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MIGPUMA1
PUMA of residence 1 year ago

Description

For respondents who lived in a different residence 1 year before the survey date, MIGPUMA1 identifies the location where the respondent lived at that time, in terms of the Migration Public Use Microdata Area (MIGPUMA) of 100,000+ residents.

Migration PUMA codes are state-dependent, so MIGPUMA1 must be combined with state codes (see MIGPLAC1) to distinguish Migration PUMAs in different states.

A Migration PUMA may correspond to either one or multiple PUMAs, so the codes and extents for PUMAs of residence 1 year ago (in MIGPUMA1) and the PUMA of current residence (in PUMA) occasionally differ.

Details on Migration PUMA definitions, including maps, boundary files, and relationships to PUMAs:

Codes in Multi-Year Samples: In Multi-Year ACS files, the meaning of PUMA codes depends on the year the respondent was interviewed (see MULTYEAR). Codes for 2011 and earlier responses are based on 2000 PUMA definitions, and codes for 2012 and later responses are based on 2010 definitions. For example, in the 2010-2012 3-year ACS sample, MIGPUMA1 codes for 2010 and 2011 respondents identify 2000 Migration PUMAs, while codes for 2012 respondents identify 2010 Migration PUMAs.

Corrections in 2012-2014 ACS Samples: The source 2012, 2013, and 2014 ACS PUMS files included several errors in Migration PUMA codes. IPUMS corrected all of these errors in IPUMS USA samples in a January 2019 data release.

  • In 2012 and 2013, Georgia Migration PUMAs 04000 (Richmond County) and 04007 (Gwinnett County) had both been assigned code 04000.
  • In 2012 and 2013, Wisconsin Migration PUMAs 00100 (Ashland, Bayfield, Burnett, Douglas, Iron, Price, Rusk, Sawyer, Taylor, and Washburn Counties) and 00104 (Dane County) had both been assigned code 00100.
  • In 2012, 2013, and 2014, South Carolina Migration PUMAs 00600 (Calhoun, Fairfield, Kershaw, and Richland Counties) and 00606 (Lexington and Saluda Counties) had both been assigned code 00600.
  • In 2012, 2013, and 2014, Virginia Migration PUMAs 51000 (Albemarle, Fluvanna, Greene, Louisa, Nelson Counties, and Charlottesville city) and 51001 (Alleghany, Botetourt, Craig, Franklin, and Roanoke Counties; and Covington, Roanoke, and Salem cities) had both been assigned code 51000.

Codes

MIGPUMA1 is a 5-digit numeric variable identifying the location where the respondent lived one year ago, in terms of the Public Use Microdata Area of Migration, defined by the Census Bureau.

Migration PUMA codes are state-dependent, so MIGPUMA1 must be combined with state codes (see MIGPLAC1) to distinguish Migration PUMAs located in different states.

MIGPUMA1 Special Codes
00000 = N/A (less than 1 year old or lived in same residence 1 year ago)
00001 = Did not live in the United States or in Puerto Rico one year ago
00002 = Lived in Puerto Rico one year ago and current residence is in the U.S.

Details on Migration PUMA definitions, including maps, boundary files, and relationships to PUMAs:

Comparability

MIGPUMA1 is available only for the 2005-onward samples of the ACS and the PRCS. For samples from 2005 through 2011, the identified Migration PUMAs are the same as for the 2000 census. ACS samples from 2012 onward use Migration PUMAs based on the 2010 Decennial Census.

In other years, the Census Bureau designated other areas for analyzing place of residence 5 years ago:

  • For 1940, the geographic unit is the State Economic Area (see SEA), and the analogous migration variable is MIGSEA5.
  • For 1980, the geographic unit is the county group (see CNTYGP98), and the analogous migration variable is MIGCOGRP.
  • For 1990 and 2000, the geographic unit is PUMA, and the analogous migration variable is MIGPUMA.
  • For the 1 percent sample of census 2000, the geographic unit is the Super-PUMA of 400,000+ residents (see PUMASUPR), and the analogous migration variable is MIGPUMAS.

