Occupation and Industry Variables
Since the early census years provide few alternative indicators of socioeconomic status, occupation and industry are among the most important variables for analyses of long-term social change. The Census Bureau has modified its classification systems every decade, so long-term studies of occupations and industries typically require extensive reconciliation of codes.
The IPUMS retains all original occupation and industry information in the OCC and IND variables. Links to each year's classification systems can be found on the OCC codes page. and the IND codes page. Census respondents described their occupations and industries in plain English. Coding rules followed by the Census Bureau and the IPUMS staff are presented for each year on the occupational coding guidelines page.
Although a complete reconciliation of these coding schemes is impossible, we provide variables that maximize the potential for consistent comparisons of occupational status and industry.
OCC1950 codes occupations from all years into the 1950 occupational scheme. OCC1990 codes occupations from 1950 onward into a modified version of the 1990 occupational scheme. IND1950 and IND1990 accomplish the same for industrial classifications.
Our essay on "Integrated Occupation and Industry Codes" describes how we construct these harmonized occupational and industry variables, as well as occupational standing variables (SEI, HWSEI, NPBOSS50, NPBOSS90, PRESGL, PRENT, EDSCOR50, EDSCOR90, ERSCOR50, ERSCOR90, and OCCSCORE). The IPUMS variables page contains a complete list of work-related variables and occupational standing variables in IPUMS-USA.
Other useful links:
- A crosswalk betweeen the IPUMS OCC and OCCSOC variables for the 2000 Census samples
- A crosswalk betweeen the IPUMS OCC and OCCSOC variables for the 2000-2010 ACS/PRCS samples
- A crosswalk betweeen the IPUMS OCC and OCCSOC variables for the 2010-onward ACS/PRCS samples
- A crosswalk between the IPUMS IND and INDNAICS variables for the 2000-2002 ACS samples
- A crosswalk between the IPUMS IND and INDNAICS variables for the 2003-onward ACS/PRCS samples
- Crosswalks used to create the IPUMS harmonized occupation and industry variables are available via the links below. Descriptions of how we used these crosswalks are available in the "Integrated Occupation and Industry Codes and Occupational Standing Variables in the IPUMS" essay.
Crosswalks between Census Bureau Occupations Crosswalks between Census Bureau Industries 1950-1960 1960-1970 1960-1970 1970-1980 1970-1980 1990-2000 1990-2000
- Crosswalks for OCC1950, OCC1990 or OCC2010 to the contemporary OCC codes and for IND1950 or IND1990 to the contemporary IND codes.
- Other occupation and industry crosswalks available directly from the Census Bureau