__________Ranch__________O
    Ranch helper______Ranch________NP

Item 20a. Occupation

164. Item 20a. What kind of work was he doing?-Specific answer.-The answer should tell clearly and specifically the kind of work or nature of duties performed by the person. General or vague entries are not satisfactory.

165. How to obtain a satisfactory occupation entry.-The best short description of a person's occupation is usually the title of his job; so, wherever possible, enter the title of the person's occupation. For example, "Auto mechanic" is satisfactory; you do not have to enter a description of his duties.

In some cases, the respondent will not give you enough information in answering the question, "What kind of work was he doing?" You should ask additional questions until you are satisfied that you have obtained the specific occupation of the person. For example, the respondent may say, "Teaching." You should then ask, "What subject did he teach?" For another example, the respondent says, "My daughter is a nurse " You should then ask, "What kind of a nurse is she, a registered nurse, practical nurse, nursemaid, or some other kind?"

Sometimes, the respondent will give you a lengthy explanation of the person's job duties. You should condense such statements into a few words which give the most important points about the kind of work the person is doing. For example, the respondent may say, "My husband runs a machine that takes dough and cuts it up before the dough is put into the oven." Your entry in the schedule should be "Dough cutting machine operator."

Another type of problem you may find is an answer for which you cannot think up a simple title. For example, the respondent may say, "He nails heels on shoes." It is satisfactory for you to enter on the schedule the words "Nails heels on shoes."

166. Unusual occupations.-You may run across occupations which sound strange or funny to you. Accept such reports if the respondent is sure that the title is correct. For example, "sand hog" is the title for certain workers engaged in the construction of under-water tunnels, and "printer's devil" is sometimes used for an apprentice printer.

167. Caution on occupations of young persons.-Professional, technical, and skilled occupations usually require lengthy periods of training or education which a young person normally cannot have. It may be found, upon further inquiry, that the young person is really only a trainee, apprentice, or helper (for example, accountant trainee, electrician trainee, apprentice electrician, electrician's helper).

168. Occupations for which special care is necessary.-The following are occupations for which you must take special care to get satisfactory entries:

Not satisfactory Satisfactory
Agent Freight agent, insurance agent, sales agent, advertising agent, purchasing agent, etc.
Clerk Stock clerk, shipping clerk, bookkeeper, statistical clerk, file clerk, etc. (A person who sells goods in a store is a salesman, not a clerk.)
Engineer Civil engineer, locomotive engineer, mechanical engineer, stationary engineer, aeronautical engineer, etc.
Fireman Locomotive fireman, city fireman (city fire department), fire fighter, stationary fireman, fire boss, etc.
Mechanic Auto mechanic, dental mechanic, radio mechanic, airplane mechanic, office machine mechanic, etc. (Do not confuse a mechanic with a machinist; see par. 169n.)
Nurse Registered nurse, nursemaid, practical nurse, nurse's aide, student professional nurse, etc.
Teacher Mathematics professor, music teacher, chemistry instructor, geography teacher, biology professor, etc. (If the teacher, instructor, or professor teaches more than one subject, enter the subject which he teaches the greatest number of hours; for an elementary school teacher who teaches many subjects, entries such as "primary teacher," "grade teacher," and "elementary teacher" are satisfactory.

169. Additional examples of occupation entries.-The following list shows, for a number of other occupations, what is meant by clear and exact entries:

  1. Adjuster.-Specify claim adjuster, brake adjuster, machine adjuster, complaint adjuster, insurance adjuster, etc.
  2. Apprentice.-An apprentice is under a contract during his training period while a trainee is not. Note that the return should include both the occupation and the word "apprentice" or "trainee" (for example, apprentice plumber, plumber trainee).
  3. Caretaker.-Wherever possible, specify servant, janitor, guard, building superintendent, gardener, groundskeeper, sexton, property clerk, locker attendant, vault attendant, etc.
  4. Contractor.-A "contractor" is engaged principally in obtaining building or other contracts and supervising the work. A skilled worker who works with his own tools should be returned as carpenter, plasterer, plumber, electrician, etc.
  5. Custodian.-See "Caretaker," above.
  6. Doctor.-Specify physician, dentist,. veterinarian, osteopath, chiropractor, etc.
  7. Entertainer.-Specify singer, dancer, acrobat, musician, etc.
  8. Factory worker.-Specify assembler, heater, turret-lathe operator, weaver, loom fixer, knitter, stitcher, punch press operator, spray painter, riveter, etc.
  9. Foremen.-Wherever possible, specify the trade, as foreman-carpenter, foreman-electrician, etc.
  10. Housekeeper (paid).-A "housekeeper" employed in a private home for wages has the full responsibility for the management of the household.Do not confuse this occupation with housemaid (general housework), hired girl, or kitchen maid.
  11. Interior decorator.-An "interior decorator" designs the decoration plans for the interiors of homes, hotels, offices, etc., and supervises the placement of the furniture and other decorations. Do not confuse this occupation with painter or paperhanger.
  12. Laborer.-Wherever possible, specify sweeper, charwoman, porter, janitor, stevedore, window washer, car cleaner, section hand, gardener, hand trucker, etc.
  13. Lay-out man.-Specify patternmaker, sheet-metal worker) compositor, commercial artist, structural steel worker, boilermaker, draftsman, coppersmith, etc.
  14. Machinist.-A "machinist" is a skilled craftsman who constructs and repairs all kinds of metal parts, tools, and machines through the use of blueprints, machine and hand tools, and precision measuring instruments. A person who merely operates a factory machine (for example, drill press operator, winder, etc.) or who does simple repair work (for example) welder, machine adjuster, etc.) is not a machinist.
  15. Nun.-Wherever possible, specify the type of work done, as housekeeper, art teacher, organist, cook, laundress, registered nurse, etc.
  16. Office worker.-Specify typist, receptionist, comptometer operator, file clerk, bookkeeper, physician's attendant, etc.
  17. Salesman.-Wherever possible, specify advertising salesman, insurance salesman, bond salesman, canvasser) traveling salesman, driver-salesman (routeman), peddler, newsboy, etc.
  18. Secretary.-The title "secretary" should be used for persons doing secretarial work in an office. The secretary who is an elected or appointed officer of a business, lodge, or other organization should be reported in occupation as "official.
  19. Sister.-See "Nun," above.
  20. Supervisor.-Whenever possible, specify typing supervisor, chief bookkeeper, steward, kitchen supervisor, section foreman) buyer, forelady, sales instructor, route foreman, etc.
  21. Tester.-Specify, the particular item tested, as cement tester, instrument tester, engine tester, battery tester, etc.
  22. Trainee.-See "Apprentice, above.
  23. Trucker.-Specify truck driver, trucking contractor, electric trucker, hand trucker, etc.

Item 20b. Industry

170. Item 20b. What kind of business or industry was he working in?- Specific answer.--The answer should tell clearly and specifically the kind of business or industry in which this person worked. Your entry should give the exact activity being carried on in this business or industry; for example, wholesale shoe company, retail shoe store, shoe factory, shoe repair shop, etc.

171. Company names must not be used.-Company names, such as General Motors, DuPont) American Can Company, and Jones Company, must not be entered on the schedule.

172. How to report government agencies.-In the case of a government agency, the exact function must be given, such as State hospital, county road repair, and city grammar school. Where the agency's function is purely governmental, however, the name is acceptable, as United States Bureau of Internal Revenue or City License Board. In all cases, you must tell whether the agency is Federal (U. S.), State, city, county, etc.

173. How to report multiactivity businesses.-Some firms carry on more than one kind of business or industrial activity. If the activities are carried on in the same place, describe the major activity of the establishment. For example, a shoe factory has a store in the factory where damaged shoes are sold at retail at reduced prices; a salesman in this store should be reported in "Shoe factory" because the store is only a minor activity. If the activities are carried on in separate places, describe the business in which the person actually worked. For example, a miner working in a coal mine owned by a large steel company should be reported in "Coal mine."