Universe

  • Persons age 1+ who lived in a different house 1 year ago.

Availability

United States
  • 2017: All samples
  • 2016: All samples
  • 2015: All samples
  • 2014: All samples
  • 2013: All samples
  • 2012: All samples
  • 2011: All samples
  • 2010: ACS; ACS 3yr; ACS 5yr
  • 2009: All samples
  • 2008: All samples
  • 2007: All samples
  • 2006: All samples
  • 2005: All samples
  • 2004: --
  • 2003: --
  • 2002: --
  • 2001: --
  • 2000: --
  • 1990: --
  • 1980: --
  • 1970: --
  • 1960: --
  • 1950: --
  • 1940: --
  • 1930: --
  • 1920: --
  • 1910: --
  • 1900: --
  • 1880: --
  • 1870: --
  • 1860: --
  • 1850: --
Puerto Rico
  • 2017: All samples
  • 2016: All samples
  • 2015: All samples
  • 2014: All samples
  • 2013: All samples
  • 2012: All samples
  • 2011: All samples
  • 2010: PRCS; PRCS 3yr; PRCS 5yr
  • 2009: All samples
  • 2008: All samples
  • 2007: All samples
  • 2006: All samples
  • 2005: All samples
  • 2000: --
  • 1990: --
  • 1980: --
  • 1970: --
  • 1930: --
  • 1920: --
  • 1910: --

Flags

This variable has no flags.

Editing Procedure


MIGRATE1 (Migration status, 1 year) MIGPUMA1 (PUMA of residence 1 year ago) MIGPLAC1 (State of country of residence 1 year ago)

ACS Years: 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015

ACS editing procedure:

Migration status

If migration status (MIGRATE1) is "Same as person 1" (an option on CATI/CAPI), MIGRATE1 and MIGPUMA1 and MIGPLAC1 will be replaced with the values from person 1. If there is no person 1, MIGRATE1 will be replaced with a missing value. Starting in 2008, if person 1 has this response, MIGRATE1 and MIGPUMA1 and MIGPLAC1 will be replaced with the values from the first person in the household with either "No, outside the United States and Puerto Rico" or "No, different house in the United States or Puerto Rico" for MIGRATE1.

If a person is under 1 year old, MIGRATE1 will be replaced with "Not in universe."

If a person is 1 or older, reports their migration status as "Not reported" "Person is under year old" "No, outside the U.S." or "No, unspecified" and MIGPLAC1 is a U.S. state, MIGRATE1 will be replaced with "No, different house in the U.S." If MIGPLAC1 is Puerto Rico, MIGRATE1 will be replaced with "No, different house in Puerto Rico or the U.S."

If a person is 1 or older, reports their migration status as "Not reported" "Person is under year old" "No, different house in the U.S." or "No, unspecified", current state of residence is in the U.S., and MIGPLAC1 is outside the U.S., MIGRATE1 will be replaced with "No, outside the U.S." If a person is 1 or older, reports their migration status as "Not reported" "Person is under year old" "No, different house in Puerto Rico or the U.S." or "No, unspecified", current state of residence is Puerto Rico., and MIGPLAC1 is outside the U.S., MIGRATE1 will be replaced with "No, outside Puerto Rico or the U.S."

If a person is 1 or older, reports their migration status as "Person is under year old" or "No, unspecified" and MIGPLAC1 is not reported, MIGRATE1 will be replaced with "Not reported."

If a person is 1 or older, does not report a value for MIGRATE1 or MIGPLAC1, is the reference person or their spouse, and MOVEDIN indicates they moved in the past 12 months, MIGRATE1 will be replaced with "No, different house in the United States." If MOVEDIN was not within the past year, but there is a spouse or a son/daughter (aged 1-18) with a value of MIGRATE1, that value will be assigned to the reference person or the spouse. For the reference person - if MIGRATE1 is still missing, it will be allocated from another reference person with a similar value for RACE, AGE, EMPSTAT, EDUC, and METRO. For the spouse of the reference person - if MIGRATE1 is still missing, it will be replaced with the reference person's value.

