- Questionnaire Text
- Source Variables
- Editing Procedure
INCTOT reports each respondent's total pre-tax personal income or losses from all sources for the previous year. The censuses collected information on income received from these sources during the previous calendar year; for the ACS and the PRCS, the reference period was the past 12 months. Amounts are expressed in contemporary dollars, and users studying change over time must adjust for inflation:
Users studying change over time must adjust for inflation. Consumer Price Index adjustment factors for the appropriate years can be found in the CPI99 variable.
The exception is the ACS/PRCS multi-year files, where all dollar amounts have been standardized to dollars as valued in the final year of data included in the file (e.g., 2007 dollars for the 2005-2007 3-year file). Additionally, more detail may be available than exists in the original ACS samples.
User Note: ACS respondents are surveyed throughout the year, and amounts do not reflect calendar year dollars. While the Census Bureau provides an adjustment factor (available in ADJUST), this is an imperfect solution. See the ACS income variables note for further details.
For a more complete discussion of the use of these factors to adjust for inflation, users may wish to see the IPUMS-CPS note on adjusting dollar amount variables for inflation.
INCTOT is a 7-digit numeric code reporting each respondent's total pre-tax personal income or losses from all sources for the previous year. INCTOT specific variable codes for missing, edited, or unidentified observations, observations not applicable (N/A), observations not in universe (NIU), top and bottom value coding, etc. are provided below by Census year (and data sample if specified).
User Note: Users studying change over time must adjust for inflation (See Description).
INCTOT Specific Variable Codes
-009995 = -$9,900 (1980)
-000001 = Net loss (1950)
0000000 = None
0000001 = $1 or break even (2000, 2005-onward ACS and PRCS)
9999999 = N/A
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