174. How to distinguish between manufacturing and wholesaling.-Every manufacturing establishment sells its products, of course, but that does not make it a wholesale company. An establishment which produces products should be reported as a factory. For example, an establishment where hardware is made is a "Hardware factory." On the other hand, an establishment which buys hardware in large quantities for resale to retailers is a "Wholesale hardware company."

One type of establishment which you have to be careful to report correctly is a sales office set up by a manufacturing firm at a location away from the factory or headquarters of the firm. Frequently, these sales offices are in different cities from the firm's factory or headquarters. For example, a St. Louis shoe factory has a sales office in Chicago 7 the people working in the Chicago office should be reported as "Shoe manufacturer's sales office."

175. How to distinguish between wholesaling and retailing.-You must distinguish between the two kinds of businesses which specialize in selling. A wholesale establishment sells primarily to retailers, industrial users, or other wholesalers. A retail establishment sells primarily to individual customers.

176. How to report "home" business.-Some people carry on businesses in their own homes. Report these businesses just as if they were carried on in regular stores or shops. For example, dressmaking shop, lending library, retail antique furniture store, etc. (Note exception for laundry in par. 177 l below.)

177. Examples of industry entries.- The following list shows for a number of industries what is meant by clear and exact entries:

  1. Agency.-Specify collection agency, advertising agency, real estate agency, employment agency, travel agency, etc.
  2. Bakery.-Distinguish between a "wholesale bakery" which sells to grocers, restaurants, hotels, etc., and a "retail bakery" which sells only to private individuals.
  3. Box factory.-Specify paper box factory, wooden box factory, metal box factory, etc.
  4. Club.-Specify golf club, fraternal club, night club, residence club, boarding house, etc.
  5. Coal company.-Specify coal mine, retail coal yard, wholesale coal company, etc.
  6. Credit company.-Specify credit rating company, loan company, retail credit clothing store, etc.
  7. Engineering company.-Specify engineering consulting firm, general contracting company, wholesale heating equipment company, construction machinery factory, etc.
  8. Express company.-Specify trucking company, rail way express agency, railroad car rental (for Fruit Growers Express Company, etc.), armored car service, etc.
  9. Factory.-Specify steel rolling mill, hardware factory, aircraft factory, flour mill, hosiery mill, printing plant, etc.
  10. Foundry.-Specify iron foundry, brass foundry, aluminum foundry, etc.
  11. Fur company.-Specify fur dressing plant, fur garment factory, retail fur store, wholesale fur company, fur repair shop, etc.
  12. Laundry.-Specify "own home" for a laundress working in her own home, and "private family" for a laundress working in the home of a private family. Specify "commercial laundry" for a person working in a steam laundry, hand laundry, Chinese laundry, French laundry, or similar establishment. Specify "self-service laundry" for a person working in an establishment where the customer brings her own laundry and pays a fee to use the washing machines (or other equipment).
  13. Lumber company.-Specify sawmill, retail lumber yard) planing mill, logging camp, wholesale lumber company, etc.
  14. Mill.-See "Factory," above.
  15. Mine.-Specify coal mine, gold mine, bauxite mine, iron mine, copper mine, lead mine, marble quarry, etc.
  16. Office.-Specify dentist's office, physician's office, public stenographer's office, steam railroad, life insurance company, etc.
  17. Company.-Specify oil field, petroleum refinery, retail gasoline station, petroleum pipe line, wholesale oil company, etc.
  18. Packing house.-Specify meat packing plant, fruit cannery, fruit packing house (wholesale packers and shippers), etc.
  19. Pipe line.-Specify natural gas pipe line, gasoline pipe line, petroleum pipe line, pipe line construction, etc.
  20. Plant.-See "Factory," above.
  21. Plastic factory.-Distinguish between a "plastic materials factory" where plastic materials are made, and a "plastic products plant" where articles are actually manufactured from plastic materials.
  22. Private club.-See "Club," above.
  23. Public utility.-Specify electric light and power company, gas utility company, telephone company, water supply company, etc.
  24. Railroad car shop.-Specify railroad car factory, steam railroad repair shop, street railroad repair shop, etc.
  25. Rayon factory.-Distinguish between a "rayon chemical factory," where chemicals are made into rayon yarn, and a "rayon cloth mill," where the yarn is woven into cloth.
  26. Repair shop.-Specify shoe repair shop, radio repair shop, blacksmith shop welding shop, auto repair shop, machine repair shop, etc.
  27. School.-Specify city elementary school, private kindergarten, private college, State university, etc.
  28. Tailor shop.-Distinguish between a "tailoring and cleaning shop" which provides a valet service and a "custom tailor shop" which makes clothes to customer's order.
  29. Terminal.-Specify bus terminal, railroad terminal, boat terminal, truck terminal, airport) etc.
  30. Textile mill.-Specify the major type of fiber used, as cotton cloth mill, woolen cloth mill, cotton yarn mill, rayon thread mill, etc.
  31. Transportation company.- Specify trucking company, moving and storage company, steamship company, air line, street railway, taxicab company, subway, elevated railway, steam railroad, petroleum pipe line, car loading company, etc.
  32. Water company.-Specify water supply company, irrigation company, city water department, etc.
  33. Well.-Specify oil well, salt well, water well, etc.

Item 20c. Class of worker

178. Item 20c. Entry of code.-There must be an entry of one of the four codes shown in the heading of item 20c for each person with occupation and industry entries. You frequently will not have to ask a specific question before making the entry because the correct answer will be obvious from the preceding conversation. If you have any doubts, however, ask for class of worker specifically.

The class-of-worker code should refer to the same job or business as the occupation and industry entries for the person.

179. Definition of class-of-worker codes:

P-Work for a PRIVATE employer for wages, salary, commission tips, piece-rates or pay in kind;
this applies regardless of the occupation at which the employee worked, whether general manager, file clerk, or porter. It includes veterans working for a private employer and receiving Federal GI subsistence payments. It includes also persons working for settlement houses, churches, unions, and other private nonprofit organizations.
G-Work for any branch of GOVERNMENT Federal, State, city, county, etc.;
this includes public schools and government-owned bus lines, government-owned electric power companies, etc. It includes persons who were elected to paid offices and civilian employees of the armed forces. Enter "G" also for employees of international organizations such as United Nations and for employees of foreign governments such as persons employed by the British Embassy or by the French Purchasing Commission; this rule applies only to those persons already listed in accordance with the instructions on whom to enumerate. Persons employed by such private organizations as the American Red Cross and the U S. Chamber of Commerce are not government employees and should be reported as "P."
O-Work for profit or fees in OWN business, farm, shop, office, etc.;
this does not include superintendents, foremen, managers, or other executives hired to manage a business or farm, salesmen working for commission, or officers of corporations.

NP-Work WITHOUT PAY on a farm or business operated by a member of the household to whom the person is related.
Note that room and board and a cash allowance are not counted as pay for these family workers; however, if the worker receives money which is definitely considered to be wages for work performed, he should be reported as "P."

180. Special points on class-of-worker code.-The following are special points which may be useful in certain problem cases:

  1. Corporation employees.-All employees of an incorporated business, regardless of the particular occupation at which they work) should be reported as "P" (or, in some few cases, "G"). They are not to be reported as "O" even though they own part or all of the stock of the incorporated business.
  2. Domestic work in other persons' homes.-This should be reported as "P" for example, "Maid, Private family, P."
  3. Partnerships.- Persons who operate a business in partnership with one or more people should be reported as "in OWN business." The word "OWN" is not limited to single ownership.
  4. Work far pay in kind.-Pay in kind includes room, board, supplies, and food, such as eggs or poultry on a farm. This is considered pay except in the case of the unpaid family worker. (See "NP" in par. 179.)
  5. Work on an odd-job or casual basis.-This should be reported as "P."
  6. Clergymen.-Preachers, ministers, priests, rabbis, and other clergymen are to be reported as "P" in class of worker, except in the following two cases:

    1. enter "G" for a clergyman, such as a prison chaplain, working in a civilian government job;
    2. enter "O" for a clergyman who is not attached to one particular church or congregation but who conducts religious services in various places on a fee basis.

