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INCTOT
Total personal income

Description

INCTOT reports each respondent's total pre-tax personal income or losses from all sources for the previous year. The censuses collected information on income received from these sources during the previous calendar year; for the ACS and the PRCS, the reference period was the past 12 months. Amounts are expressed in contemporary dollars, and users studying change over time must adjust for inflation:

Users studying change over time must adjust for inflation. Consumer Price Index adjustment factors for the appropriate years can be found in the CPI99 variable.

The exception is the ACS/PRCS multi-year files, where all dollar amounts have been standardized to dollars as valued in the final year of data included in the file (e.g., 2007 dollars for the 2005-2007 3-year file). Additionally, more detail may be available than exists in the original ACS samples.

User Note: ACS respondents are surveyed throughout the year, and amounts do not reflect calendar year dollars. While the Census Bureau provides an adjustment factor (available in ADJUST), this is an imperfect solution. See the ACS income variables note for further details.

For a more complete discussion of the use of these factors to adjust for inflation, users may wish to see the IPUMS-CPS note on adjusting dollar amount variables for inflation.

Codes

INCTOT is a 7-digit numeric code reporting each respondent's total pre-tax personal income or losses from all sources for the previous year. INCTOT specific variable codes for missing, edited, or unidentified observations, observations not applicable (N/A), observations not in universe (NIU), top and bottom value coding, etc. are provided below by Census year (and data sample if specified).

User Note: Users studying change over time must adjust for inflation (See Description).

INCTOT Specific Variable Codes
-009995 = -$9,900 (1980)
-000001 = Net loss (1950)
0000000 = None
0000001 = $1 or break even (2000, 2005-onward ACS and PRCS)
9999999 = N/A

INCTOT
Census Bottom Code Top Code
1950 Net loss $10,000
1960 -$9,900 $25,000
1970 -$9,900 $50,000
1980 -$9,990 $75,000
1990 -$19,998  $400,000*
2000 -$20,000 $999,998
ACS -$19,998 -
PRCS -$19,998 -

*Higher amounts are expressed as the state medians of values above $400,000.
Values Exceeding Top codes, by State: 1990

Comparability

This variable is largely comparable across years, if users take into account the effects of inflation. The forms for each year included a number of questions instructing respondents to report income from each source. Later years asked about a more detailed set of income sources than did earlier years. In each year, the INCTOT variable sums income reported from all sources.

As noted above, all amounts are expressed in contemporary dollars. The codes for most samples represent midpoints of intervals instead of exact dollar amounts. For 1950 and 1970, the codes represent the midpoints of hundred-dollar intervals. For 1960, the codes from 50 to 9950 and -50 to -9900 represent the midpoints of hundred-dollar intervals, and the codes from 10500 to 24500 represent the midpoints of thousand-dollar intervals. For 1980, the codes represent the midpoints of ten-dollar intervals. The 1990 data give exact dollar amounts. For the 2000 census, the ACS and the PRCS the amounts are the sum of variables rounded as follows:

No income $0
 $1 - $7   $4
 $8 - $999   rounded to nearest $10
 $1,000 - $49,999   rounded to nearest $100
 $50,000 or more   rounded to nearest $1000

For all years, INCTOT represents the sum of several different types of income that respondents reported; the IPUMS preserves these components in several variables, as shown below. Note that INCTOT is the sum of components that are themselves already Top coded.

Component IPUMS variables of INCTOT, by year, are as follows:

 1950  1960  1970  1980  1990  2000, ACS
 INCWAGE   INCWAGE   INCWAGE   INCWAGE   INCWAGE   INCWAGE 
 INCBUSFM   INCBUSFM   INCBUS   INCBUS   INCBUS   INCBUS 
 INCOTHER   INCOTHER   INCFARM   INCFARM   INCFARM   INCSS 
     INCSS   INCSS   INCSS   INCWELFR 
     INCWELFR   INCWELFR   INCWELFR   INCSUPP 
     INCOTHER   INCINVST   INCINVST   INCINVST 
       INCOTHER   INCRETIR   INCRETIR 
         INCOTHER   INCOTHER 

The personal totals yielded by INCTOT are used to arrive at the family and household income amounts given for some years in the household variables FTOTINC and HHINCOME.

