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MIGPUMA1
PUMA of residence 1 year ago

Description

MIGPUMA1 identifies the location where the respondent lived one year ago, in terms of the Public Use Microdata Area of 100,000+ residents, defined by the Census Bureau (see PUMA). PUMAs are state-dependent (in the case of Puerto Rico, PUMAs are dependent on the Puerto Rican territory), and thus MIGPUMA1 can only be interpreted in combination with MIGPLAC1.

Some PUMAs are combined for MIGPUMA1 (see Codes and Frequencies, above), so the codes for PUMA of residence 1 year ago (in MIGPUMA1) and the PUMA of current residence (in PUMA) differ slightly.

USER WARNING:

  • The 2012 and 2013 ACS samples contain known MIGPUMA coding errors on the original Census Bureau PUMS files for Wisconsin and Georgia. In Wisconsin the MIGPUMA1 code of 00100 was mistakenly assigned to both Dane County and the group of Ashland, Bayfield, Burnett, Douglas, Iron, Price, Rusk, Sawyer, Taylor, and Washburn counties. Similarly, MIGPUMA1 04000 in Georgia mistakenly identifies both Gwinnett County and Richmond County. The Census Bureau corrected this issue by assigning Gwinnett County a code of 04007 and Dane County a code of 00104 starting with the 2014 ACS.
  • The 2012, 2013, and 2014 ACS samples contain known MIGPUMA coding errors on the original Census Bureau PUMS files for Virginia and South Carolina. In Virginia, the MIGPUMA1 code of 51000 was mistakenly assigned to both the Charlottesville area (Albemarle, Fluvanna, Greene, Louisa, Nelson Counties, and Charlottesville city) and the Roanoke area (Alleghany, Botetourt, Craig, Franklin, and Roanoke Counties; and Covington, Roanoke, and Salem cities). Starting with the 2015 ACS, the Charlottesville area has a MIGPUMA code of 51001. Similarly, in South Carolina, the MIGPUMA1s for Lexington and Saluda Counties and for Calhoun, Fairfield, Kershaw, and Richland Counties were assigned duplicate codes of 00600. Starting with the 2015 ACS, Lexington and Saluda Counties has a MIGPUMA1 code of 00606.
Note Regarding Multi-Year Samples: The Census Bureau redraws PUMA boundaries every 10 years based on population information gathered from the most recent decennial census. ACS samples incorporate the new PUMAs within a few years of the Decennial Census. See the comparability statement to see which PUMAs are used in each sample. In Multi-Year ACS files, PUMA boundaries depend on the original year the respondent was interviewed (see MULTYEAR). For example in the 2010-2012 3-year ACS sample, respondents from 2010 and 2011 correspond to the Census 2000 based PUMAs, while respondents from 2012 correspond to the Census 2010 based PUMAs.

Codes

MIGPUMA1 is a 5-digit numeric variable identifying the location where the respondent lived one year ago, in terms of the Public Use Microdata Area of Migration, defined by the Census Bureau. MIGPUMA1 specific variable codes for missing, edited, or unidentified observations, observations not applicable (N/A), observations not in universe (NIU), top and bottom value coding, etc. are provided below by Census year (and data sample if specified).

MIGPUMA1 Specific Variable Codes
00000 = N/A
00001 = Did not live in the United States or in Puerto Rico one year ago
00002 = Lived in Puerto Rico one year ago and current residence is in the U.S.

See related links below for details regarding PUMA codes:
Census 2010 based MIGPUMA map and Boundary files
Relationship between Census 2010 PUMAs of Migration (MIGPUMA1) and Census 2010 PUMAs
Census 2000 based PUMA and Super-PUMA Maps, Boundary files and Detailed Composition
Relationship between 2000 based PUMAs of Migration and PUMAs

Comparability

MIGPUMA1 is only available for the 2005-onward samples of the ACS and the PRCS. For ACS samples from 2005 through 2011 the boundaries are the same as census 2000. ACS samples from 2012 onward use boundaries derived from the 2010 Decennial Census.