Sample Items

181. Sample questions asked of every person on a sample line.-At the bottom of each page of the Population Schedule are six lines or decks of additional questions. These additional items are called "sample items." They are to be asked of every person enumerated on a "sample line."

182. Every fifth line is a sample line.-Each of these six decks has a number which corresponds to a line number in the upper part of the schedule. These six lines in the upper part of the schedule are called the sample lines. Each person you enumerate on one of these six sample lines is called a sample person.

183. Identification of sample lines.-The sample lines are easily recognized. Each is labeled "Sample Line" in the left margin of the sheet. In addition, each of the sample line numbers is encircled and the upper and lower borders are heavily ruled.

184. Five forms of schedule.-The sample line numbers vary from sheet to sheet. On one sheet, for example, you will find the sample line numbers to be 1, 6, 11, 16, 21, 26. On another sheet you will find the sample lines to be 3, 8, 13, 18, 23, 28. On other sheets the sample lines will be still different This variation is intentional and you should use the sheets in the order in which you find them; and the same remark applies to any additional sheets that you may obtain from your Crew r.

185. Sample information.-After you have completed the enumeration of a household for items 1 through 20c, look to see whether any member was enumerated on a sample line. If so, you must fill out the sample items in the proper deck at the bottom of the page. Be sure that you fill out the sample items only for the particular person whose name fell on a sample line. Sometimes two persons of a household will fall on sample lines. Sometimes the person on a sample line will be the head, sometimes the wife, sometimes an infant, or a lodger. This variation is natural and intentional, and you must in no case alter the sequence of enumeration that is specified in the heading of item 7.

186. "Vacant," "Occupied by nonresidents," "No one at home" entries on sample line.-If one of these entries is made on a sample line leave blank the sample items for that line. The sample questions apply only to persons.

187. Note which questions are applicable.-The sample questions are asked in the same way all other questions are asked. That is, you must determine which of them should be asked of the sample person. For example, if the person enumerated on the sample line is 8 years old, you would not ask items 29 to 38. These items are only for persons 14 years of age or over. Likewise, you would not ask items 32a, 32b, and 32c unless the person on the sample line is the head of a family.

188. The sixth deck has a few extra questions.-You will note that the first five sample decks are exactly alike. However, the sixth sample deck, which you will use to enumerate the sixth (and last) sample person on the sheet, contains a few extra questions. These are to be asked if this sample person is 14 years of age or over. These extra questions are items 34 to 38 (whichever are applicable).

189. When to ask specific questions.-On each schedule you are to ask the following questions (when they are applicable) of the following persons:

  1. Items 1 to 20c to be asked of all persons on each of the 30 lines in the upper part of the schedule.
  2. Items 21 to 33c to be asked for each person who appears on a sample line.
  3. Items 34 to 38 to be asked for a person who appears on the last sample line on each sheet.

Migration and National Origin

190. Items 21 to 24. Residence to report.-Report the usual place of residence one year ago (from date of enumeration) and not the exact location of persons who were temporarily away from home at that time. (See pars. 69, 74, 75, 78 to 80 for usual place of residence.) If a person had no usual place of residence a year ago, report the place in which he was staying at that time. (For example, see par. 203.)

191. Children under 1 year old.-Items 21 to 24 do not apply to children under 1 year old. Write "under 1 year" in item 24a and leave items 21 to 23 and 24b blank.

Item 21. Living in some house a year ago

192. Item 21. Make entry by checking "Yes" or "No."-Check "Yes" in item 21 for all persons on the sample lines who were living in this same house a year before the date of enumeration. Check "No" for all persons on the sample lines who moved from one structure to another structure.

193. Apartment building.-Check "Yes" for persons who moved from one apartment to another in the same apartment building during the past year, since they remained in the same structure. Check "No" for persons who moved from one apartment building or house to another.

194. Trailer.-Check "Yes" for persons living in a trailer which was parked in the same parking lot or trailer camp as a year ago, even though they were not in the same parking space. Check "No" for persons living in the same trailer but whose trailer was located, a year ago, at a different mailing address, parking lot, or trailer camp.

Item 22. Farm residence a year ago

195. Item 22.-Make entry if "No" in item 21.--Item 22 is to be asked only for sample persons checked "No" for item 21. For such persons, check "Yes" if living on a farm a year ago, and "No" if not.

196. Definition of farm residence a year ago.-Farm residence a year ago is defined in the same way as present farm residence. (See pars. 95 to 99.) The person need not have been engaged in agricultural work to have been living on a farm.

Let the respondent decide. If he hesitates, ask, "Was it locally considered a farm?"

Item 23. Same county a year ago

197. Item 23. Make entry if "No" in item 21.-Like item 22, item 23 is to be asked only for sample persons checked "No" for item 21. For such persons, check "Yes" if living in the same county a year ago, and "No" if not

198. If respondent is doubtful.-If the respondent is in doubt as to whether the residence a year ago was in the same county, check "No" in item 23, footnote as doubtful, and in item 24 enter place of residence (or nearest place) and the State.

Item 24. County and State a year ago

199. Item 24. Make entries if "No" in item 23.-For those persons who were living in a different county a year ago ("No" checked in item 23) enter the county and State of residence a year ago. (The State is necessary because counties with the same name are found in different States.)

  1. Louisiana parishes.-If the residence a year ago was in Louisiana, enter the name of the parish in the county space in item 24a.
  2. New York City boroughs.-If the residence a year ago was in New York City, enter the name of the borough, or the county, in the county space in item 24a. Do not enter merely "New York City" unless that is the only information obtainable.
  3. "Independent" cities.-Some States (for example, Virginia) have independent cities that are not in any county. If the residence a year ago was in one of these independent cities, enter the name of the city in the county space in item 24a (since these cities are the equivalent of counties), and write "city" after the name.

200. County unknown.-If the county is unknown, report the full name of the specific place of residence or, if the residence was in open country, report the name of the nearest place. Also report the name of the State.

201. Foreign country.-For persons whose residence a year ago was in a foreign country enter the name of the country in item 24b (leave item 24a blank). If the exact name of the country is not known according to present boundaries, report the former name of the country, or the name of the province, city, town, or other locality where the person resided.

202. Military installation.-For persons whose residence a year ago was on a military installation, report the exact location of the installation, or if it is not known, report the name of the installation. For military personnel stationed abroad a year ago, report the name of the foreign country.

203. Persons at sea.-For persons who were at sea a year ago and had no usual place of residence, enter "At sea." If the person was aboard a ship docked in a port a year ago, give the location of the port.

Item 25. Country of birth of parents

204. Item 25. Country of birth of father and mother.-If born in Continental United States, enter "U. S.," not the name of the State. In entering the place of birth of parent or parents born outside the United States, follow the instruction for place of birth of person in paragraph 128.

Education

Item 26. Highest grade of school attended

205. Item 26. Enter highest grade of regular school ever attended.-Enter the highest grade of school that this person has ever attended in a regular school. This may be the grade he is now attending.

Enter the highest grade attended regardless of "skipped" or "repeated" grades. If the person reached a given grade or year of school in less time or in more time than is usually required, enter the grade or year of school attended (and not the number of years taken). For example, a child attending the seventh grade after only 5 years in school should be coded "S7," and a person who took 5 years to complete 4 years of college should be coded "C4."

206. "Regular" school.-The highest grade attended in a regular school refers to formal education obtained in graded public, private, or parochial schools, colleges, universities, or professional schools, whether day school or night school, and whether attendance was full time or part time. That is, "regular" schooling is that which advances a person toward an. elementary or high school diploma, or a college, university, or professional school degree.

207. "Nonregular" schools.-Do not count education or training received in the following, because they are usually not "regular" schools:

  1. Vocational, trade, or business schools outside the "regular" system.-Exclude such schools unless they were graded and considered a part of a regular school system. Examples of schools usually not in the regular school system are barbers' colleges, beautician schools, citizenship schools, and all other schools which are not affiliated with a city, county, State, or Federal educational system or with a private educational system.
  2. On-the-job training.--Do not include any training obtained in connection with working on a job.
  3. Correspondence schools.--Do not include any training received by mail from "correspondence schools." If, however, the correspondence course was given by a regular school, such as a university, and it counted toward promotion in the regular school system, it should be included.