Universe

  • 1950: Sample-line persons age 14+.
  • 1960-1970: Persons age 14+.
  • 1980: Persons age 15+.
  • 1990: All persons (persons under age 15 or with no income are coded as 0).
  • 2000: Persons age 15+.
  • ACS, PRCS: Persons age 15+.

Availability

United States
  • 2016: All samples
  • 2015: All samples
  • 2014: All samples
  • 2013: All samples
  • 2012: All samples
  • 2011: All samples
  • 2010: ACS; ACS 3yr; ACS 5yr
  • 2009: All samples
  • 2008: All samples
  • 2007: All samples
  • 2006: All samples
  • 2005: All samples
  • 2004: All samples
  • 2003: All samples
  • 2002: All samples
  • 2001: All samples
  • 2000: All samples
  • 1990: All samples
  • 1980: All samples
  • 1970: All samples
  • 1960: All samples
  • 1950: All samples
  • 1940: --
  • 1930: --
  • 1920: --
  • 1910: --
  • 1900: --
  • 1880: --
  • 1870: --
  • 1860: --
  • 1850: --
Puerto Rico
  • 2016: All samples
  • 2015: All samples
  • 2014: All samples
  • 2013: All samples
  • 2012: All samples
  • 2011: All samples
  • 2010: PRCS; PRCS 3yr; PRCS 5yr
  • 2009: All samples
  • 2008: All samples
  • 2007: All samples
  • 2006: All samples
  • 2005: All samples
  • 2000: All samples
  • 1990: All samples
  • 1980: All samples
  • 1970: All samples
  • 1930: --
  • 1920: --
  • 1910: --

Editing Procedure


INCWAGE (Wage and salary income)
INCBUS00 (Business and farm income)
INCINVST (Interest, dividend, and rental income)
INCSS (Social Security income)
INCRETIR (Retirement income)
INCWELFR (Welfare or public assistance income)
INCSUPP (Supplementary Security Income)
INCOTHER (Other income)
INCEARN (Total personal earned income)
INCTOT (Total person income)

Years: 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015

ACS editing procedure:

Note: The editing procedures for economic variables are complex and intertwined. This document describes the editing and allocation procedures that affect multiple income variables, but these procedures also affect other work-related variables.

Top codes

The income variables for wage/salary, business and farm, interest, Social Security, retirement, public assistance, Supplemental Social Security, and other income are all top coded at $99,999. If anyone reports a value greater than $99,999, it will be changed to $99,999.

Allocation

In the cases described below, the flag variables will indicate when a value if allocated (for income variables: QINCWAGE, QINCSS, QINCINVS, QINCRETI, QINCWELF, QINCSUPP, QINCOTHE). To receive an allocated value or be a donor for someone who needs an allocated value, the person must be in universe of the variable (e.g., be the appropriate age for the variable).

For some people, if many economic variables are missing, they will all be jointly allocated. For example, if a person is missing a value for at least one variable in each of the following four categories, the variables will be jointly allocated:

  • Industry or occupations (IND, OCC)

The allocated value is drawn from someone else with a similar value for SEX, AGE, SCHOOL, RELATE, MARST, EMPSTAT, VALUE, and RENT. If that does not result in an allocated value, the allocation will be drawn from someone with a similar sex, age, and employment status.

For those people who were missing at least one variable in each of the four categories, if they report that they last worked more than 12 months ago or never worked (WORKEDYR), WKSWORK2, UHRSWORK will both be replaced with "Not in universe."

If a person has a missing value for WORKEDYR, the values for WKSWORK2, UHRSWORK, and WORKEDYR will all be jointly allocated. The allocated value is drawn from another person with similar values for sex, age, school enrollment, RELATE, marital status, and employment status. If that does not result in an allocated value, the allocated value will be drawn from someone with a similar sex, age, and school enrollment status. If other information suggests that they have not worked in the past 12 months, their ability to work will also be taken into account (DISABWRK for 2005 to 2007).