In other years, the Census Bureau designated other areas of 100,000+ residents for analyzing place residence five years ago. For 1940, the geographic unit is State Economic Area (see SEA), and the analogous migration variable is MIGSEA5. For 1980, the geographic unit is the county group (see CNTYGP98), and the analogous migration variable is MIGCOGRP. For 1990 and 2000, the geographic unit is MIGPLAC5, and the analogous migration variable is MIGPUMA. For the 1 percent sample of census 2000, the geographic unit is the Super-PUMA of 400,000+ residents (see PUMASUPR), and the analogous migration variable is MIGPUMAS.

Universe

  • Persons age 1+ who lived in a different house 1 year ago.

Availability

United States
  • 2016: All samples
  • 2015: All samples
  • 2014: All samples
  • 2013: All samples
  • 2012: All samples
  • 2011: All samples
  • 2010: ACS; ACS 3yr; ACS 5yr
  • 2009: All samples
  • 2008: All samples
  • 2007: All samples
  • 2006: All samples
  • 2005: All samples
  • 2004: --
  • 2003: --
  • 2002: --
  • 2001: --
  • 2000: --
  • 1990: --
  • 1980: --
  • 1970: --
  • 1960: --
  • 1950: --
  • 1940: --
  • 1930: --
  • 1920: --
  • 1910: --
  • 1900: --
  • 1880: --
  • 1870: --
  • 1860: --
  • 1850: --
Puerto Rico
  • 2016: All samples
  • 2015: All samples
  • 2014: All samples
  • 2013: All samples
  • 2012: All samples
  • 2011: All samples
  • 2010: PRCS; PRCS 3yr; PRCS 5yr
  • 2009: All samples
  • 2008: All samples
  • 2007: All samples
  • 2006: All samples
  • 2005: All samples
  • 2000: --
  • 1990: --
  • 1980: --
  • 1970: --
  • 1930: --
  • 1920: --
  • 1910: --

Flags

This variable has no flags.

Editing Procedure


MIGRATE1 (Migration status, 1 year) MIGPUMA1 (PUMA of residence 1 year ago) MIGPLAC1 (State of country of residence 1 year ago)

ACS Years: 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015

ACS editing procedure:

Migration status

If migration status (MIGRATE1) is "Same as person 1" (an option on CATI/CAPI), MIGRATE1 and MIGPUMA1 and MIGPLAC1 will be replaced with the values from person 1. If there is no person 1, MIGRATE1 will be replaced with a missing value. Starting in 2008, if person 1 has this response, MIGRATE1 and MIGPUMA1 and MIGPLAC1 will be replaced with the values from the first person in the household with either "No, outside the United States and Puerto Rico" or "No, different house in the United States or Puerto Rico" for MIGRATE1.

If a person is under 1 year old, MIGRATE1 will be replaced with "Not in universe."

If a person is 1 or older, reports their migration status as "Not reported" "Person is under year old" "No, outside the U.S." or "No, unspecified" and MIGPLAC1 is a U.S. state, MIGRATE1 will be replaced with "No, different house in the U.S." If MIGPLAC1 is Puerto Rico, MIGRATE1 will be replaced with "No, different house in Puerto Rico or the U.S."

If a person is 1 or older, reports their migration status as "Not reported" "Person is under year old" "No, different house in the U.S." or "No, unspecified", current state of residence is in the U.S., and MIGPLAC1 is outside the U.S., MIGRATE1 will be replaced with "No, outside the U.S." If a person is 1 or older, reports their migration status as "Not reported" "Person is under year old" "No, different house in Puerto Rico or the U.S." or "No, unspecified", current state of residence is Puerto Rico., and MIGPLAC1 is outside the U.S., MIGRATE1 will be replaced with "No, outside Puerto Rico or the U.S."

If a person is 1 or older, reports their migration status as "Person is under year old" or "No, unspecified" and MIGPLAC1 is not reported, MIGRATE1 will be replaced with "Not reported."

If a person is 1 or older, does not report a value for MIGRATE1 or MIGPLAC1, is the reference person or their spouse, and MOVEDIN indicates they moved in the past 12 months, MIGRATE1 will be replaced with "No, different house in the United States." If MOVEDIN was not within the past year, but there is a spouse or a son/daughter (aged 1-18) with a value of MIGRATE1, that value will be assigned to the reference person or the spouse. For the reference person - if MIGRATE1 is still missing, it will be allocated from another reference person with a similar value for RACE, AGE, EMPSTAT, EDUC, and METRO. For the spouse of the reference person - if MIGRATE1 is still missing, it will be replaced with the reference person's value.