208. Codes.-Use the following codes to indicate the highest grade attended in item 26.

[Format modified from original instructions:]

Grade Code
None O
Kindergarten K
First S1
Second S2
Third S3
Fourth S4
Fifth S5
Sixth S6
Seventh (or junior high equivalent) S7
Eighth (or junior high equivalent) S8
Ninth (or junior/senior high equivalent; freshman) S9
Tenth (or high school equivalent; sophomore) S10
Eleventh (or high school equivalent; junior) S11
Twelfth (or high school equivalent; senior) S12
   
First year college C1
Second year college C2
Third year college C3
Fourth year college C4
Graduate or professional school 1 year or more C5

209. Nursery schools.-For children who have attended nursery school only, enter "0" as highest grade attended.

210. Seven-year elementary school system.-In some areas, the school system has or used to have 7 years of elementary school and 4 years of high school. Enter "S7" for persons who attended only the 7 years (that is, no high school) . However, for persons who attended some high school, following their 7th grade, use the code "S9," "S10," etc., whichever is applicable. For example, a person who attended the third year of high school following 7 grades of elementary school, should be coded "S11."

211. Junior high school.-For persons who attended their highest grade in junior high school, do not assume that the correct entries will always be "S7," "S8," or "S9," although in most instances this will be true. In some junior-senior high school systems, the correct junior high codes may start with "S6," or end with "S10."

212. Post-graduate high school.-Enter "S12" for persons who have attended "post-graduate" high school courses after completing high school, but have not attended regular college.

213. "Normal" and professional schools.-In some areas a person may attend "normal" school after completing merely elementary school; elsewhere it follows 2 years of high school, and in other places it may follow 4 years of high school or even some college. When the respondent answers in terms of "normal" school, attempt to obtain the equivalent in the regular school system.

Also, in some areas, persons may attend professional school (law, medicine, dentistry, nursing, etc.) after less than 4 years of college. When the respondent answers in terms of one of these schools, attempt to obtain the equivalent in college years.

214. Foreign schools.-For education obtained in foreign schools, enter the approximate equivalent grade in the American school system. If you cannot determine the approximate equivalent grade, determine the number of years the person attended school.

215. Ungraded schools.-Treat education obtained in ungraded schools in the same way as foreign schools in the above paragraph. Enter the regular school equivalent, or the number of years of attendance. For the person whose level of education was measured by "readers," the first reader is roughly equivalent to the first grade, second reader to the second grade, etc.

216. Tutor.-Enter the approximate equivalent in the regular school system for education received from a tutor.

Item 27. Was grade finished?

217. Item 27. Determine if grade entered in item 26 was completed.-This question refers to the highest grade ever attended, as entered in item 26. Check "Yes" if the person had fully completed the grade or year entered in item 26. Check "No" if the person did not finish the complete grade or year entered in item 26. (For example, he may have completed a half grade, or he may have failed to "pass" the last grade he attended)

218. Never attended school.-Check "No" for each person with an entry of "0" in item 26 without asking the question.

Item 28. School attendance since February 1

219. Item 28. Make entry for every sample person.-An entry should be made for each person on a sample line. However, for those persons 30 years old and over, it is not necessary to ask the question but merely to check the box "30 or over." There should be a check in either "Yes" or "No" for each person under 30 years of age.

220. "Regular" school.-Check "Yes" for each person under 30 years of age who has attended or been enrolled in any "regular" school at any time since February l, 1950. (See par. 206 above for complete definition of "regular" school.)

221. Enrolled but not attending.- Check "Yes" for persons enrolled in school but who have not actually attended since February L, 1950 (for example, because of illness).

222. Kindergarten.-Check "Yes" for persons attending kindergarten.

223. Tutor.-Check "Yes" for persons under 30 years of age receiving regular instructions at home from a tutor, if the instruction is comparable to that of a regular school or college.

224. "Nonregular" schools.-Check "No" for persons under 30 years of age who attended "nonregular" schools such as nursery schools, correspondence schools, business colleges, etc., and other schools not part of a regular public or private school system. (See par. 207 above for complete definition of "nonregular" schools.)

Present Unemployment, and Work Last Year

Item 29. Weeks looking for work

225. Item 29. Entry for each sample person who was looking for work last week.-You must enter the number of weeks for each person who is on a sample line and for whom there is an entry of "Yes" in item 17.

Enter a whole number counting a half week or more as a whole week. If a person has been looking for less than half a week, enter "O." If the time is reported in months, multiply the number of months by 45/3 to obtain the number of weeks.

226. Time period referred to in item 29.-Count the continuous weeks the person has been looking for work up to the Saturday preceding the day on which you are enumerating.

For example, if you are enumerating on Wednesday, April 5, and the person started looking for work Wednesday March 22, count him as looking for work 2 weeks. (From Wednesday March 22 to Saturday, April 1, is 1 week and 4 days, which is counted as 2 weeks.)

Item 30. Weeks in which any work was done last year

227. Item 30. Entry for each sample person 14 years old or over.-Enter the number of weeks or check the "None" box for each person 14 years of age or over who is on a sample line.

Count as a whole week, a week in which any work was done. (For example, enter "52" for a person who worked every Saturday throughout the year.) Also count as worked, weeks of active service in the armed forces, weeks on paid vacation, paid sick leave, or other paid absences (for example, for a school teacher who worked 40 weeks and was paid for a full year, enter "52"). If the time is reported in months, multiply the number of months by 4-1/3 to obtain the number of weeks.

228. Time period covered by item 30.-January 1, 1949, through December 31, 1949.

Income

Item 31a. Wages or salary

229. Item 31a. Entry for each sample person 14 years old or over.-There must be an entry of an amount or a check in the "None" box for each person 14 years of age or over who is on a sample line. The amount must be entered to the nearest whole dollar, not in dollars and cents. Enter " 10,000 + " if amount received was more than $10,000. Accept the respondent's best estimate if he does not know the exact amount.

230. Time period covered by item 31a.-January 1, 1949, through December 31, 1949.

31. General definition of wages or salary.-The total amount of money earned by a person for all work done as an employee. This may have been earned on more than one job during the year. X age and salary income includes "take-home" pay plus all deductions and contributions such as deductions for withholding tax, Social Security, etc. It also includes receipts from the following sources-tips, piece-rate payments, nonmilitary cash bonuses, a share of the profits if received by an employee in addition to wages or salary, armed forces pay. National Guard pay, and cash pay received by a farm laborer or manager.

232. "Take-home" pay is not total wages or salary.-The respondent may often report the "take-home" pay, that is, wages or salary minus deductions for withholding tax, retirement pay, union dues, war bonds, etc. If "take-home" pay is reported, the deductions should be added to it and the total counted as wage or salary income. If the respondent knows only the amount of "take-home" pay, it may be necessary to itemize the deductions in order to get an estimate of the total before deductions.

233. Some specific types of wages and salaries:

  1. Piece-rate payments.-Money received for work done at a specified amount per piece In many jobs in manufacturing, piece-rate payments are very important.
  2. Commissions.-Money received by a person for transacting business for another person. In some occupations such as salesmen, milk truck drivers, laundrymen, etc., commissions may constitute a large proportion of the wage or salary.
  3. Tips.-Payments received as supplements to wages for services rendered to the tipper. In some occupations such as waitresses, car hops, barbers, and taxicab drivers, tips may constitute an important part of wages or salary.
  4. Bonuses other than military bonuses.-Payments made by employers to employees as supplements to wages and salaries, for example bonuses for services on the basis of a percentage of the profits and "Christmas gifts" of employers to employees.