If a person reports they last worked over 5 years ago, but has a valid response for class of worker (CLASSWKR), occupation (OCC) and industry (IND), WORKEDYR will be replaced with "Within the past 12 months."

If hours worked per week is missing and weeks worked last year is not, UHRSWORK will be allocated from another person with a similar value for sex, age, school enrollment, employment status, class of worker, and weeks worked last year. If that does not result in an allocated value, the allocated value will be drawn from someone with a similar sex, age, school enrollment, class of worker, and weeks worked last year.

If weeks worked last year is missing and all the earnings variables are not missing, WKSWORK2 will be allocated. If UHRSWORK is also missing, they will be allocated jointly. The allocated values are drawn from another person with a similar sex, age, school enrollment, RELATE, marital status, employment status, class of worker, hours worked per week (if reported), and earnings. If that does not result in an allocated value, the allocated value will be drawn from someone with a similar sex, age, hours worked per week (if reported), and earnings. If earnings are not reported, the allocated value of WKSWORK2 is drawn from someone with a similar value for sex and age. The jointly allocated values are drawn from someone with a similar value for sex, age, school enrollment, RELATE, marital status, and employment status.

If class of worker is missing, CLASSWKR will be allocated from another person with similar value for sex and industry (IND). If industry is missing, IND will be allocated from another person with a similar value for sex, OCC, age, class of worker, and EDUC. If that does not result in an allocated value, the allocated value will be drawn from someone with similar sex and occupation.

If IND, OCC, and CLASSWKR are all missing, they will be jointly allocated from someone with a similar value for sex, age, EDUC, WORKEDYR, LABFORCE, INCWAGE, hours worked per week, and weeks worked in the past year. If that does not result in allocated values, the allocated values will be drawn from someone with similar sex, age, education, and employment status.

If any earnings variables (INCWAGE, INCBUS00) are missing, they will be jointly allocated. The allocated value is drawn from someone with a similar value for sex, occupation, class of worker, weeks worked last year, hours worked per week, and age. If that does not result in allocated values, the allocated values will be drawn from someone with similar sex, age, and class of worker.

If interest earnings (INCINVST) is missing, it will be allocated from someone in a similar state and has a similar value for sex, METRO, VALUE, age, RELATE, and then they last worked. If that does not result in allocated values, the allocated values will be drawn from someone with similar sex and age.

If social security earnings (INCSS) is missing, it will be allocated from someone with a similar value for RACE, age, RELATE, if they worked last year, and if the reference person in their house received social security income. If that does not result in allocated values, the allocated values will be drawn from someone with similar sex and age. If retirement earnings (INCRETIR) is missing, it will be allocated from someone with a similar value for race, age, marital status, if they worked last year, and if they received social security income. If that does not result in allocated values, the allocated values will be drawn from someone with similar sex and age.

If earnings from public assistance or supplemental social security (INCWELFR, INCSUPP) is missing, it will be allocated from someone in a similar state and has a similar value for sex, metropolitan status, VALUE, age, RELATE, if they received social security income, if they are disabled, and FOODSTMP. If that does not result in allocated values, the allocated values will be drawn from someone with similar sex and age.

If earnings from other sources (INCOTHER) is missing, it will be allocated from someone in a similar state and has a similar value for sex, metropolitan status, VALUE, age, RELATE, marital status, VETSTAT, and if they are disabled. If that does not result in allocated values, the allocated values will be drawn from someone with similar sex and age.

If multiple earnings variables are missing, they will be jointly allocated.

Not in universe and other corrections

If someone reports not having worked within the past 5 years (WORKEDYR), IND, OCC, and CLASSWKR will all be set to a missing value. If a person reports not working in the past year, WKSWORK2, UHRSWORK will both be set to a missing value.

If someone reports not having worked in the past 12 months and has a missing value for INCWAGE, it will be replaced with a 0.

Census variable: WAG SEM INT SS SSI PA RET OI TI