If a person is between 1 and 18, does not report a value for MIGRATE1 or MIGPLAC1, is the child of the reference person, and MOVEDIN indicates they moved in the past 12 months, MIGRATE1 will be replaced with "No, different house in the United States." If MOVEDIN was not within the past year, but there is a female spouse of the reference person with a value of MIGRATE1, that value will be assigned to the child of the reference person. If there is not a female spouse of the reference person, MIGRATE1 will be replaced with the reference person's value.

For a person who is 1 or older, is not the spouse or child (age 18 and under) of the reference person, and does not report a value for MIGRATE1 or MIGPLAC1, MIGRATE1 will be allocated from another person with a similar value for RACE, AGE, EMPSTAT, EDUC, and METRO.

Migration state and PUMA

If a person is not in universe for MIGRATE1, they are also not in universe for MIGPUMA1 and

MIGPLAC1.

If the reference person does not report a value for MIGPLAC1 or MIGPUMA1 and there is a spouse or child (age 1-18) in the household with the same value as the reference person for MIGRATE1 who has a value for MIGPLAC1 or MIGPUMA1, that value will be assigned to the reference person. If the value is still missing it will be allocated. For those who report moving from within the U.S., the allocated value will be drawn from another person with a similar value for MIGRATE1, BPL, RACE, AGE, EMPSTAT, EDUC, and METRO. For those who report moving from outside the U.S., the allocated value will be drawn from another person with a similar value for MIGRATE1, HISPAN, RACE, AGE, and EMPSTAT.

If the spouse of the reference person does not report a value for MIGPLAC1 or MIGPUMA1 but the reference person does and has the same value for MIGRATE1 as the spouse, the reference person's value of MIGPLAC1 and MIGPUMA1 value will be assigned to the spouse of the reference person. If there is a child of the reference person who is 1-18 with the same value of MIGRATE1 as the spouse, their values of MIGPLAC1 and MIGPUMA1 will be assigned to the spouse of the reference person. If MIGPLAC1 and MIGPUMA1 are still missing, they will be allocated. For those who report moving from outside the U.S., the allocated value will be drawn from another person with a similar value for MIGRATE1, HISPAN, RACE, AGE, and EMPSTAT. For those who report moving from within the U.S., the allocated value will be drawn from another person with a similar value for MIGRATE1, BPL, RACE, AGE, EMPSTAT, EDUC, and METRO.

If the child (age 1-18) of the reference person does not report a value for MIGPLAC1 or MIGPUMA1 but the reference person, the reference person's spouse, or another child of the reference person does, and has this person has same value for MIGRATE1 as the child, this person's value of MIGPLAC1 and MIGPUMA1 will be assigned to the child of the reference person. If MIGPLAC1 and MIGPUMA1 are still missing, they will be allocated. For those who report moving from outside the U.S., the allocated value will be drawn from another person with a similar value for MIGRATE1, HISPAN, RACE, AGE, and EMPSTAT. For those who report moving from within the U.S., the allocated value will be drawn from another person with a similar value for MIGRATE1, BPL, RACE, AGE, EMPSTAT, EDUC, and METRO.

For a person who is 1 or older, is not the spouse or child (age 18 and under) of the reference person, and does not report a value for MIGPLAC1 or MIGPUMA1, it will be allocated. For those who report moving from outside the U.S., the allocated value will be drawn from another person with a similar value for MIGRATE1, HISPAN, RACE, AGE, and EMPSTAT. For those who report moving from within the U.S., the allocated value will be drawn from another person with a similar value for MIGRATE1, BPL, RACE, AGE, EMPSTAT, EDUC, and METRO.

The same logic outlines in the steps above also applies when a person leaves the U.S. state they migrated from unspecified. If the immigrated from abroad, if no relative has a value for MIGPLAC1, a person's reported place of birth (BPL) will be assigned for MIGPLAC1. If that step fails, then the value be allocated.

The same steps also apply to disentangle the minor civil divisions within New York City or when other smaller geographic areas are not reported (small geographic areas are not publicly available in PUMS data).

Flags

The flag variables will indicate when the values are allocated: QMIGRAT1, QMIGPLC1