  5. Military bonuses are "other income," not wages and salary, and should be entered in item 31c.

  6. Gifts.-Gifts from employers are to be counted as wages or salary. Occasional gifts from friends or relatives are not to be included in any of the income items. Periodic gifts or contributions for support from a person outside the household are "other income," and should be entered in item 31c.
  7. Salaries of corporation officials.- The salary received by an official of a corporation is wage or salary income, just as are the wages of a laborer who works for the same corporation. The official's salary is not "Income from own business" even though he may own stock in the corporation.
  8. Armed forces pay.-Money received as payment for service in the armed forces. This includes base pay plus rental and subsistence allowances, longevity pay, flight pay, etc. Bond purchases or voluntary dependency contributions should not be deducted in computing pay; however, standard dependency allotments ($22 or $27 per month) should be deducted.
  9. National Guard training pay.- Pay received for training periods in the National Guard.

234. Receipts not counted as wages or salary:

  1. So-called "salaries" which some owners of businesses pay themselves. Such "salaries" are to be included as "Income from own business" in item 31b.
  2. Reimbursement for travel and other expenses. Such receipts are merely repayment for expenses incurred in connection with the job; they are not income.
  3. Pay "in kind" (food, lodging, etc. given to an employee) even though received as payment for work performed and considered work for purposes of items 15 and 16. Pay "in kind" is not counted as income; items 31 and 32 refer only to money income.

235. Use of Federal income tax form.-The tax form may contain the combined wages or salaries of husband and wife. If so find out what share was received by each. Wages and salaries are reported on income tax forms as follows:

Form 1040 (Long form)
Form 1040A (Short form)
Page 1-Item 2
Item 4

You should not ask the respondent to refer to income tax forms, but if he does so voluntarily, make use of the information.

Item 31b. Income from own business, professional practice, or farm

236. Item 31b. Entry for each sample person 14 years old and over.-There must be an entry of an amount or a check in the "None" box for each person 14 years of age and over who is on a sample line. The amount must be entered to the nearest whole dollar, not in dollars and cents. Enter "10,000+" if amount received was more than $10,000. Enter "Even" if business receipts just balance expenses. Enter "Loss" above amounts if there was a loss. Accept the respondent's best estimate if he does not know the exact amount.

237. Time period covered by item 31b.-January 1, 1949, through December 31, 1949.

238. General definition of income from own business (including profession and farm operation):

  1. Business income.-Net money income or profit from the operation of a business consists of total (or gross) money receipts less the business expenses.
    1. Total money receipts.-Value of all goods sold or services rendered. Include the value of any net inventory increase.
    2. Business expenses.-Include cost of merchandise purchased; rent, heat, light, and power expenses of the business quarters; depreciation of machinery and other business property; decrease in the value of inventory; wages and salaries paid to employees; business taxes; interest on the business mortgages and debts. Capital expenditures, such as the purchase of new buildings or machinery, or permanent improvements of existing buildings or machinery) should not be considered as expenses. Only the annual depreciation on such improvements or purchases is expenses. Personal expenses for such things as food, shelter, personal taxes, life or health insurance, improvement of living quarters, or purchase of bonds, should not be considered as business expenses.
  2. Farm income.-Net money income or profit from the operation of a farm consists of total (or gross) money receipts less the farm expenses.
    1. Total money receipts.-Money received from the sale of farm products. Include as receipts loans made by the Government on cotton and other crops, income from the hire of teams or from rental of farm machinery to other farmers, and incidental receipts from sale of wood, sand, gravel, rocks, etc. Do not include as receipts the value of food, fuel, or other farm products used for family living.
    2. Farm expenses.-Include feed, fertilizer, seeds, bulbs, plants, trees, sprays, insecticides, hardware, dairy supplies, tools, livestock purchases, rental of machinery, cash wages for farm hands, cash rent paid, interest on farm mortgage, farm building repairs, depreciation of farm equipment, farm taxes. Do not include as farm expenses personal income tax, poll tax, improvements in the farmer's house, capital expenditures such as the purchase of land, buildings, or machinery.

239. Some specific types of income from own business:

  1. Fees.-A fee is a charge for professional or other services rendered. The net income (fees minus expenses incurred in connection with the professional practice) should be entered as "Income from own business" in item 31b.
  2. Partnership.-An unincorporated business in which two or more persons contract to do business together and share the profits. The net income received by a person from a business in which he worked as a partner should be entered as "Income from own business" in item 31b.
  3. Royalties.-Money earned from copyrights, patents, good will, trademarks, formulas, should be entered as "Income from own business" in item 31b. Money received from property producing gas, oil, copper, timber, etc. which is owned but not operated, should be entered as "Other income" in item 31c and not in item 31b.
  4. "Salaries" of owners.-Some owners of unincorporated businesses may pay themselves a "salary." Such "salaries" should be entered as "Income from own business" in item 31b.

240. Use of Federal income tax form.-Location on Form 1040, Page 2 Schedule C Line 23 (Income from own business) and Page 2 Schedule E Line 1 (Income from partnership business).

You should not ask the respondent to refer to income tax forms, but if he does so voluntarily, make use of the information.

Item 31c. Other income

241. Item 31c. Entry for each sample person 14 years old and over.-There must be an entry of an amount or a check in the "None" box for each person 14 years of age and over who is on a sample line. The amount must be entered to the nearest whole dollar, not in dollars and cents. Enter "10,000+" if amount received was more than $10,000. Enter "Loss" above amount if there was a loss on rental of property.

242. Time period covered by item 31c.-January 1, 1949, through December 31, 1949.

243. General definition of other income.-"Other income" is money income of the types illustrated in paragraph 244 below; it represents all kinds of income except money received in direct return for work done as an employee or in own business.

244. Specific types of "Other income":

  1. Alimony.-Money received periodically after a divorce or legal separation.
  2. Annuity.-Money received periodically as return on an investment wherein a person purchases the right to receive a monthly, annual, or other periodic income.
  3. Contributions.-Money received periodically from persons who are not members of the household, such as: Allotments received from members of the armed forces, and money received by parents from children not living with them.

    Occasional gifts should not be regarded as income. (See par. 233e.)

  4. Dependency allotments.-Money received in the form of dependency allotment checks by relatives of enlisted members of the armed forces. The wife of an enlisted man receives a monthly payment of $50 with an additional $30 for the first child and $20 for each additional child. Dependency allotments may also be received by relatives other than wives and children; the usual maximum monthly amounts are $37, $50, and $68, varying by degree of dependency and number of dependents.

    In addition to dependency allotments, servicemen may send home voluntary allotments. Such receipts should also be entered in item 31c.

  5. Dividends.-Money received by the stockholders of a corporation or association, and cash dividends and patronage refunds of cooperatives.
  6. Estates and trusts.-Periodic payments received from an estate or a trust fund. Lump-sum receipts from estates or trust funds, however, are not income.
  7. Fiduciary income.-A fiduciary is a trustee, executor, or administrator who holds property in trust for others. Periodic payments received from a fiduciary are income from an estate or a trust (see par. 244J, above). Money which is held by the fiduciary and is not distributed is not income.
  8. Gambling gains.-Money received from gambling, games of chance, prizes, etc. Gambling losses should not be deducted from income. The net income of a professional gambler should be entered in 31b.
  9. Gifts.-See paragraphs 233e and 244c.
  10. Inheritances.-Periodic payments received from property bequeathed by a friend or relative. Lump-sum receipts from inheritances are not income.
  11. Insurance receipts.-Periodic payments received from paid-up endowment policies, annuities, or from life insurance policies of a deceased person. Lump-sum insurance payments, however, are not income.
  12. Interest.-Money received for the use of money. Notes, bonds, bank deposits, and postal-savings certificates are the most common sources of interest.

    Repayments to the person on the principal of a loan, withdrawals of deposits from savings or checking accounts, or accrued interest that has not yet been received, such as interest on "uncashed" U. S. savings bonds, are not included as interest. If U. S. savings bonds have been cashed, only the difference between the amount received and the original cost is to be included as interest.