If a person is between 1 and 18, does not report a value for MIGRATE1 or MIGPLAC1, is the child of the reference person, and MOVEDIN indicates they moved in the past 12 months, MIGRATE1 will be replaced with "No, different house in the United States." If MOVEDIN was not within the past year, but there is a female spouse of the reference person with a value of MIGRATE1, that value will be assigned to the child of the reference person. If there is not a female spouse of the reference person, MIGRATE1 will be replaced with the reference person's value.

For a person who is 1 or older, is not the spouse or child (age 18 and under) of the reference person, and does not report a value for MIGRATE1 or MIGPLAC1, MIGRATE1 will be allocated from another person with a similar value for RACE, AGE, EMPSTAT, EDUC, and METRO.

Migration state and PUMA

If a person is not in universe for MIGRATE1, they are also not in universe for MIGPUMA1 and

MIGPLAC1.

If the reference person does not report a value for MIGPLAC1 or MIGPUMA1 and there is a spouse or child (age 1-18) in the household with the same value as the reference person for MIGRATE1 who has a value for MIGPLAC1 or MIGPUMA1, that value will be assigned to the reference person. If the value is still missing it will be allocated. For those who report moving from within the U.S., the allocated value will be drawn from another person with a similar value for MIGRATE1, BPL, RACE, AGE, EMPSTAT, EDUC, and METRO. For those who report moving from outside the U.S., the allocated value will be drawn from another person with a similar value for MIGRATE1, HISPAN, RACE, AGE, and EMPSTAT.

If the spouse of the reference person does not report a value for MIGPLAC1 or MIGPUMA1 but the reference person does and has the same value for MIGRATE1 as the spouse, the reference person's value of MIGPLAC1 and MIGPUMA1 value will be assigned to the spouse of the reference person. If there is a child of the reference person who is 1-18 with the same value of MIGRATE1 as the spouse, their values of MIGPLAC1 and MIGPUMA1 will be assigned to the spouse of the reference person. If MIGPLAC1 and MIGPUMA1 are still missing, they will be allocated. For those who report moving from outside the U.S., the allocated value will be drawn from another person with a similar value for MIGRATE1, HISPAN, RACE, AGE, and EMPSTAT. For those who report moving from within the U.S., the allocated value will be drawn from another person with a similar value for MIGRATE1, BPL, RACE, AGE, EMPSTAT, EDUC, and METRO.

If the child (age 1-18) of the reference person does not report a value for MIGPLAC1 or MIGPUMA1 but the reference person, the reference person's spouse, or another child of the reference person does, and has this person has same value for MIGRATE1 as the child, this person's value of MIGPLAC1 and MIGPUMA1 will be assigned to the child of the reference person. If MIGPLAC1 and MIGPUMA1 are still missing, they will be allocated. For those who report moving from outside the U.S., the allocated value will be drawn from another person with a similar value for MIGRATE1, HISPAN, RACE, AGE, and EMPSTAT. For those who report moving from within the U.S., the allocated value will be drawn from another person with a similar value for MIGRATE1, BPL, RACE, AGE, EMPSTAT, EDUC, and METRO.

For a person who is 1 or older, is not the spouse or child (age 18 and under) of the reference person, and does not report a value for MIGPLAC1 or MIGPUMA1, it will be allocated. For those who report moving from outside the U.S., the allocated value will be drawn from another person with a similar value for MIGRATE1, HISPAN, RACE, AGE, and EMPSTAT. For those who report moving from within the U.S., the allocated value will be drawn from another person with a similar value for MIGRATE1, BPL, RACE, AGE, EMPSTAT, EDUC, and METRO.

The same logic outlines in the steps above also applies when a person leaves the U.S. state they migrated from unspecified. If the immigrated from abroad, if no relative has a value for MIGPLAC1, a person's reported place of birth (BPL) will be assigned for MIGPLAC1. If that step fails, then the value be allocated.

The same steps also apply to disentangle the minor civil divisions within New York City or when other smaller geographic areas are not reported (small geographic areas are not publicly available in PUMS data).

Flags

The flag variables will indicate when the values are allocated: QMIGRAT1, QMIGPLC1