  13. Military bonuses.-Several States have paid cash bonuses to veterans of World War II. If military bonuses were received in 1949, they should be entered in item 31c.
  14. Mustering-out pay.-Money received by veterans of World War II below the rank of major or lieutenant commander who served prior to July 1, 1947, and who were honorably discharged. Those without overseas service were entitled to $200 mustering-out pay and those with overseas service were entitled to $300 mustering-out pay.
  15. Pensions.-Periodic payments received by a person who has retired from active service. Some types of pensions are: Money received from old-age or survivors insurance under the Social Security or Railroad Retirement Acts; old-age pensions received from States, counties, or other local governments; civil service pensions for retired government workers; veterans' pensions paid to disabled veterans; military pensions paid to retired members of the armed forces; pensions received from private corporations.
  16. Relief payments.-Money received from local, State, or Federal relief agencies. Food, clothing, or other nonmonetary receipts from relief agencies are not income.
  17. Rent income.-Cash rents received from property, less the costs incurred by the landlord in connection with the property. Costs include depreciation, taxes, repairs, insurance, interest on mortgages, real estate agent's commissions, etc. Do not include as expenses the cost of permanent improvements on the property.
  18. Roomer or boarder income.-Gross receipts from roomers or boarders, less all expenses such as the cost of food served to boarders, laundry, share of the wages paid to a servant for cleaning, share of the rent paid for the house (or the estimated share of the taxes, depreciation, interest, etc.). The net receipts should be entered in item 31c.

    If the respondent was the operator of a lodging house, the net income should be entered as "Income from own business" in item 31b.

  19. Royalties.-See par. 239c.
  20. Social Security benefits.-Money received under the Social Security program from any of the following sources: Old-age and survivors insurance; unemployment compensation; aid to dependent children (widows' pensions); aid to the blind; old-age assistance.
  21. Unemployment compensation.-Money received from government unemployment agencies during periods of unemployment.
  22. Veterans' payments.-Money received by veterans in the form of education and on-the-job training subsistence allowances, under the "GI Bill of Rights." Single veterans could have received a maximum of $75 per month while married veterans could have received between $105 and $120 per month. Also include mustering-out payments (see par. 244n above); disability pensions; rehabilitation allowances ($20 per week); State bonuses.

    Veterans engaged in on-the-job training are paid by their employers and also receive training subsistence from the government. The amount received from the employer should be entered as "Wages or salary" in item 31a; the amount received from the government should be entered as "Other income" in item 31c.

  23. Workmen's compensation.- Money received during 1949 from government agencies because of injuries incurred at work.

245. Location on Federal income tax form.-Not all of the "Other income" items will be found on the income tax form. A list of the items which can be found is shown below.

[Format modified from original:]

Type of income Page Form 1040 Form 1040A
Interest and dividends 1 Items 3 and 4 Item 5
Estates and trusts 2 Schedule E, line 2 -
Rents and royalties 2 Schedule B, "Net profit" -
Annuities and pensions 2 Schedule A, line 4 -

You should not ask the respondent to refer to income tax forms, but if he does so voluntarily, make use of the information.

246. Receipts which are not income of any type.-Some money receipts are not considered income and are not to be included in any part of items 31a, b, and c. Specific types of receipts which are not income are:

  1. Allowance.-Money given to cover living expenses by one member of a family to another in the same household.
  2. Borrowings.-Money borrowed from a bank, finance company, relatives, or other sources.
  3. Capital gains and losses.-Money received from the sale of a capital asset by persons who are not in the business of selling such commodities. The following are examples of the sale of capital assets:
    1. The sale of stocks and bonds by persons who are not security dealers.
    2. The sale of a house by a person who is not a dealer in real estate.
    3. The sale of a private automobile by a person who is not a car dealer.
  4. Lump-sum payments.-Money received in one lump sum from insurance policies, estates, trusts, inheritances, gifts, etc. Only regular or periodic receipts from these sources are income.
  5. Pay "in kind".-Pay "in kind" is not included as income, even though received as payment for work performed and considered work for purposes of items 15 and 16.
  6. Refunds.-Refunds of money for merchandise purchased but returned, refunds of money deposited as an option for the right to purchase, refunds of overpayment of taxes, etc.
  7. Withdrawals of savings.-Money obtained from the withdrawals of bank deposits, the sale of U. S. savings bonds or other assets. Only the interest received from bank deposits, bonds, or loans is income. (See par. 244l.)

Items 32a, b, c. Income of persons in household related to family head

247. Item 32. Entries required if sample person is head of a family.-You must enter an amount or a check in the "None" box in each of items 32a, 32b, and 32c whenever the person on the sample line is the head of a family. (See par. 249 below.)

The amounts entered must represent the income of all relatives of the family head now living in the same household, including the wife, children (even if under 14 years of age), parents, or other persons in the household related to the head by blood, marriage, or adoption. However, the income of the family head himself should be excluded; it has already been entered in items 31a, b, and c.

The amounts must be in whole dollars. Enter "10,000+" if an amount was more than $10,000. Accept the respondent's best estimates if he does not know the exact amounts.

248. Combined entries.-If two or more relatives had income of the same type, the amounts should be added together to obtain the entry. For example, if the wife and the son of the head both earned wages in 1949, the amounts of the wages should be combined to obtain the entry for item 32a.

249. Definition of family head.-A family head is one of the following:

  1. Head of household with related persons present in household.
  2. Person unrelated to household head but with persons related to him listed below him on the schedule, such as a lodger with wife present in household.

250. Definitions of wages and salaries, income from own business and other income.-These definitions are the same as for items 31a, 31b, and 31c, respectively. (See pars. 231, 238, and 243.)

251. Time period covered by item 32.-January 1, 1949, through December 31, 1949.

Military Service

Items 33a, b, c. Service in armed forces

252. Item 33. Entries required for each male 14 years old and over on sample line.-Check "Yes" or "No" for each of the three questions for every male 14 years of age and over on the sample lines. Service in the United States Armed Forces is defined as active duty for any time at all in the United States Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, Coast Guard, or any reserve branch of these organizations. The specified periods of service are defined as follows:

  1. World War II.-September 16, 1940, to July 25, 1947.
  2. World War I.-April 6, 1917, to November 11, 1918 (in Europe); to April 1, 1920 (in Russia).
  3. Any other time including present service.

253. Exclusions.-Be sure to exclude persons whose only service was in the Merchant Marine, or as civilian employees of the Department of National Defense (formerly War and Navy Departments), as employees of the Maritime Commission and American Field Service, or as civilian technical personnel attached to the armed forces) etc. Also exclude service m a National Guard unit which was performed before or after World War II. Exclude also short periods of active reserve training, such as active duty for 2 weeks a year or attendance at weekly reserve meetings.

254. Type of service included.-Note that this question concerns service for any time at all. Therefore, males who were inducted and discharged a few days or a few weeks later should be considered as having served in the armed forces. Be sure to include males who never had combat duty or never went overseas. Some persons received commissions but remained at desk jobs and perhaps were stationed in their home town for the duration of the war. Include these people as well as persons who were engaged in actual fighting.

255. Respondent uncertain.-Enter the information which is known even if the knowledge is not complete. For example, if the respondent knows that a man in the household served in World War II but does not know about any previous service, mark "Yes" for World War II. If the respondent knows that a man in the household is attending school under the

"GI Bill of Rights," you can mark "Yes" for World War II.

Occupation, Industry, and Class of Worker of Last Job

Items 34 and 35. Description of last job

256. Items 34 and 35. Entries required in item 35 for persons who worked last year, and with no entries in item 20.-Item 35 must be filled for each person 14 years of age and over who is on the last sample line of each sheet, if there is a number shown for him in item 30 and there is no entry for him in item 20. That is, for each person (on the last sample line) who worked last year, a report on occupation, industry, and class of worker is required, and must be entered in item 35 if there is not already an entry in item 20.

257. Use item 34 to help.-Because it may be difficult to determine for whom to ask item 35, we have included item 34 on the schedule to help you. Read item 34 carefully and understand how it works. Once you know how item 34 works, you will have no trouble figuring out when to ask item 35.

258. How to fill item 35.-Except for the fact that items 20 and 35 refer to different groups of people, the two items are exactly the same. Therefore, in filling item 35, you should follow the rules given for item 20 in paragraphs 161 to 180 on how to get the answers and what kinds of entries are acceptable. Fill all three parts of item 35 (a, b, and c) for each person to whom item 35 applies.

259. The particular job to describe.-Describe the last job or business the person had, whether or not he worked at that particular job or business in 1949. For example, a man who is now retired says his last job was a night watchman for a building construction firm for a few weeks in February, but that he had worked most of 1949 as a guard in a bank; your entry should be "Night watchman, Building construction firm, P" since that was his last job. Note that you cannot have an entry of "Never worked" in item 35, as you can in item 20; item 35 is filled only for people who worked in 1949.

Further Questions on Marriage

Item 36. Married more than once?

260. Item 36. Entry for each sample person who has ever been married.- There should be an entry for each person who is married, widowed, divorced, or separated ("Mar," "Wd," "D," or "Sep" in item 12) and who is on the last sample line. Enter "No" for each such person who has been married only once, and "Yes" for each person who has been married more than once. Leave blank for all persons who have never been married.

Item 37. Years married, widowed, divorced, or separated

261. Item 37. Number of years since married, widowed, divorced, or separated.-There should be an entry for every person who is married, widowed, divorced, or separated ("Mar," "Wd," "D," or "Sep" in item 12) and who is on the last sample line. To make answering this question easier, look at items 12 and 36 before asking the question. If item 36 indicates the person has been married only once and item 12 has an entry of "Mar," ask, "How many years since he was married?" For those persons married more than once ("Yes" in item 36) who are coded "Mar" ins item 12 ask, "How many years since he was last married?" Leave this item blank for all persons coded "Nev" in item 12.

262. Count whole years.-For persons married, widowed, divorced, or separated less than a full year check the box "Less than 1 year." For all other married, widowed, divorced, or separated persons enter the number of full years the person has spent in his present marital status. Do not count part of a year as a whole year.

Item 38. Number of children ever borne

263. Item 38. Number of children borne by each woman.-An entry should be made for each woman who is married, widowed, divorced, or separated, and who is on the last sample line. Count all children ever born alive to this woman during her lifetime, including children by any previous marriage, children now deceased, and children not living in the household. Do not count stillbirths (births in which the infant never breathed). If the respondent asks whether adopted children should be counted, tell her they should not be; do not otherwise inquire whether any of the children have been adopted. Stepchildren of the woman should not be counted either.

INDIVIDUAL CENSUS REPORT

Nonresidents

64. Nonresidents enumerated on ICR's.-Fill an ICR for nonresidents who are staying in your ED but who have a usual place of residence elsewhere if (1) they are staying in places where guests ordinarily pay for quarters, or (2) they may not be enumerated at their usual residences. (See par. 76.)

265. Keep with Population Schedules.-The ICR's which you have filled out for nonresidents as indicated above must be turned in with your regular schedules when the ED is completed.

266. Address where nonresident usually lives.-When an ICR is used to enumerate nonresidents, you must obtain an entry in item 2 giving the exact address where the nonresident usually lives. Normally this entry comprises the State, county, city, or town, and street and number. In addition, describe its location so someone else can find it on the map. For example, "On Park Road, east of 53d Avenue, 4th house on left." If the house does not have a street address, describe its location in terms of its distance and direction from the nearest city or town or in any other terms that will make clear how to find the place. A rural route number is not sufficient. An example of a complete description of the location of a house with no street address is as follows: "On U.S. 50, 1 mile south of intersection with U.S. 80, right side of road."

Residents

67. Information not obtainable by direct interview.-If information for a resident cannot be obtained by personal interview or from a reliable respondent, you may leave an ICR for him to fill. (See par. 77.)

268. Copy ICR entries.-When you get the completed ICR from a resident, copy all the information from the ICR to the Population Schedule. The order of questions is not the same on both forms. For example, item 12 on the Population Schedule is item 25 on the ICR.

269. Sample questions.-If a resident falls on a sample line of the Population Schedule when the ICR entries are transferred to it, copy the answers to the sample questions on the Population Schedule. But if the resident does not fall on a sample line, disregard the answers to the sample questions on the ICR.

270. Employment status entries.-In copying item 15 of the ICR to items 15 to 18 of the Population Schedule, copy only the first box checked. If the first box checked is:

Box a-Enter "Wk" in item 15.
Box b-Enter "Yes" in item 17.
Box c-Enter "Yes" in item 18.
Box d-Enter "H" in item 15 and "No" in items 16, 17, and 18.
Box e-Enter "U" in item 15.
Box f-Enter "Ot" in item 15 and "No" in items 16, 17, and 18.

Note that if box b or c is the first box checked, you transcribe only to item 17 or 18 of the Population Schedule. Item 15 of the Population Schedule may be left blank only in these cases.

Examples: Item 15 (ICR) has been filled as follows:

(a) [X] I worked at a job, or in my business or profession, or on a farm.
(b) [X] I was looking for work.
(c) [ ] I had a job, profession, or business from which I was temporarily absent.
(d) [X] I did housework in my own home.
(e) [ ] I am permanently unable to work.
(f) [ ] None of the above applies to me.
Enter "Wk" in item 15 (Population Schedule) .

(a) [ ] I worked at a job, or in my business or profession, or on a farm.
(b) [ ] I was looking for work.
(c) [ ] I had a job, profession, or business from which I was temporarily absent.
(d) [X] I did housework in my own home.
(e) [X] I am permanently unable to work.
(f) [ ] None of the above applies to me.
Enter "H" in item 15 (Population Schedule) and "No" in items 16, 17, and 18.

271. Persons in armed forces.-Before copying the information in item 19 (ICR), examine the entry in item 23 (ICR). If the entry for item 23 (ICR) is "No," copy the entries for item 19 (ICR) to items 20a, b, and c (Population Schedule). If the entry for item 23 (ICR) is "Yes," enter "armed forces" in item 20a and dashes (-) in items 20b and c, and ignore all entries in item 19 (ICR).

272. Cancel ICR's for residents.- After copying, cancel the ICR's by marking X's across the face and across item 2. Place them in your portfolio in a separate pack. Do not copy or cancel ICR's for nonresidents.

INFANT CARD

Infants reported

73. Enumerated infants born in 3-month period.-Fill out an Infant Card for each infant enumerated who was born in January, February, or March 1950. Also fill an Infant Card if you are in doubt as to the birth date, but believe the infant may have been born in these 3 months. Do not fill an Infant Card for infants born in any other months. All infants for whom Infant Cards are filled must also be enumerated on the regular Population Schedule (or on an ICR). If you leave an ICR in a household and it is returned to you filled out for an infant born in January, February, or March 1950, you must also fill an Infant Card.

Keep the completed Infant Cards together and turn them in with the other schedules unless the infant was enumerated on an ICR. In the latter case, clip the Infant Card to the ICR.

274. Infants not living with their parents.-Some infants will not be living with either parent, but will be living indefinitely with relatives, or adopted parents or in institutions. Enumerate such an infant where he now resides, and try to obtain from the respondent the required information on the Infant Card for the mother even though she does not live with the infant. However, information should not be obtained for the father if he does not live with the infant

Entries on Infant Card

275. Filling the Infant Card.-The upper right part of the Infant Card, containing several unnumbered identification items, and items 1 to 9, are to be filled by copying information from the Population Schedule. Print the infant's name, and check the spelling with the informant. If the infant's father is a member of the household, fill items 6 to 9 of the Infant Card. Fathers who are neither employed nor looking for work will not have an occupation or industry listed on the Population Schedule. If item 20 of the Population Schedule is blank, write "None" in items 8 and 9. If the infant's father is not a member of the infant's household, do not ask items 6 to 9.

a. Item 11. Post office address.
This item is the address at which the infant's household may be reached by mail. This is frequently different from the address on the Population Schedule.
b. Item 12. Infant's place of birth.
Give the actual place where the birth occurred. This may be different from the county and State where the infant now resides. If the child was not born within the limits of a city or town, write "Rural" on the line for city.
c. Item 14. Maiden name of mother.
This item asks for the maiden name of the mother. The maiden name is her name before marriage, and not her husband's last name. Be sure to. print the name.
d. Item l6. Education of mother.
Education is to be obtained for all Infant-Card mothers. Item 16 is not a sample question on the Infant Card. Copy the answers from items 26 and 27 of the Population Schedule, if the mother happens to be on a sample line of the Population Schedule, or ask question 16 on the Infant Card.
e. Item 17. Order of birth.
For order of birth, count all live births this mother has ever had, but do not count stillbirths (births in which the infant never breathed). Remember to include any children who may have died or who are not living in the household. Exclude adopted or stepchildren of the mother. For twin infants give the lower number to the twin born first. If it is not known which twin was born first, make an arbitrary assignment of order. In any case do not give both twins the same birth order.

The following include only those housing items which relate to the population census:

LIVING QUARTERS TO BE ENUMERATED

Dwelling unit

287. Introduction.-People live in all kinds of places-houses, apartments, tents, trailers. Some houses are arranged just for one family, some for two or more families, and others, like apartment buildings, have living arrangements for dozens of families. Counting just houses and apartment buildings would not tell us much. We need some kind of unit to count, which more nearly describes all of these living arrangements. "Dwelling unit" is the name we give this unit.

288. General definition.-In general, a dwelling unit is a group of rooms or a single room, occupied or intended for occupancy as separate living quarters, by a family or other group of persons living together or by a person living alone.

289. Examples.-Ordinarily a dwelling unit is a house, an apartment, or a flat. It may also be a trailer, boat, tent, or railroad ear, if occupied as living quarters. A dwelling unit may be located in a structure devoted primarily to business or other nonresidential use, such as quarters in a warehouse where the watchman lives, or a barber's quarters back of his shop.

290. Specific definition.-A group of rooms or a single room, occupied or intended for occupancy by a family or group of persons living together or by a person living alone, is a dwelling unit if it has:

  1. Separate cooking equipment, or
  2. Two or more rooms and separate entrance.

Exception: A one-room apartment in a regular apartment house, or one room which is the only living quarters in the structure is a dwelling unit even though it does not have separate cooking equipment.

Living quarters which do not fulfill one of the conditions above are combined with the landlord's quarters, or with each other if the landlord does not live in the structure. If the combined quarters contain fewer than 10 lodgers, they are considered one dwelling unit. If the combined quarters contain 10 or more lodgers, they are considered one "nondwelling-unit quarters."

How to apply dwelling-unit definition

291. Occupied dwelling units.-The decision as to what constitutes one dwelling unit is to be made on the basis of the living arrangements of the occupants, and not on relationship. For example, a family with married children in the same house or apartment, sharing the same rooms and eating together, occupies one dwelling unit. On the other hand, if a married son or daughter, lodger, or any person or group lives in another part of the house with separate cooking equipment, or if any live in separate quarters consisting of two or more rooms and separate entrance, such persons occupy separate dwelling units.

In all places where people live, determine what the dwelling unit is and which persons live in that one dwelling unit. You must do this at the beginning of the interview, so that you will know which persons to list as one household on the Population side of the schedule, and which living quarters are one dwelling unit for the questions on the Housing side of the schedule. The entire group of persons who live in one dwelling unit is one household.

Do not ask the respondent if he lives in a "dwelling unit." Ask him about the people who live there and their living arrangements. Then you can determine if there is only one dwelling unit or if there is more than one dwelling unit. Start with such questions as:

Who lives here?
How are they related to each other?
Is there more than one family living here?
Does your family occupy the whole house or only part of it?

Ask about all the people and all the living quarters in the house, so that you will not miss any dwelling units.

292. A single family or a person living alone.-A whole house occupied, or intended for occupancy, by a single family or by a person living alone is one dwelling unit.

One room which is the only living quarters in the structure is a dwelling unit even though it does not have separate cooking equipment.

Similarly, in a regular apartment house, each apartment is one dwelling unit if it is occupied or intended for occupancy by a single family or by a person living alone. Usually such apartments have separate cooking equipment or consist of two or more rooms and a separate entrance. However, in a regular apartment house, you may find one-room apartments without cooking equipment; enumerate each of these apartments as a separate dwelling unit.

293. Two or more families; groups of persons; lodgers.-In some cases, you will find that several families or groups of persons live in the same house or structure. They may be distinctly separate families or groups of persons; they may be family groups related to each other (parents and married sons or daughters, for example); or they may be lodgers (roomers). Before you list such persons as one household, ask as many questions as necessary to determine whether any of the families, groups, or lodgers occupy separate dwelling units. Ask first whether any of the families or lodgers have cooking equipment for their exclusive use. If you determine they do not have separate cooking equipment, then ask whether they have two or more rooms for their exclusive use. (See instructions for counting rooms, par. 335. Note that a bathroom is not counted as a room.) Usually you can observe whether they have a separate entrance. Enumerate as a separate dwelling unit each of the quarters of the families, groups, or lodgers who have either separate cooking equipment or two or more rooms and separate entrance.

294. Lodgers' quarters.-Combine the quarters which do not have separate cooking equipment or two or more rooms and separate entrance with the quarters of the landlord. If the landlord does not live in the structure, combine all such quarters with each other; designate one of the persons as "Head" and each of the persons unrelated to him as "Lodger."

If there are fewer than 10 lodgers (roomers) in the combined group, consider the combination as one dwelling unit.

If there are 10 or more lodgers (roomers) in the combined group, consider as one "nondwelling-unit quarters."

In the count of lodgers, count only the lodgers whom you enumerate as residents of this unit (that is, only those lodgers who are to be listed as members of the household on the Population side of the schedule). Partners, hired hands, servants, foster children, wards, and the like, are not to be counted as lodgers.

295. Separate cooking equipment.-Consider a unit as having separate cooking equipment if it has:

  1. A regular range or stove for the exclusive use of the occupants, whether or not it is used; or
  2. Other cooking equipment (gas hotplate, electric plate, etc.) and either (1) the equipment is used for preparing meals, or (2) most of the living quarters in the structure have some kind of cooking equipment for preparing meals.

"Separate" equipment means equipment for exclusive use (see par. 339).

296. Separate entrance.-Consider a unit as having a separate entrance if the occupants can reach their quarters directly through an outside door, or if they can reach their quarters through a common hall and do not have to pass through a room of any other occupant.

297. Vacant dwelling units.-To identify vacant dwelling units, follow a procedure similar to that for occupied dwelling units. A dwelling unit is vacant if no persons are living in it at the time of enumeration. If the occupants are only temporarily absent, consider the unit as occupied. (See also pars. 359 to 364.)

When inquiring about persons and living quarters in a structure, be sure to inquire whether there are vacant living quarters in the structure or elsewhere on the property. Otherwise, dwelling units will be missed.

298. Cooking equipment for vacant dwelling units.-Because many people have their own stoves for cooking and take them when they move, you may find vacant dwelling units from which the cooking equipment has been removed. Consider such vacant living quarters as having separate cooking equipment if the last occupants had separate cooking equipment.

299. Vacant, under construction.-New dwelling units not yet occupied should be enumerated as vacant dwelling units when all the exterior windows and doors are installed and final usable floors are in place. If new construction has not proceeded to this point, do not consider the unit as living quarters and do not enumerate it.

300. Vacant, being remodeled or converted.-In structures where conversion or remodeling is taking place, enumerate the dwelling units as they will be when the conversion or remodeling has been completed. For example, if a single dwelling unit is being made into two dwelling units, enumerate as two dwelling units.

301. Vacant, dilapidated.-Enumerate vacant dwelling units if they are intended for occupancy as living quarters even though they are dilapidated. However, if the unit is unfit for use and beyond repair so that it is no longer considered living quarters, do not enumerate it

302. Vacant, used for nonresidential purposes.-Enumerate a vacant dwelling unit which is being used for nonresidential purposes (storage, etc.) provided it is intended to be used only temporarily as such. If it has been permanently converted to storage or other nonresidential use, it is no longer a dwelling unit and should not be enumerated.

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